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Calitornia State Library 

Re^UuL AUG 1892 ^ 


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-No. 1. 88299 SAN FRANOISOO. SATURDAY. JANUARY 2. 1892. 

IjEWBY k CO., Publtahera. 
Office, 220 Market St. 


The Pierce Grape. 

We give upon this page an engraving of • 
oluBter of grapes of a Tariety whioh lias been 
grown in this State for the last 12 years or 
more, bat whioh is this year for the first time 
authoritatively introduced to pnblio sale. 

We first saw the grape in Ootober, 1879, and 
in the Rural on the 18th of that month, de- 
scribed its origin. Mr. J. P. Pierce of Santa 
Clara had been for several years a grower of 
Isabella grapes for this market, growing his 
vines upon high trpllises in arbor form. Some 
time previous to 1879, Mrs. Pierce noticed that 
the children were bringing in a peculiar 
grape whioh attracted their attention by its 
large berries and heavy clusters. Upon their 
pointing out the cane from which these were 
obtained, it was found that one of the branches 
of an Isabella vine was bearing this new style 
of frnit, vrhile other canes bore the usual Isa- 
bellas. The cane was marked, and buds taken 
therefrom were afterward inserted in other 
stock, where they grew freely and fruited 
heavily, producing the same grape whioh had 
attracted attention at first. It was the fruit 
of one of these grafted vines that Mr. Pierce 

brongbt for our Inspection in October, 1879, 
and which we then described as follows: 

The new grape, which must, we believe, be 
set down as a sport from the Isabella, retains 
the characteristic aroma, flavor and bloom of 
its parent, but instead of the medium-sized, 
oval berries of the Isabella, as it grows in this 
State, we have in the new grape, large, per- 
fectly round berries, forming a much more 
compact and heavier cluster than the old Isa- 
bella. The variety having shown its fixedness 
by a number of propagations, Mr. Pierce 
deems it entitled to a name, and so called it 
" Isabella Ragia " — a royal sort of an Isabella, 
whioh indeed it is. It is certainly a remarka- 
ble fruit, being much superior to the old Isa- 
bella as grown on the same grounds. It is fit- 
ted by its size of berry (and we measured sev- 
eral of the largest whioh were 15 16ths of an 
inch in diameter), to attain a leading place as a 
table frnit. We predict for it great popularity 
when it shall be grown in marketable quanti- 

This prediction proved trae. For several 
years Mr. Pierce resolutely held to his inten- 
tion not to allow any one to have the variety, 
but afterward he gave cuttings to a few parties 
under promise not to distribute it. In some 
way this promise did not hold water, and 
Qnally the variety was offered for sale without 
authorization under such imitatiya names as 

" Isabella regina," "Royal Isabella," etc., in- 
stead of the name Isabella regia, which Mr. 
Pierce gave the variety and whioh was pub- 
iisbed with his consent in our issue of Oct. 18, 
1879. Not only was this clandestine work 
done, but we believe that some parties went 
so far as to claim other origin for the variety 
than that described above. 

Perhaps the public description of the grape 
next later than our original mention at the 
data given above was the following, by Prof, 
E. W. Hilgard, in one of his early viticultnral 

Isabella Regia. — A remarkable giant-leaved 
and very prolific variety, or rater spoit, of the 
Isabella, produced by Mr, J. P. Pierce of Santa 
Clara. The berries like the leaves are of ex- 
traordinary size and when ripe the fruit is ex- 
ceedingly sweet and strongly aromatic. It is, 
therefore, acceptable as a showy, perfnmed 
table grape, much liked by some, but readily 
surfeiting those who are accustomed to the 
vini/era grapes. The berries are too soft for 
shipment to any distance, but, all things con- 
sidered, keep fairly. 

We have been thus explicit about the history 
of this grape because of its authorized iotro- 
duction and sale this season by the California 
Narsery Co. of Niles, Alameda county. This 
company, in view of the confusion of names 
brought about as described above, has decided 
to give the grape the name of its originator and 
now iotroduce it as the "Pierce grape" and in 

their catalogue for 1891 92 give the following 

"The Pieroe" (New). A sport from Isabella, 
nriginating some 12 years ago with Mr. J. P. 
Pierce, of Santa Clara. The foliage is re- 
markably large, and the vine an exceedingly 
strong grower and prolific bearer. The berries, 
like the leaves, are of extraordinary size, twice 
as large as those of its parents, black witb 
light bloom, and when ripe are exceeding- 
ly sweet, delicious and slightly aromatic, the 
pulp readily dissolving. Mr. Pierce has had it 
in cultivation under every condition, and It 
has remained constant, showing no indication 
of running back to the parent. The entire 
crop of two acres has been shipoed to San 
Francisco by Mr. Pierce for the past six years 
under the name of Isabella Regia, and always 
realizes the highest market price. We have 
arranged with Mr. Pieroe for the exclusive 
right to propagate and distribute this val- 
aable new grape, and now offer it for the 
first time. 

Tbe engraving on this page represents well 
the cluster and form of berry of the variety, 
but is redaoed considerably from the size 
which it attains under favorable conditions. 
Tbe grape should find a place in all collections 
and can no doubt be profitably produced for 
local markets, subject to such limitations as 
regulate the demand for all Eastern grapes on 
this coast. 

There are 208,749 railroad bridges in the 

Uaited State!>, spanning 3213 miles. 



f ACIFie f^URAlo f RES8. 

[Jan. 2 1892 

Qo f^f^E Sf O N D E N C E . 

Oorrespondenta mn alone reaponilble for their opinion. 

Napa Valley Notes. 

Editors Press:— Probably in no former year 
wai there nearly as much dry-80wing of grain 
— wheat, barley and oats — as this fall, in this 
oounty. This 16 the ca e In no one particular 
locality, bnt this seeding has been general. So 
now, after the two or three gentle rains we 
have had, many fields are quite green with the 
tender plants. Whether this dry.sowing will 
eventuate in crops that shall be quite weedy, 
we shall note next summer and fall. 

Twenty years ago, no farmer here thought 
of plowing before the rains had started the foul 
■eeds that are always so numerous in our soil, 
even if rains held off till New Year's. Bot this 
fall, farmers were well along with their last 
aeMon's work, and became uneasy over the 
long-deferred rains. 

Disc caltivators and cutaway harrows are be- 
ooming very popular with our farmers, and 
numbers of them were used in seeding this fall. 
Other Improved farm implements are being 
used, the old-fashioned, long-used ones bsing 
discarded. The consequence is, better work 
done, at less expenss, with less labor. 

To-day we are having our first real heftvy 
rain. With the three or four inches that have 
previously fallen, this will make excellent plow- 
in«r, and will cause the seed now in the ground 
to forge rapidly ahead. Farmers look for a 
prosperous season In 1892, expecting good crops 
and fair prices; in fact, farmers seem in better 
spirits than for several years, 
' Not so with grape-growers, however. Prices 
this fall were low, and there Is slow sale for 
wine at low figures. Those who can hold for 
better prices are doing so. Some of our smaller 
wine-ttaakers are combining in order to further 
their interests and to shield themselves from 
other combinations which would keep prices 

Many vineyards in the valley are succumb- 
ing to phylloxera in whole or in part. Some 
men are uprooting healthy vines, for the reason 
that there has been bo little profit In grape 
growing of late years. Consequently the area 
to vines is annually decreasing, for not every 
one whose vines are destroyed by phylloxera 
replants, either to resistant or nonresistant 

Orchardists in many localities are well along 
with their pruning, and will have their work 
well in hand when spring oomes. Pruning was 
commenced this year much earlier than nsual. 
The outlook for fruit growing is exoelleut and 
the tendency is to plant more and more as year 
Bucceeda year. 

Pasturage is very short. In fact there is 
little or none at all on our hillsides, which are 
almost as brown as in October. Stock there- 
fore have to be fed if they are to be kept in 
even fair condition. The present storm will 
probably soon make the hills green, but the 
season has so far advanced that good pasture 
will last bat a comparatively short time. This 
and the fact that the amount of hay stored in 
the county Is limited, causes advancing prices 
for feedstuff. Better prices prevail for hay and 
grain than for several years. 

Ploatlns Cobwebs. 

In a recent number of the Pkkss allusion was 
made by a correspondent to large quantities of 
spider web floating in the air and appearing in 
fields. The theory was advanced that these 
floating webs first started from the tules where 
a peculiar variety of spider had its habitat. 
That may be true in part, bnt not all the spider 
webs we see floating in the air during the fall 
of the year, or, indeed, at other times, come 
from the locality mentioned. 

The appearance of these floating webs and of 
large fields, often far distant from tules, 
almost covered with interlacing silken threads, 
spun by these busy insects, has puzzled many, 
or at least caused much wonder as to the cause. 
They are to be seen In the early morning par- 
ticularly, probably because the dew thereon 
brings them into greater prominence. 

Evidently these webs are spun by a minute 
gossamer spider, not often seen except by close 
observation, their color so nearly resembling 
the soil. Bat now and then they may be seen 
sailing through the air, spinning their slender 
webs as they go. That there must be myriads 
of them to spread so many lines is evident; and 
it is also apparent that they do much at night. 

Another variety of spider — the one that spins 
among the grass and on shrubbery a closely 
woven square web — is a very reliable weather 
prophet. When these webs are seen in any con 
slderable number, on any morning, laden with 
thickly clustering diamonds of pnrest water, 
one may be very sure of a fair day. 

The stndy of spiders in all their variety, 
their habits, methods of working, is very inter- 
esting, and even a casual observer may learn 
much concernii4( them. What use they sub- 
serve in the economy of nature is a question 
that must have been asked by many an ama- 
teur entomologist, but has been far more often 
asked than answered. That they were not 
made in vain we may rest assured. The 
Creator has displayed as much care in forming 
the tiniest of these insects as on larger creations 
of His skiUfnl handiwork, for each one is per- 
fect in all its formation, and each is endowed 
with instinct that seems almost human, and 
with skill that excites the wonder of the most 
casual observer. K. 

Napa, Dee. 19, 1S91. 

©HE ^lEUD. 

A Living on Eight and Onb-half 
Acres of Good Land. 

Editors Press: — We frequently read in 
agricultural papers what can i>3, and what has 
been done on ten acres of land. Some of these 
Btatemect', no doubt, are very near correct, 
while others border on fiction and were written 
more to be read than to be practiced. Persons 
reading such should try and draw the line 
where one begins and the other leaves off. 

I have no doubt bnt many persons from 
reading such articles have attempted to make a 
living on ten acres, and made a sad failure. 
We see the results, every little while of farm- 
ers — no, I will say persons — attempting to 
make a success of working 160, 500 and 1000 

Now, whose fault is it that these persons 
have not made a success, and who is going to 
point oat the mistakes and warn them of dan- 
gerous ground ? 

If you employ a person to erect a building 
for you, and hb proves a failure, destroys your 
lumbjr, and yon find out he cannot saw a stick 
of firewood properly, you would hardly want 
to give him a certificate as a carpenter and 
joiner. If a person has an opportnnlty to farm, 
and proves a total failnre, why should be be 
called a farmer ? 

The cultivation of the soil and gathering of 
crops has been termed menial employment, and 
the more menial, the less brains required, A 
good many persons thought it was only neces- 
sary to have a good bank acoonnt to become a 
successful farmer. 

I would like to compile the experience of 
some of these many farmers that have come un- 
der my observation, I think it would make 
interesting reading, and a book little less thick 
than Webster's unabridged. 

I would like to see a competent committee 
appointed by the Supervisors of every county,to 
make a thorough examination of every farm, 
and place a plain sign in front of any farm en- 
titled to it "farmer," and leave the others 
blank, so we could easily see what per cent 
of farmers we bad. 

I think such a system would act as an in- 
centive, and furnish the nniuoky ones a place 
where they could go and compare notes, and 
possibly detect their mistakes and failures. I 
like to study the methods of the unsuooeseful 
as well as the snocessful, for it is by this 
method that we gain information. 

I have had in view for a long time one of 
these successful farmers, unpretentious in his 
ways but not lacking in publlo spirit. I want 
to tell yon, and hnndreds of others, in a plain 
way jast what this farmer is doing on only 8^ 
acres of land. On account of native modesty, 
he does not care to have his name paraded be- 
fore the public. I will say be is 43 years of age, 
has been married 18 years, has three girls and 
five boys, and intends to give them a good 
business and useful education. He baa a one- 
story, hard-finished house (cost $1200), with 
seven rooms and painted. His barn is a combi- 
nation of barn and hop-kiln (cost 81500), under 
which he keeps his two horses, two cows, 
wagons and tools. In the loft or second floor 
he has hay, grain and potatoes enough to last 
until the next crop comes in. Keeps two or 
three pigs, chickens for family use, and makes 
the family batter. Has one ranch wagon, one 
spring or family and one buggy. He cultivates 
five acres of hops, and the other 3J acres are 
occupied with buildings and fruit trees. He 
employs only one man, five months in the year, 
at $1 per day and board, except hop-picking. 
The rest of the work is done by himself and 
family, all being workers. 

This little place was purchased in 1869 for 
$1150, and I wondered at the time how he ex- 
pected to make a living from It, there being 
only a small oabin on it, In 1890 he sold a 
little over .S3500 worth of hops; in 1891, $1500. 
This year, from 90 cherry trees, he sold $450 
worth; 100 Btrtlett pears. S450 worth; 50 
peaches and 10 apricots, $100 worth. His 
county and State taxes were $38; levee tax, 
$90. He has a little money loaned out and no 
debts ! 

This is not written with the view of attempt- 
ing to show anything marvelous or to show 
that it is the greatest income ever got ont of 
Si acres of land. I have had land that pro- 
duced me nearly $2000 per acre, bat it would 
not be good sense to quote such results against 
a yearly income. In this case, I wanted to 
show what pluck and perseverance, combined 
with good intelligence, can do toward prodno- 
Ing thrift. 

I think I hear soma of the men say that they 
have 160 acres, more or less, and it takes most 
of the year's income to square the grocery, 
drygoods and meat bills— that they are tired of 
seeing it paraded before the public what great 
things have been done on ten acres. These 
thrifty farmers do not usually have a whole 
year's grocery or meat bill to pay when the 
crop is sold. 

It is an unpleasant task to talk to or leotnre 
persons abont their failures, while they will 
listen for hoars about their success. The two 
words, industry and economy, play an impor- 
tant part in the career of every household. 

When you pay your store bill insist on its 
being itemized to the most trivial article. Then 
scrutinize it carefully and see how many arti- 
cles on the bill yon could produce at home 
or go without. First ooant the number of 

hams, even if they are "onr taste;" the ponnds 
of lard, dcz^ns of eggs, ponnds of raisins, gal- 
lons of vinegar, and vegetables, that are on the 
wrong side of the ledger. A piece of land that 
will not produce some or all of these articles 
should be abandoned to the owlu and coyotes. 

There is but little land in the State that will 
not produce alfalfa where water can be had, 
yet how few farms have one, two or three 
acres of alfalfa for cows, pigs and chickens? 

I did not start ont with the Intention of dis- 
cussing this thrift question, and I have merely 
touched on some of the most Important fea- 
tures, for if justice is done it will admit of a 
wide range. I am not above orlticism, and 
take some of these remarks to myself. I could 
write a very readable and somewhat amusing 
account of my early struggles in farming and 
continue it up to the present time. 

But few persons like to write np their his- 
tory and parade it over their signatures. I 
have not accomplished anything thus far that 
would read well in a book without the addition 
of a good deal of romance, and nntil I do I pre- 
fer to leave some of my light nnder the tra- 
ditional bushel. 

The owners of the 8^ acres are young, full of 
hope and vigorous, and are fully determined 
they will equalize matters so at home that 
when they go to town to bny headgear that 
they win purchase as many bonnets as they do 

I hope it will not be considered necessary, to 
carry out some of these suggestions, that a per- 
son must be penurions, small and niggardly. 

Thrift first — liberality second. D. Flint. 


Wheat in Washington. 

When the great adaptablity of Oregon, and 
especially the Willamette V^alley, as a wheat 
growing section is recalled, and the wealth 
that is annnally returned for this staple pro- 
duct, it is not diffioult to understand why the 
average farmer devotes himself heart and soul 
to wheat growing. Wheat is worth to 
day 90i cents. This is of course an excep- 
tional year as to prices, and wheat has not 
been as near a dollar a bushel for a long time, 
but it always brings good retarns in Oregon 
for anything like good, honest cultivation of 
the soil. 

Hon. N. G, Balock, of Walla Walla, presi- 
dent and executive commissioner of the Wash- 
ington world's fair commission, has issued in 
the form of a bulletin, some interesting facts 
abont wheat growing. 

" I have endeavored to ascertain the cost of 
production per bushel and the profits per acre. 
In doing this I took three successive crops 
which averaged thirty-three bushels to the 
acre. All work was done by contract, the 
plowing, seeding, harrowing and harvesting be- 
ing paid for by the acre and the threshing by 
by the bushel. The plowing cost .?1.25 per 
acre; harrowing and seeding, 90 cents per acre; 
harvesting and heading, $1.50 per acre; thresh- 
ing, C cents per bushel. This made the cost 
per bushel a little over 19 cents. I then added 
Intarest on the value of the land for two years 
and counted the cost of production at 29 
cents. As the three crops sold in the field for 
an average of 55 cents per bushel, I counted 
the profits at $8.28 per acre for each crop." 

At 90 cents per bushel this profit would 
have been something handsome. 

It is generally considered that from Septem- 
ber 15 to December 1 is the beet time for seed- 
ing, though wheat sown in the summer, and at 
any time in the winter or early spring, 
will ripen at the same time, and in Oregon it is 
not strange to know of wheat being sowed in 
every month in the year. This is an advan- 
tage which the Eastern farmer, limited in his 
SBeding time, oan throughly appreciate. — Al- 
bany Herald. 

Asparagus Calture. 

The first point looking toward success, is in 
the selection of varieties, or perhaps strains, 
and the Conover's Colossal, when carefully se- 
lected, Is very hard to improve on; but the 
most of the seed ordinarily sold has been al- 
lowed to degenerate. The Palmetto is a strain 
that is highly recommended by some. How- 
ever, taking It all in all, the Barr's Mammoth 
seems tab) the most desirable market strain; 
being of large size and comparatively new, it 
has not had as much opportunity to degenerate 
as other older kinds. The best should always 
be selected, 


Sow seed early in the spring in beds or 
drills, and give good, clean cultivation. For 
the best resulti keep it growing as fast as pos- 
sible all the time. 

When plants are one year old thin to 12 or 
14 inches by 2^ to 3 feet, and give good culti- 
vation, with an abundance of good stable ma- 
nure well forked in. If one does not wish to 
wait for seed to grow, plants oan be bought 
cheaply and one year's time gained, which 
should be set out as directed above, setting the 
crowns not over two inches under the surface, 
if wanted for early crop, and if wanted early, 
plant in warm, sandy land, so the plants wili 
start early In spring. Sandy, alkali land 
should be good for them, as they require salt 
in those parts of the country where it is not 
furnished by natnre. 

As to profits. I went Into the wholesale 
markets in Los Angeles and was told that the 
early crop was worth at wholesale, to ship, 
from 15 to 18 cents per poand; from that price 

it ranges down to 4 or 5 cents a pound. At 
this price the early cuttings should bring $125 
per cutting per acre, and the cutting could be 
done on an average of once a week. This 
wonld beat oranges or cabbages, or almost any- 
thing o\ne.—A. B. Eellt m 8anta Ana Blade. 


State Horticoltural Society. 

The regular monthly meeting of the State 
Horticultural Society was held at 220 Sutter 
street, Dacember 18th. Prof. E. W. Hllgard 
presided. In the absence of Prof. E. J. Wick- 
son, Emory E. Smith acted as Secretary. C. 
F. Wyer of Winters, Dr. H. D. Lathrop of 
Eist Oakland and G. W. Hinclay of Winters 
were elected members. The Board of Directors 
recommended that $.^0 of the Society's funds 
be donated toward the erection of the proposed 
Matthew Cooke monument, and a resolution 
was passed authorizing the appropriation of the 
money. The committee reported the receipt 
of $5 toward this worthy object from N. W 
Blanchard of Santa Paula. 

The following letter was read from G. ^ 
Hinclay, relating to the Botan plum, and 
inclosed letters from J. T. Lovett of 
Silver, N. J., and Porter Bros. Comp 
Chicago, relating to the same subject: 

Mr. HlDclay's Letter. 

Dear Sir: — I notice in some paper that the ^ 
Horticultural Society will hold a special meeting 
morrow. I would be very much pleased to 
present, but my health is such that 1 cannot a' 
present. No doubt you know that I have taken 
qaite an interest in the subject ever since the So- 
ciety (several months ago) took into consideration 
the propriety of changing the applied name of 
Abundance to another more suitable. I think it 
was a wise proceeding on the part of the Society, lor 
1 have long known that the name of Abundance- 
was an applied name to a Japanese chss of plums 
called Botan. Now, if the specious name of Abun- 
dance was applied by a nurseryman for the sole pur- 
pose of facilitating the sale of trees, I think your So- 
ciety will be only performing one of the acts fur 
which it was organized if they at once change it to 
a more suitable and appropriate name. I expect, 
should I live, to raise them in considerable quanti- 
ties. Not knowing of any name more appropriate, 
I sent some to Chicago under the name of Mikado, 
believing as I did that I was doing nothing that was 
either wrong or selfish. I never have taken very 
kindly to the name of Abundance, and the name of 
Botan did not indicate any particular variety. In 
order to more enlighten your committee on nomen- 
clature, I have written to Mr. Lovett, stating tohim 
not to write me anything except what I could be 
free to use in the settlement of this controversy. 
Please introduce the letters. G. W. Hinclay. 

Winters, Cat. 

Mr. Lovett'a Letter. 

Mr. G. VV. Hinclay— Dear Sir: Your esteemed 
favor of the 12th inst. received and noted. We will 
supply you 200 Abundance plum trees, the genuine 
sort, budded on plum, i yr. old, good trees, at $15 
per 100; budded on peach, at $12 per 100. 

The Abundance is a Japanese plum. We received 
it from a California seedsman nearly ten years ago, 
and it proved so valuable in the nursery rows, and 
its name being unknown, we gave it the name of 
Abundance because it was so very fine and yielded 
so abundantly. We have since learned that this 
p'um is known in some parts of the country as the 
" Yellow- Fleshed Botan." As there are, however, 
so many varieties of plums krown as Botan, such as 
the Sweet Botan, Late Botan, Isarly Botan, Red 
Botan, Yellow Botan and Yellow-Fleshed Botan, we 
are loath to abandon the name of Abundance for 
this very valuable plum. There is also a number of 
varieties of Japanese plums known as Botankio with 
prefixes and suffixes of liirly, Red, Yellow, Late, 
etc., which are also called B3tan by some. In fact, 
the Japanese plums familiarly known as Bolan are 
becoming so mixed up and muddled that when you 
say Botan you hardly know what is meant; just as 
in California, when you .say Chinaman, you do not 
know which Chinaman or what particular China- 
man. The truth of it is that in Japan the name of 
Botan is given to a certain class of plums and not to 
a particular varietv. We think the term applies 
to the shape of the Iruit, but are not sure, just as in 
this country we have the prunes, consisting of many 

You are free to use this letter in any proper way 
you wish. Hoping it will give you the desired in- 
formation, we remain yours truly, 

J. T. I^VETT Co. 

Little Silver, N. J., Nov. ig, i8gi 

Porter Bros'- Letter. 

G W. Hinclay. £s,/,--Dear Sik: Goodell car 
16,242 sold here yesterday. Your apricots were very 
ripe; the boxes sold at 80 cents; half-crates at 90 

Goodell car 16,256 sold here to-day. Your apri- 
cots in like condition, and sold at 90 cents to 95 
cents. Mikado plums were in good order, and we 
bought the box in at $2 ourselves, so that we could 
examine same thoroughly. We find them to t>e a 
very fine plum, and we think if they come in ear- 
lier and are shipped a little greener than this fruit 
was shipped, that they would arrive here in fine 
shape and bring a good price. It looks to us like a 
very desirable plum, as it is not only handsome, but 
also has an excellent flavor. We hope you will 
have plenty of them within a year or two, as we be- 
lieve you can get a fancy price for same. 

Hoping to hear from you again soon with notice 
of further consignmenL", we remain, 

Chicago, July 2, :8gi. Poktek Bros. Co. 

The subject of changing the name of the 
Abundance plum and attempt at renaming the 
grape known as Isabella Rsgia (the Pierce 
grape) was reported back to tlie Committee on 
Nomenclature, and the president was requested 
to appoint the committee, which had not yet 
been done. 

Mr. Wyer of Winters spoke upon the dried- 

Jan. 2; 1892J 

f ACIFie f^URAlo f RESS. 

frait qaestion and oatlined a proposition to e8> 
tablieh a sample room in San Francieco, where 
•11 of the growers conld send sample boxes of 
their frait for buyers to examine and make pnr- 
chases, tbas doing away with at least one set 
of middlemen, 

Th9 following committee was appointed to 
report at the January meeting upon the feasi- 
bility of the scheme: C. F. Wyer, Leonard 
Ooates, B, M. Lelong, E. W. MasHn and C. H. 

Howard Overaoker spoke npon the nse of 
pamps for irrigation orchards, and said that he 
was going to put in an experimental plant for 
that purpose. The sabject of planting young 
trees where old trees had stood, was diaonssed 
at length, and a number of cases in which the 
plan had proven a failure, were cited, especial- 
ly In the planting of apricots and English wal- 
nuts, where oak trees had previously stood. 
It was suggested that in orchard, when trees 
were blown down or grubbed out for any rea- 
son, that before planting another tree in the 
same place, the ground should be thoroughly 
fertilized with well-rotted manure, and dressed 
with bone dust to supply the qualities which 
the old tree had removed. It was generally 
conceded that, owing to the difference in the 
feeding of the roots, young orchards conld 
safely be started in growing vineyards. The 
disposition of prnnings in the orchard was 
freely discussed by a number'of the members, as 
was the pruning of the different varieties of 
trees. In pruning small orchards, the thumb 
and finger were declared to be the very best 
implement that could be used. Frank Kim- 
ball spoke of the growing and fruiting of trees 
at unusual seasons, and cited a case, on his 
own ranch at National City, of Red June ap- 
ples, which were perfected In September. 

E. W. Maslln spoke in behalf of the new 
Foreign Fruit Marketing Company, which Is 
being organized by the State Board of Trade. 

B. N. Kowley exhibited a box of figs, packed 
by M. Denlcke of Fresno, which were declared 
to be the best flavored and finest appearing 
White Adriatic 'figs that had ever been shown 
in California. A fine box of Robe de Sergent 
prunes was exhibited by Leonard Coates, 
Specimens of the BoB North Carolina apple 
were exhibited by James Shinn. A box of 
Isabella Regia (the Pierce grape) was also ex- 
hibited. The following olives were exhibited 
by C. H. Allen: Atro Rubens or Vialacea, 
Maorooarpa, Nigrina, Oleo Rubra, Pendulina, 
Picholioe, Redding's Piobollne. 

Emory E. Smith, 
Sec'y pro tern. 

PruniBg Moorparks. 

The possibility of improving the bearing of 
Moorpark apricot trees by severe pruning is 
mentioned from time to time, and experiments 
with the method are still being conducted. 
The theory seems to be questionable, because 
in regions where apricots have been most 
closely pruned, as for example in Southern Cali- 
fornia, the Moorpark has been practically 
abandoned as unprofitable. Even when pruned 
closely twice a year, the Moorpark is shy and 
uncertain in Southern California, as elsewhere. 

Interesting data on this question is likely to 
be gained this year from the Santa Clara val- 
ley. At the meeting of the Campbell Horti- 
cultural Society, December 15th, Pres. Mc- 
Glincy stated that as an experiment, when the 
fruit was off, he had severely pruned his Moor- 
park apricots, and hoped it would prove bene- 
ficial. This variety is known as a shy bearer, 
and if by summer pruning, the trees can be 
made to bear, it will prove a good thing for or- 
chardists; but if not, the days of Moorparks 
will be numbered, for people will graft them 
Into something from which they can hope, with 
reanonable assurance that tbey will obtain an 
annual crop. 

It is not at all unlikely that the Moorpark 
apricots throngh this portion of the valley will 
be very heavily pruned, and the experiment 
made, to see If they are under all conditions 
persistently shy bearers. 

tended establishing myself in the bee business, 
I would try and have the apiary that was 
nearest my home market run exclusively for 
comb honey, while the out, or isolated apiaries, 
I would run for extracted honey; but if there 
should come a poor honey season and my home 
apiary should only partly fill up the section 
boxes, then I would extract all the honey and 
would therefore secure part of a honey crop 

A person who buys a pound of extracted 
honey secures more honey than a person who 
buys a pound of comb honey, because one- 
eighth or one-tenth is wax. 

If a good article of extracted honey is pro- 
duced it can as readily be disposed of as comb 

Extracted honey if it candies can soon be re- 
duced to the liquid form again; bnt if comb 
honey candles it will have to be melted, as no 
way has yet been devised for reliqulfying honey 
in the comb. 

A great many persons prefer candied honey, 
and in every neighborhood will be found per- 
sons who will buy the candied honey in pref- 
erence to all other kinds. For myself, I think 
It is quite a treat occasionally to have some 
candied honey. 

The honey gathered from maozanlta crys- 
tallizes quicker than any other kind that I 
know of; if it is to be extracted, it must be 
taken out in a few days after being capped 
ovor. Water-cress honey also candies quickly. 

Qaite a point in extracting is, that it has a 
great tendency to discourage swarming, and in 
some seasons this is Indeed a great thing. 

A few eastern apiarists think that the use of 
the honey extractor is ruining the honey and 
bee business; that It tends to lower prices 
too much, and that there will soon be 
such an overproduction that nothing will be 
realized from the honey baslnesf. Nonsense I 
I don't think that there was ever an over-prod- 
uction of any kind of food, or ever will be. 

What is needed is a systematic system of 
distribution, and a thorough building up of 
borne markets. It is marvelous the amount of 
honey that can be sold annually in a small 
city of 2,500 inhabitants. If the right system of 
building up home markets is adopted. 

Extracted honey is growing more in favor 
every day, and is being extensively used in 
various ways. I was reading a few days ago 
that the editor of the American Bee Journal, 
visited the buyer of a fancy bakery, and the 
buyer informed him that his purchases of ex- 
tracted honey for 1891, amounted to .$13,000, 
and we presume that there are hundreds of 
other bakeries in our land, who use equally 
as much if not more. 

No doubt the analysis of honey, of different 
countries, would be interesting to readers of 
the; following is the analysis given in 
BIythe's "Foods, their Analysis and Composi- 
tions." (See page 129 Analysis made by Dr. 

Comb Honey vs. Extracted Honey. 

Editors Press: — An oft repeated question 
is, Which pays best, comb or extracted honey ? 

One apiarist will tell you that comb honey 
can be produced the cheapest, all things con 
sidered. He will enumerate the many points 
for successful comb honey production, and 
prove to you that comb honey will pay better 
than extracted. Another apiarist will tell you 
that there Is more money in extracted honey, 
and to the common bee-keeper he wonders 
which is right. 

Well, In my opinion they are both right; the 
location and the bee-keeper is the answer. If 
they are situated near a good market, with 
superior shipping facilities, and the honey looa' 
tion is good, comb honey will pay the best. As 
a general rule, one man can attend to more 
bees when running for comb honey. Comb 
honey when put up in a neat, attractive pack 
age, will sell itself and not go begging for a 
market. But comb honey requires very deli- 
cate handling, and in isolated regions where 
there are bad roads it would pay best to run 
for extracted honey; so you see, the location 
mast decide this point. 

If I were going to a new country, and in 


U so 





Gre' k. 

I Lisbon. 

I Jamaica. 


invariably minute quantities of alchol, all of 
which are included in the two last horizontal 
columns of the table, bnt it suffices to show 
that 75 to 80 per cent of extracted honey is 
saccharine matter or sugar." — Blythe, 

A German apiarist, testing the crystallization 
of honey, sampled up several bottles; part of 
them was placed in a dark room and part in a 
room exposed to light. That which was in the 
light room candied in a short time, while that 
in the dark room remained in the liquid form 
indefinitely. Still I think if that which was 
placed in the light room was kept at the same 
temperature as that in the dark room, it would 
not have candied either. If honey be kept at 
a temperature of 90°, it will not candy, whether 
in a light or dark room; 86° is the melting point 
of glucose sugar-crystals. All lower temper- 
atures hasten crystallization; the less water 
honey contains the slower the crystallization, 
while its entire absence prevents candying 

Extracted and comb honey should be stored 
in a dry, warm room. Comb honey should be 
kept in darkness in order to retain its delicate 
whiteness and keep from fading. Honey should 
never be kept in a dark place, as it will soon 
ferment and its delicate aroma is soon destroyed 
and it is unfit for use. 

The production of comb and extracted honey 
in the Pacific States and Territories is still in 
its infancy. The honey resources of Oalifornia, 
Nevada, Colorado and Arizona are just begin- 
ning to be developed. 

Alfalfa is the honey plant destined to lead 
in all irrigated districts. 

What was once regarded as a desert and 
worthless land is now being made to "blossom 
as the rose.'' The new systems of irrigation 
and the boring of artesian wells have accom- 
plished these beneficial and marvelous results. 

Aside frcm the irrigated alfalfa tracts, there 
are in Arizona and Colorado vast tracts of wild 
bee pasturage, the principal honey plants 
among this wild pasture being the mesquite 
and oaoti, 

Meequite is said to yield a honey superior to 
alfalfa. One man describes it as being as clear 
as water aad of an exquisite flavor. The cacti 
is also very prolific of honey, A bee-keeper 
in Arizona reports gathering a teaspoonful of 
anrip<? nectar from a single flower. 

Orizzly Flats, Cal, S L. Watkins. 

The World's Honkt Producers. — The 
largest beekeeper in the world is Mr. Harbison 
of this State, who has 6000 hives, producing 
200,000 pounds of honey yearly. In Greece 
there are 30,000 hives, producing 3,000,000 
pounds of honey ; in Denmark 80,000, produc- 
ing 2,000,000 ; in Russia 110,000, producing 
the same ; In Belgium 200,000, producing 
5,000,000; in Holland 240,000, producing 
6,000,000 ; in France 950,000, producing -23,- 
000.000 ; in Germany 1,450,000 and in Austria 
J, 5.50, 000. each producing 40,000,000 pounds of 
honey. Bat in the United States there are 
2,900,000 hives, belonging to 70,000 beekeepers, 
and producing 62,000,000 pounds of honey 
5 e ir ly. — Cali/ornian. 

The one given is not an exhaustive analysis, 
however, for, in addition to what is given, 
honey contains minute organic acids, alkaloidal 
and bitter principles possibly derived from the 
pollen; small quantities of mineral matter, and 

Inoculation for Hog Cholera. 

The experiment at Ottawa, III., to test the 
value of Inoculation as a preventive for hog 
cholera has now progressed sufficiently to allow 
a statement of facts, which will settle one of 
the points at lesae, and probably the only one 
which can now be determined from this test. 
The report shows that 55 hogs were purchased 
(instead of 60, as originally proposed) and di- 
vided into three lots. Eighteen were inocu- 
lated by Mr. Cadwell, who was instructed by 
Mr, Billings, and who strictly followed the 
latter's method; 18 were Inoculated by Dr. 
Schroeder, according to the method used by 
the Bureau of Animal Industry, and 19 were 
not inoculated and were held to determine 
whether the animals had been exposed to dis- 
ease previous to inoculation, and whether the 
inoculated animals resisted the disease better 
than those which had not been inoculated. 
The inoculations were made on Nov. 28tb, and 
the two inoculated lots were then put in the 
same inclosure, the animals not inoculated be- 
ing kept by themselves. One of the hogs in- 
cculated by Mr. Oadwell, according to Billings' 
method, was sick and refused its feed on Dec. 
8th, and on the morning of Deo. lOtb, it was 
found dead. On Dec. 11th, another hog in- 
oculated by Mr. Cadwell died, and on Dec. 
13th, two more hogs inoculated by Mr. Cadwell 
were fouod dead. None of the hogs inoculated 
according the method of the Bareau of Ani- 
mal Industry bad died at the time the last re- 
port was received. 

As the first died 12 days after inoculation, 
the second 13 days after inoculation, and the 
third and fourth 15 days after inoculation, and 
as the hogs not inoculated are all well, and 
none of those inoculated by the Bureau have 
died, it is conclusively shown that the disease 
was caused by the inoculation made by Mr. 
Cadwell. All of the inoculated hogs were ex- 
posed to these animals in which the disease de- 
veloped from the Inoculation, and as a saffioient 
time had not elapsed for them to receive any 
protection, it would not be surprising if there 
should be a considerable percentage of loss in 
each of the inoculated lots. This premature 
exposure, of course, prevents any positive in- 
formation being obtained from this experiment 

as to whether there is any marked degre 
protection conferred by inoculation. 

The results already obtained demonstrate the 
the danger of spreading the disease by inocu- 
lation, and particularly by the method used 
and recommended by Mr. Billings. This dan- 
ger has been indicated by other inoculations 
made in Nebraska and Illinois, bnt it has never 
before been so clearly and incontestably proved. 

In this connection, the following report made 
Dec. 1, 1891, by ex-Governor Robert W. Fur- 
nas, the statistical agent of the Department of 
Agriculture for Nebraska, is especially signifi- 
cant, as inoculation has been extensively prac- 
ticed in that State under the immediate super' 
vision of Mr. Billings. This report says: 

" I will assume to say that the loss to farmers 
of hogs by 'swine disease ' has never been so 
great as for the month of November. It has 
covered more territory and proved more fatal, 
especially in the eastern part of the State. All 
say: 'It is not cholera, but more akin to scar* 
let fever or pneumonia,' It seems to have 
shown new and more uncontrollable character- 
istics; has made its appearance on farms where 
□ever before known; among hogs raised on the 
farm with no known chance of having been 
communicated, and where best care has always 
been exercised. Farmers say, * simply mysteri- 
oni,' and abide results as philosophically as 

Berkshire Meeting. — The American Berk- 
shire Association will hold its 16th annual 
meeting at Springfield, 111., Jan. 21, 1892. This 
Association, the oldest for recording the smaller 
breeds of Improved live stock, deservedly con- 
tinues its popularity with the breeders of that 
excellent breed of swine. 


Distribution by Growers. 

Editors Press: — Thanks for the clipping 
(if thanks are due to the clipping, I leave yon 
to judge) from the New York paper which 
thinks our plan for cooperative fruit selling 

The motive for the animus on the part of the 
writer is apparent when one looks on the other 
side of the page and sees the advertisements of 
the commission merchants. 

Evidently the writer believes in the text — 
" Thou canst not serve both God and Mam- 
mon," so he serves Mammon, which is his priv- 
ilege, bnt his interests are not California's in- 
terest, and while his Item may be a good sop 
for his patrons, the commission men, it In no 
way indicates a relief for the betterment of re- 
sult) calculated toward a juster distribution of 
return to the grower. 

He invites me to come to New York next 
summer and visit the auction room. I have 
visited the auction rooms of New York and Lon- 
don, and besides any observations that I have 
made, have a personal, practical experience 
with the "modus operandi" of the auction 
room. I know the potency of a recognized 
"wink " by the auctioneer, and of the "com- 
bine" among the "peanut" men, and I wot 
that the writer of the article does, too. 

What material difference may be conjured 
up in an auctioneer appointed by and for the 
growers, and in one by and for the commission 
men, and for "Peanuts"? 

No, friend 1 One hundred or even five hun- 
dred venders cannot handle the great fruit crop 
of Californis, but 100 or even 50 will do as a 
sample, and if the 50 succeed, they will be mul- 
tiplied to thousands, see ? ^ 

What nourishing and health-giving food 
product is sold to the consumer in New York 
at 8 cents per pound? And yet the California 
fruit-growers sold hundreds of tons of dried 
peaches and apricots at 4 and 5 cents per 
pound. Cannot the growers find a retail mar- 
ket at 8 and 10 cents per pound among the 
densely populated centers of the large Eastern 
cities? Surely they can, and realize a much 
greater net return, and in addition, build up a 
market vastly greater than otherwise possible. 

Does the writer know that there are no apri- 
cot growers in the world that receive less for 
their apricots than do the California growers ? 
Why should they continue to receive less ? 
Shall it be in order to accommodate TTie Fruit 
Trade Journal, the Eastern commission men 
and " Peanuts "? 

Given the trial of say 50 venders at the start, 
and if these succeed, and shortly, " the molti- 
plicity of detailr, and the necessity of the em- 
ployment of an army of the most skilled and 
intelligent labor to properly handle car upon 
oar of constantly perishing fruit," will be mas- 
tered by the employees of the growers as well 
as by the men now doing this work in their 
own interests, and when the trial shall haTe 
been made and found successful, you may keep 
your " multiplicity of detail " and welcome to 
you, but the grower will learn that bis inter- 
ests can be served best by selling to the con- 
sumer at a lower rate and at the same time re* 
ceive for his product an equitable return. 

Sacramento. Dec. 20. D. Lubin. 

Exporting Apples to Europe is becoming 
one of the most important features of the trade. 
Up to the first week in November. 555,000 
barrels had been shipped from N'-w York since 
the season began. Last year, 195,164 barrels 
were sent abroad. 



[Jan. 2, 1892 


Oar OfBclnl Orange Kdltlon.-The Grange news 
of most general lutcr«<l is given through all e<l't'o..i of mir 
paper on thl» page One or more I)age», >'""«f'' ^'J'tT 
iDterelits. are given in our Orange clition. which any buih 
Icrfblr «n ri?eive in lieu of U.e n gnlar edition without 
BXTRA COST, by aiUlrcaaiug the |i ubH»hers. 

The Master's Desk. 


"Happy New Year" are the first words 
found on the Master's Desk this week. 
What a world of recollections and sugges- 
tions these oft-heard words bring! How 
many times we have spoken them and had 
them addressed to us ! But it seems to me, 
with each succeeding year, these words 
have a newer and a deeper significance. 
When we have left the threshold of youth, 
and enter upon the duties of manhood and 
womanhood, we find the New Years coming 
upon us so rapidly, and each one so filled 
with care and responsibility, that we may 
well stop at the dawn of the first day of the 
year, and exclaim in sincerity, "Happy 
New Year." How I wish that simple ex- 
clamation would make J. Happy New Year 
to every member of our noble Order, to all 
the readers of the Rural, and to the good 
and true men and women everywhere! 
How I wish the world could, in all that 
pertains to society, be happy for at least 
one year ! But alas ! It is easy to say be 
happy ; not so easy thus to be. The New 
Year will come, whether or not we want it. 
It will be " Happy New Year " to us, large- 
ly as we make it, or try to make it so. Dis- 
appointment, sickness, sorrow, death, may 
come to many of us. Certain it is to come 
to some of us ; and though such are not to 
bring happiness, yet there is a happiness 
that comes of resignation — a happiness that 
comes to all who have intelligently, hon- 
estly and faithfully done their duty. There 
is happiness in the association of the good 
and true. Nowhere are they to be found 
in larger numbers or in more sincere associ- 
ation than in the Grange. In the councils 
of that fraternity, we find the family neigh- 
borhood reunion. 

The father and the mother, the sister and 
the brother, the hired man and the orphan, 
all find pleasant companionship in the 
Orange. Those whose hearts have been 
saddened, and those whose minds have been 
troubled, will in the Grange find sympathy 
and pleasure. Why not, then, as we leave 
the Old Year behind, gladly welcome the 
New Year? Why not, through the influ- 
ences and the opportunities which the 
Grange guarantees, make the year 1892 the 
happiest one of all, not alone for self, but 
also for friend, neighbor and the stranger ? 
Let us profit by the past, study during the 
present, so that we enjoy and be useful in 
the future. To all, A Happy New Year! 
To the Grange in California and elsewhere, 
a thrice-successful Happy New Year! That 
it may be so, will depend largely on your 
eflforts, confiding readers. 

See that your subordinate Grange pays 
its dues to the State Grange up to Dec. 31, 
1891. Send the name of the Master and 
Secretary, with postoffiue address, as soon 
as they •re installed, and your Grange will 
at once get the annual word for 1892. If 
you don't do this, don't blame the Master 
or Secretary of the State Grange if the word 
is not forthcoming. 

" Act, act in the living present. Heart 
within. God o'erhead." 

Who will do most for the Order in Cali- 
fornia? By their deeds we will know them. 

The holidays are gone; now for the plow, 
the harrow, the pruning knife, the hoe, and 
to know how to use these tools join the 

The Christmas number of the Rural 
was a good Grange paper. We were sorry 
so much good Grange news had to go over, 
and hope that hereafter such will not be 
the case with the letters and correspondence 
sent to the Grange Department. Send in 
the Grange news, for we all want to hear 
from you. 

Don't take La Grippe, but take the 
Grange grip. It is taught in every subor 
dinate Grange. 

The Michigan State Grange has just ad- 
journed. We are glad to see that Bros. 
Luce and Woodman and Sister Woodman 
were in attendance to do and dare for the 
Grange. They know how to do both. 

Prepare to receive the new word I You 
know how to prepare ! 

The Chinese, that odd people, require 

four things of a good woman, viz.: "That 
virtue dwell in her heart; that mod- 
esty shine on her forehead; that gentle- 
ness flow from her lips, that work employ 
her hands." While we may disagree with 
these people across the ocean on most 
things, who can seriously object to their 
estimate of a good woman? Perhaps their 
requirement ot the work the hands should 
do is greater, than we would have it, but 
none-the-less the hands of a good woman 
will always find employment. 

Much has been written on " How to Save 
the Boys." The New Year is here, and 
with it many boys will start for themselves. 
The best way to save all the boys, old as 
well as young, is to make home the best 
place on earth. 

See how much, not how little, you can do 
for the Order. Every effort helps. You 
may be a humble member, but that mat- 
ters not — help. We are all humble mem- 
bers. Official station only honors those 
who bring honor to the office. Better not 
hold an office than to bring no honor to 
that office. If you would have the honors 
of an ofSce you must honor that oflSce. But 
whether officer or member do your full share 
for the Grange. You will not, at the 
close of 1892, regret any eff'ort put forth for 
the Grange. 

The National Grange souvenir proclama- 
tion has been kindly received by the Press 
and the Order everywhere. 

The Executive Committee of the Cali- 
fornia State Grange will meet at the office 
of the Secretary, 220 Market St.. San Fran- 
cisco, Cal., at 10 A. M. on Wednesday, Janu- 
ary 13th, 1892. Members of the Order and 
others having business before the commit- 
tee, will take due notice of said meeting. 
The ways and means of upbuilding the 
Grange will be considered, and suggestions 
to the better and quicker accomplishment 
of that work will be kindly and thankfully 
received. E. W. Davis, Chairman. 

During the week a kind and highly ap- 
preciated fraternal letter from Bro. J. H. 
Brigham, the W. M., and also one from 
Bro. John Trimble, the W. Sec'yofthe 
National Grange, were received. Thanks, 
brothers. Do it often. 

Two Rock Grange. 

Editors Press: — Two Rock Grang» 
failed to hold a meeting on Dec. 3d, date ot 
first regular meeting in December, which 
accounts for the list of officers not being 
sent before. We elected our officers Dec. 
17th, as per list enclosed. There was a 
general change except the Lecturer and 
Chaplain. The Worthy Lecturer was 
retained, that he might become more 
proficient, or that he had filled the 
office with such honors that it was deemed 
best not to let him go. Our Worthy Chap- 
lain — as we are taught in the Declaration 
of Purposes, " the office should seek the 
man " — is the proper man in the right 

Master-elect, Bro. Denman, was an effi- 
cient Assistant Steward and I believe he 
will handle the gavel with as great honor as 
he did the pruning hook. 

Bro. Martin — well, if he handles the em- 
blem of his newly assigned station, as he 
did the gavel, no enemy will enter and rob 
the orchard or vineyard or steal the owl 
from his pole. If any of the State officers 
should visit Two Rock Grange, be sure you 
have the proper signal and correct pass, 
or you can never get by Bro. Martin and 
his big owl. 

Your bumble servant, the defeated Sec- 
retary, who has been at the Secretary's 
desk more than half of the time since Two 
Rock Grange was organized, needs no com- 
ments. Although as I am a retired — What 
did I say — I mean a defeated Secretary, I 
will never forget the Press or hesitate to 
ask for subscriptions. 

Those newly elected oflBcers will be 
placed in their respective places and started 
to work on Jan. 7th. The State Lecturer 
will be invited to install the officers. We 
will confer the third and fourth degrees and 
have the usual Harvest Feast. 

Remember that the latch-string of Two 
Rock Grange hangs on the outside and 
within reach of all good Patrons. 

La Grippe is raging through this vicinity, 
but so far no one is in serious danger. More 
rain is needed to start the grass and make 
plowing better. 

Wishing the Press firm a Happy New 
Year, I am J. C. Purvine, 

Sec'y Two Rock Grange. 

We have in hand an interesting commu- 
nication from John Minto of Salem, Or., on 
the Question of " Forest Preservation." 

Woodbridge Grange. 

Editors I'bess — Enclosed find list of 
officers for '92, elected by Woodbridge 
Grange. This is the busy seeding time 
with the farmers, when plows and harrows 
are brought out, and although they do not 
run day and night, it is told of some that 
lanterns are required to make the first few 
rounds in the morning. 

Good horses and poor horses all have to 
work at this season. All kinds of plows, 
good and bad, are kept going, and it is 
some extra occasion if the Granger stops 
operations to attend the Grange. How- 
ever, Woodbridge Grange mustered a fair 
attendance December 15th for conferring 
degrees. The usual Harvest Feast was 
spread in the lower hall of Grangers' 
Building, which we have lately purchased, 
and a general good time was had. Instal- 
lation will take place Tuesday, January 5th. 
Meeting at 10 o'clock, with basket lunch. 
Yours fraternally, 

N. Vesper Williams, Sec'y. 

Camp McKee, Dec. 20th. 

Elbesillab Grange. 

Editors Press: — Our Grange has 
changed its meetings from the 1st and 2d 
Saturdays to the 1st Saturday of every 
month at 8 P. M. 

Our last meeting was a very lively and 
enjoyable one. We were pleased to see the 
pleasant face of Bro. Dashiells in our midst, 
after so long an absence. 

Balloting for our new officers was the 
work for the evening. They will be duly 
installed at the first regular meeting in 
January. We cordially invite all friends 
and hope they will be present at our Janu- 
ary meeting, as we intend to hold open 
Grange during the installation of officers. 

Brothers and sisters, we wish you all suc- 
cess and a " Happy New Year." Frater- 
nally, Anna Roberts. 

California at the World's Fair. 

The Soathern OalifornU World'* Fair Aa*o- 
ciation hii received the following letter from 
J. M. Samaels, Chief of the Department of 

" The size of the conrt MBigoed to California 
is 88x270 feet. The error oooarred, no doubt, 
In Mr. Fish's letter aa regards space. As you 
will notice, this will give to Cilifornia 24,000 
tquare feet within the wails of the hortical- 
tural bnildlog. Besides, there will be allowed 
to her several thousand feet of table space for 
an exhibit of her fruits, which as yet cannot be 
definitely allotted until more of the States have 
made application. Northern California will 
have her proportion of the space, provided ap. 
plicatioD is made from that part of the State 
for it. I doubt, however, if an exhibit of cit- 
ras fruit trees will be made from north of the 
Tebachapl pass. Therefore, Southern Califor- 
nia will have this fine ooart to herself. 

" Yon will notice that this is mnch more 
than California's share of available space at the 
command of the Horticultural Department, and 
may call for some protests from competing 
sources. I am personally of the opinion, how- 
ever, that your State will use much more than 
the usual energy in making exhibits, and it is 
especially desired that the horticultural display 
at the World's Oolnmbian Exposition be as fine 
as it is possible to make it. 

" I have now a plan In hand which will no 
doubt enable the exhibitors from Southern Cali- 
fornia to make an almost unlimited exhibit of 
citrus and ornamental trees. The Landsoape 
Department at the World's Fair grounds has 
assigned to the Department of Horticulture for 
the purpose of displaying fine specimenB of 
plants, the grounrts surrounding all the large 
buildioKB, provided we shall give ihem a list of 
such trees and plaoti as can be set in a short 
space of time. Therefore, if you will furnish 
the Department with a list of citrus fruit trees, 
papper trees, desert palms, eccalyptns, olives, 
conifers of any kind or any other trees that 
would be rare in this latitude, and especially 
ornamental, I will try and find space for them 
on the grounds. 

" These trees can no doubt be labeled, if de- 
sired, as from individuals or from the Southern 
California Horticultural Society, and whenever 
any one goes on the grounds, they can see from 
the small tags attached to these trees the sonrce 
from which they were contributed. This will 
be a good opportunity to have yonr State ad- 
vertise its horticultural resources. As you un- 
derstand, this offer will be made to other 
States, and the ones that will report definitely 
what they wish to exhibit will have space al> 
lotted to them as long as it lasts. Those tardy 
in applying will have themselves to blame if 
they fail to obtain as mnch as they think they 
are entitled to. 

" Mr. Fish made application for five acres of 
wooded land on the wooded island or some 
other outdoor space at my suggestion. I 
stated to him, however, that it would be very 
doubtful if that amount could be secured for 
his State. This space surronnding the other 
buildings, however, gives an opportunity to 
comply with his requests if the above condi- 

tions are complied with. The grounds will 
have black soil placed on them and be pat in 
proper condition for planting shrubs and trees, 
but the exhibitor will be required to carry ont 
the detail work." 

A Northern California Aeaoclatlon. 

The Sutler County Farmer has the following: 
The Horticultural Society has set the ball roll- 
ing for having a Northern California World's 
Fair Association formed. The northern coun- 
ties can better afiford to join themselves to- 
gether in this great work and make an exhibit 
oolUotively at the Columbian Exposition in 
1893 at Chicago than for each county to separ- 
ately exhibit her prodnots there. The secretary 
of the society will notify each Board of Super- 
visors in all counties north of San Francisco to 
appoint five delegates from their respective 
counties to meet at Yuba City on February 
17th and discuss the advisability of such or- 
ganization. This will be the proper way to 
get at it, and the matter should be thoroughly 
discussed In all the northern and central por- 
tions of the State and some action taken on the 

Government Wants a Big Tree. 

The Tulare Citizen has the following : Post- 
master Eckles of this place has received an 
cfScial communication from Washington City, 
from the office of Hon. Horace A. Taylor of the 
Department of Government Management and 
Control of the World's Exhibition at Chicago, 
stating that it Is the wish of the Secretary of 
the Interior to secure a section of one of the 
celebrated big trees of California (to be taken 
from Sequoia National Park, if practicable to 
do sc), as a part of the exhibit at the Columbian 
Exposition. They state that the tree would be 
placed in a central locality in the Government 
building, and the interior of it famished in a 
novel and attrictive manner. 

They are desiroas of ascertaining the ap- 
proximate cost of preparing a 30-foot section 
in suitable form and transporting it to the rail- 
road. They also contemplate taking one or 
more thin sections, sawed entirely across the 
tree, for ceiling. As this exhibit comes from 
the National Park, and is to be placed in the 
Government building, it is entirely proper that 
the Government should defray the expense, yet 
it would make Tulare oounty the best adver- 
tised county in the United States outside of 
Oook county, Illinois. The Presidential visit 
to Tulare's big stump may have had something 
to do in bringing this matter to the front. It 
would be well for the City Board of Trade, 
through Mr. Eckles, to volnnteer their as- 
sistance to farther this enterprise. 

The Olive at Pomona. 

Editors Pekss: — Althongh there oannot be 
many persons who still believe that the olive 
tree Is regularly tapped for oil, yet fruit-grow- 
ers even know bat little of its capabilities in 
the virgin soli and genial climate of California. 
Experience with young olive orchards here has 
proved *^hat the tree comes into bearing as soon 
as the Njvel oraogo tree and that it does not 
require expensive machinery nor workmen from 
abroad to convert the product Into oil and 
pickles, as is generally supposed. 

Growers in this vicinity hive been bnsy dur- 
ing the [ ast three or four weeks making their 
olives into pickles, and they may now be ob- 
tained at the stores at $1.20 per gallon; but in 
a few weeks they will all be consrmed and no 
more to be bad till the new crop comes in. 
People are inquiring how long it will be before 
there are olives enough produced to last the 
year round. The object-lessons from the 
young-bearing groves in this section will cause 
a large acreage to be planted the ensning sea- 
son. John 8. Calkins. 

Pomona, Cal 

The Great Dam Across the Colorado 
RlVKB, — The great dam across the Colorado 
river at Austin, Texas, is now making snb- 
stanttal progress. This dam will be, when 
completed, 1150 feet long, 60 feet high and 18 
feet wide at the top. The apstream face is 
of limestone and is vertical; the downstream 
face Is of granite, and tbe interior is rnbble 
masonry of email stone and cement. The dam 
is intended to utilize the power of the Colo- 
rado river. The water power will run the elec- 
tric light plant, famish power for the elecrio 
railroads and for pumping tbe water supply of 
the city, and leave a surplus of some 13,000 
horse power for the use of factories. It is about 
two miles above the city of Austin and the nat- 
ural conditions are very favorable, as the river 
there runs between high bluffs and the bed la 
of rock, so that very little excavation is re- 
quired to find a solid fonndation. It will be 
the largest power dam yet built in this coun- 
try. The estimated cost of the dam Is about 
half a million dollars. 

Florida Obanoks Direct to English Mar- 
kets. — We learn from a Florida paper that 
E. L. Goodsell, the New York merchant, is 
working ap direct shipment of oranges from 
Florida to English ports, claiming that the cost 
of freight and commission to that market 
would be about 15a per box in addition to cost 
of marketing in New York. He places the 
cost in New York at 45c per box and in Eog- 
lish markets at 60o per box — in both cases plus 
10 per cent commissions, By shipping from 
September to December, a time may be struck 
when the European markets are bire of Medi- 
terranean frait. 

Jan. 2, 18921 

f ACIFie F^URAId f ress. 

Farmers' Alliance. 

Our Alliance Edition coDtains, additional to this 
patre. Alliance news which suhscribers can receive without 
EXTRA COST, by applying for the same 

Official Circular from St>i,te President 
F. A. & I. U, 

To the Farmer I' Alliance of Ihe Stat^ of Cali- 
fofnia, Orettinj: 

Brethren: — It seems to me that the time 
has arrived wben I shcnid again speak to the 
members of this great brotherhood throughout 
the Pacific Coast, and warn them against the 
schemes of certain parties to attempt to force 
Congress to guarantee the bonds of the Nica- 
ragua Canal scheme. Some time ago, there was 
organized in San Francisco what is known as 
the " TrafiBo Association." It purported to 
have been organized for the purpose of obtain- 
ing soma relief from the robliery practiced upon 
the producers of this coast b; the grasping rail- 
road monopolies entering this State from the 
E ist, and BO far as it worked on this line, it 
had our hearty support. Bat this Association 
had no more than fairly organized when it was 
switched o£f upon the Nicaragua Canal scheme, 
and they appointed a committee to inquire into 
the matter, and said committee reported favor- 
able to the bonds being issued by the Govern- 
ment, and their report was adopted by the As- 
sociation, thus changing the object and intent 
of the Association from one to give us relief 
from the pirate railroad corporations to an in- 
stitution to boom the Nicaragua Oanal, and 
they now threaten to inflict upon as a petition 
for that purpose. Don't sign any such peti- 
tion 1 We have placed ourselves on high 
ground npoa this question and we mean to 
stand there nntil we get relief. In the letter 
to the Chamber of Commerce, I used this lan- 
guage: " About the end of President Arthur's 
term, he entered into a treaty with Nicaragua 
to guarantee the protection of the canal, but 
before the treaty was ratified, Cleveland was 
inaugurated and he promptly withdrew it. 
Warner Miller and others then came before 
CDngresa for a charter, pledging themselves 
that the Government would not be asked for 
any assistance to build it. The charter was 
granted upon these terms, which I believe they 
had no more authority to grant, without an 
agreement to defend the Territorial integrity 
of the States where such interests lie, than 
they had to grant a charter to build a railroad 
from Paris to Berlin. 

"They are now willing to take theGovernment 
Into partnership upon the same old terms — that 
It should furnish the means and the corporation 
pocket the profits. Congress also chartered a 
'Construction Company' to build the canal. 
This, I suppose, is a kind of ' Credit Mobtiier ' 
or 'Contract and Finance Company,' which 
you have probably heard about before, char- 
tered for the purpose of divi.Iing the profits 
among thret or four of the principal stockbold. 
ers. But Miller and others say there is no risk 
to run by the Government. If this is so, let 
them put np their private means, of which 
they have sufficient to build the c»nal without 
any aid from the Government. Bat suppose 
$100,000,000 would not complete the work, 
tnen they would no doubt a^k the Government 
to take a second lien, as in the Paolfio rail- 
roads, and the money given them by the Gov- 
ernment would be used to corrupt the mem- 
bers of Congress as in the former case, and the 
courts would step in and declare the corpora- 
tion did not owe the Government anything un- 
til thi bonds were due, and in the end I fear 
the Uaited States would have to pay the booda 
an 1 interest, as in the Pacifio railroads." In 
my message to the State Alliance, I used this 
language: "I placed the Alliance on the high- 
est grounds in the NIc.ragua Canal letter to 
the Chamber of Commerce, viz.. That the peo- 
ple of this nation had voted their last subsidy 
to great corporations for the purpose of con- 
trolling commerce, or hatching out a new 
brood of millionaires; that if the Government 
desires to invest $100,000,000 in this enterprise 
it must own the caned and run it in the inter- 
ests of thti people." In my letter to the Bank- 
ert' Magazine, Sept. 15tb, 1891, I used thin lan- 
guage: "The people of this great country have 
voted their last subsidy to build up monopolies 
who oppress them with the very gifts so gener- 
ously bestowed. We balieve hereafter when the 
people furnish the means for the construction 
of these great public highways, they should 
own and control them, and run tliem in the in. 
terest of the people. 

"We have already built all the great public 
highways to the Pacific Coast, and paid for 
them by taxation, and they are now used to 
oppress the very people who made the donation, 
and are pressing us to the wall with their 
thieving rates of fares and freights, and while 
we tubsidiza the steamships with thousands of 
dollars every ytar, they enter into combina- 
tions to rob the producers. The Pacifio Mail, 
after receiving subsidies from the Government, 
receives bribes from Huntington & Co. of 
$700,000 a year to keep up the freights and 
tares by sea. This amount, in addition to the 
■ubsidie?, we pay every year in the enhanced 
Drtce of freights. This canal would be a great 
beaetit to the Pacific if two things were done, 
and only a curse without them — the ownet- 
ahip of the canal by the people and the aboli- 
tion of the tariff reBtriotions on the ports of the 
Pao'fio States, If these two things are not 
done, it will make VIotoria the large seaport of 

the Pacifio Coast and enrioh the British Empire 
at our expense, and the great merchants and 
manufacturers of San Francisco can have the 
privilege of laying back and getting rich off 
eaoh other by trading jack-knives. No I yon 
may depend upon It that the Farmers' Alliance 
will never assist in building up any more pri- 
vate corporations to oppress them. If it can be 
built upon the conditions Indicated, the Farm- 
ers' Alliance will give it their hearty support." 
From these quotations from public letters and 
documents, it is plain to be seen where we 
stand. We don't intend to go into partner- 
ship with any more private corporations to 
build up the great public highways of com- 
merce, especially where we furnish all the 
money, and the private corporations get all 
the turkey. This is what made us so sick. 
We did expect this Traffic Committee would at 
least try to give us some relief, but as soon as 
they are fairly under way they bring in their 
Canal doctors, and after examining the patient, 
feeling the pulse, they shake their heads. 
"Bad case, very bad case. You are very sick," 
and proceed to prescribe another dose of gov- 
ernment bonds. I tell yon gentlemeo, this is 
what has made us siok. The very thing we 
complain of, and we don't propose to take 
another dose of the same medicine, even if we 
have to change the doctors. Let ns see how 
this partnership business has worked where we 
have tried it. We went into partnership with 
Jay Gould, Sidney Dillon, Russell Sage and 
Cakes Ames & Co. of the Union Pacific Bail- 
road. We furnished all the money to build the 
roads, and enough additional in lands and bonds 
to make all of them millionaires, from thirty 
to eighty times over, and how do these virtuous 
partners treat ns now- They boldly proclaim 
their intention not to refund any of the money 
stolen from their partner, and even refuse any 
kind of a settlement unless we give them 
one hundred years at 1^ per cent interest. 
This gang has built up about 56 outside cor- 
porations, and as long as they pay dividenda, 
their partner is not " in it " with them, but as 
soon as the stock is worthless, and pays noth- 
ing, these virtuous pards vote all the stock to 
their partner, and then (as in the Oregon Short 
Line), they will gobble np the bonds, and vote 
as directors that their partner shall guarantee 
the payment of interest from the earnings of 
the old Union Paolfio. 

They receive money into one hand as a pri> 
vate corporation, and pay it Into the other as a 
contractor with their silly old partner. Thus 
the whole thing seems to be a species of thim- 
ble-rigging, with this difference from the old 
style — the " little joker " is always found under 
the thimble. It makes no diffarenca which 
thimble you lift up, it is there. But you may 
say that this Canal Co. will have Government 
directors to look after our interests. Why, 
bless your innocent snnis, we have had five 
direotora in the Union Pacifio board for over 27 
years, say about 75 in all. Have you ever 
heard of them ? Can you name a dozen ? Can 
you name as many as God required to save 
Sodom from destruction? We occasionally 
hear of one who did not like to report " all 
right." Bat you will soon hear that he was 
" peiBuaded " to sign. There was one honest 
man on that board; his name was C. H. Snow, 
and he made a report March 5, 1869; but he 
was so lonely that he was " bounced " the first 
opportunity. The partnership in the Central 
Pacifio was more infamous if possible. A com- 
mittee appointed to investigate its affairs re- 
ports it rotten to the core. The Pattison Com- 
mittee reported that if the road had been 
honestly conducted, they could have paid off 
the Government debt of about $70,000,000, and 
received a dividend of six per cent upon the 
capital invested, and reduced the freights and 
fare $140,000,000 in the last 20 years. If this 
is so, and probably it is, that corporation has 
robbed the producers of this State of $140,000,- 
000, and their partner of as much more. But 
I have no time to follow np this matter at pres- 
ent, and, in oonclnsinn, will say that the record 
of our partnership with these corporations con- 
stitutes the blackest history ever written in 
any country, not excepting Warren Hastings 
In India. In that case he robbed an alien race, 
in this it was our own people. If the people 
of this State want more light on this subject, I 
stand ready to give it. 

The time has arrived when the great indus- 
trial classes are tired of their allegiance to a 
clique who are ever ready to boom any legisla- 
tion in the interests of the rich and against the 
common good. Already their mutterings of 
discontent are heard upon the plains of Kansas, 
and the wheat-fields of the Dakotas and Minne- 
sota, from the corn-fields of Illinois, Indiana 
and Iowa, as well as from the Pacifiio Coast. 
The stability and prosperity of this nation de- 
pend upon the honesty of the masses. You 
would not look to the ward politicians, or the 
boodlers of the last Legislature, or the courts 
who turn them loose after they are in the 
clutches of the law to maintain the purity of 
this Government. You would not go to the 
gilded palaces of those who revel in their ill- 
gotten wealth, but to the farm-laborers, the 
manly workman at the forge, the lathe and the 
bench, and the great middle clatsei to maintain 
the power and purity of this great Government. 

Now I say to this Canal Committee don't 
make the mistake of ignoring the modest wishes 
of the people. They do not ask the oonfiaoa- 
tion of the ill-gotten gains of any corporation, 
but we do demand a fair deal In the future, and 
we intend to have it, and we are on the skir- 
mish line now, and will not permit the enemy 
to entrench themselves behind additional bul- 

warks in the shape of Nicaragua Canal Bonds. 

Marion Cannon, 
Ventura, Gal , Dee Slit. State President. 

Money as a Measure of Value. 

[Written for the Rural PaESS.] 

Value as a thing does not exist. Value 
is a relation between human want and sup- 
ply. Its increase is in proportion to in- 
crease of want or diminishment of supply. 
Nothing on this earth has or can have an 
absolutely stable value (in its relations to 
mankind), because human want, supply and 
the relation between them are continually 
changing; and as value in anything is sim- 
ply the outcome of these three elements, it 
must vary with their variations. 

As value is a relation (or, one might say, 
the result of relationship), and as all rela- 
tions are continually changing, more or 
less, the phrase " fixed standard of value " 
is devoid of sense. There cannot be any 
" fixed " standard of value, with one im- 
portant exception to be soon noted. Money 
cannot be a standard or " fixed measure " 
any more than anything else. It is as idle 
to talk about " money " being a measure of 
value as to talk about potatoes being a meas- 
ure of value. 

Here, now, is one additional point to be 
borne in mind: There is a difierence be- 
tween money applied to the purchase of 
commodities and money applied to the ex- 
tinguishment of debt. 

The real value of money is what you can 
get for it. That is the only standard of 
value there ever was or ever will be for 

There are two purposes for which money 
may be used, and only two: 1. For the 
purchase of commodities. 2. For the pay- 
ment of debt. It we could always get the 
same amount of any commodity for the 
same denomination of money, then money 
might be said to have a " fixed value," or 
to be a "fixed measure of value." But we 
know that the amount of any commodity 
which we can get continually varies, con- 
sequently the real value of the dollar (or 
piece of money) continually varies, so far 
as the purchase of commodities is concerned. 
But, on the other hand, if we can always 
extinguish the same amount of debt with a 
certain piece of money, then that piece of 
money has a stable value for the payment 
of debt. It is a "fixed measure" for this 
latter purpose, and this only. So the value 
of money may be at once unstable and 
stable, depending upon the use to which the 
money is put. But now it is again neces- 
sary for us to have a care. If the piece of 
money is to have a stable value for the pay- 
ment of debt, the denomination imprinted 
upon its lace must be the only "standard" 
of its value for the payment of debt — that 
is, of the amount of debt which it will ex- 
tinguish, no matter what the money may 
cost the debtor when he buys it with pro- 
duce. If the value of a piece of one kind 
of money is to be fixed by comparison with 
another kind, and the ratio between them 
is subject ^to change, then all the value of 
the piece is unstable. It has, hence, no 
stability of value whatever. 

F. P. Cook. 

A VVretchkd Deed. — The severity of the 
famine in Rassia will be aggravated by the 
wretched deeds of conscienceless greed. The 
cable brings accounts of a consignment com- 
prising 1,800,000 pounds of barley flour which 
was purchased from the dealers in Liban with 
a view of regulating the price of wheat in the 
St. Petersburg market, as well as to afford re- 
lief to the famine sufferers. An investigation 
proved that the entire consignment was adul- 
terated with chalk dust and other substances. 
They comprised such a large proportion of the 
consignment that the use of the alleged flour 
would constitute a very dangerous menace to 
the health if not the lives of those who partook 
of it. If a strong paternal government is good 
for anything it ought to be able to hang all who 
may be detected in such infernal villainy. 

Another Consignment from Mr. Koebele. 
By the Australian steamer, which arrived on 
Saturday, Mr. Lelong received a large consign- 
ment of predaoeouB insects, sent from New 
Zaaland by Albert Koebele, who is now search- 
ing for benefloial insects in foreign countries, 
as our readers already know. The present con- 
signment included about 20 different species of 
insectivorous beetles, mostly of the ladybird 
families, which he found eating various soales 
and woolly aphis. The insects have been for- 
warded to Mr. Coquillett at Los Angeles for 
culture and colonization. Mr. Koebele believes 
his captures will be found to be as effective in 
their several ways as has the Yedalla oardinalis. 

Electricity in Brewing. — It is considered 
by a writer in the Brewers' Journal that the 
application of the electric light wonid tend to 
increase the amount of yea«t formed during 
the concluding processes of fermentation in the 

Farmers' Institute at Fowler. 

The managers of the Fresno County Farmers' 
Institute, to be held at Fowler, Jan. 7, 1892, 
have prepared a program, which appears below. 
The Selma Irrigator says: The whole time of 
the session Is to be given to the subject of 
raisin culture, inclading the important topic of 
marketing the crop. It seems necessary to 
urge the neoessity of some effort to effect a 
change in the present existing state of affairs if 
the past far-famed prosperity of Fresno Co. is 
to continue. Not only the fruit-growers, liut 
business men of all classes, are financially in- 
terested, and it is expected that a large audi- 
ence will be present. 

The committee have secured the services of 
N. W. Motheral of Tulare, whose experience 
of late has fitted him to deliver an address 
that shall point out the way in which farmers 
may cooperate to their own advantage. Full 
time is allowed for discussion, aod::no vine- 
grower in the county should willfully absent 
himself from that meeting, 


Called to order oy Pres'dent Liiid 

Musk: Pianist 

Invocation Rev. M. Giffen 

Song Fowler Choir 

Address of welcome Mr. GiSen 

Response to address of welcome Mrs. Lizzie Fowler 

Reading nf minutes S cielary 

Paper on best varieties and cultivation of raisin 

Kfapes J. H. LaRue 

Paper on vine pruning j. H. Harding 


Music Fowler Choir 

Roll-call, responded to by quotations Inetitute 

Paper on curing and packing of raisins, Mrs. A, D. Bar- 


Music Fowler Choir 

Address on marketing fruit N. W. Motheral 


Music Fowler Choir 

Reports of committees 

Paper on "Duties and Responsibilities of Meriibers," 
Mrs. M. B Stewart. 


Recitation Miss NeiliV Boyd 



List of D. S. Patents for Pacific Coast 

Beported by Dewey & Co., Pioneer Patent 
Solicitors for Pacific Coast. 


465.690.— Vehicle Shafts— J. R. Brought, Mo- 
jave, Cal. 

465,755-— Weather Strip-S. R. Deacon, Elec- 
tric, Cal. 

465,464 — Fire Escape— E. W. Dixon, Forest 
Grove, Or. 

465.615.— Refrigerator Car— E. T. Earl, Los 
Angeles, Cal. 

465.530. —Hook— R. L. Kirby, Pomeroy, Wash. 

465,624.— Hydrocarbon Burner— J. R. Morse, 
Los Angeles, Cil. 

465.490. — Musical Instrument— A. Olson, 
Mishawaka, Or. 

465.491. — Traction Wagon Steering Ap- 
paratus— J. B. Osborne, Daggett, Cal. 

465,566.— Extension Joint for Urinals— Jas. 
Shepard, S. F. 

465,769. — Steam Engine— C. W. Tremain. 
Portland, Or. 

465,570.— Speeding and Reversing Gear— 
F. E. Iremper, S. F. 

465,738.— Excavator— J. H. L. Tuck, S. F. 

465,741. — Hair-Working Machine— G. A 
Williams, San Diego, Cal. 

The following brief list by telegraph, for Dec. 29, 
will appear more complete on receipt of mail advices: 

Cali'ornia— Hans C. Behr, San Francisco, instrument 
for measuring units of work done by a machine; Frank 
C. CoUvile, Oakland, electric annunciator: William A. 
Brown, San Francisco, wraoping machine; Henry E.liott, 
Los Angeles, lock; C. I. Hall, Sin Francitco, valve for 
hydraulic elevators; Adam Heberer, Alameda, stea?) 
boiler; James L. Henderson, Alameda, motive engine; 
Charles B. and T. D.Hunt, Winters, truck; Alden B. 
Kelbara, Oakland, and C. Young, Sacramento, metallic 
packing; John C. Look, San Jose, car coupling; George 
E. Woodbury, San Francisco, ore concentrating machine. 

Arizona— Wm. H. Ayres and H. Schroeder, Whipple 
Barracks, bow and stringed instrnments 

Oiegon — Jonathan W. Hunt, Kirby, memorilal burial 
tablet and indicator. 

Washington— Caleb D. Page, Tacoma, dumping trap. 

NoiB.— Copies of U. S. and Foreign patents furnished 
by Dewey & Co., In the shortest time possible (by mail 
for telegraphic order). American and Foreign patents 
obtained, and general patent business for PaoiSo Coast 
Inventors transacted with perfect security, at reasonable 
rates, and In the shortest possible time. 

Klamath Lands not Open. — An important 
declsiun was banded down in the Interior De- 
partment, Monday, being the case of Phineas 
D, Holcomb, involving an application to make 
homestead entry within the Klamath £,iver 
Indian Ksservation. Secretary of the Interior 
Noble in his opinion says: " It is clear that it 
was not the intention of Congress to restore 
these lands to the mass of public domain to be 
disposed of under the direotlon of the publio 
land laws. By the order of the Secretary of 
the Interior of February 25, 1889, the Oom- 
missioner was directed to refuse all entries or 
filings attempted to be made within the bound- 
aries of the reservation above named, and by 
an executive order of Oatober, 1891, the tract 
was included in the Hoopa Valley Rsservation, 

The Lusk Failure — A meeting of the cred- 
itors of A. Lusk & Co, was held Monday. A 
statement was read showine that the company's 
liabilities amounted to $695,000. The assets 
are at present unavailable, with the exception 
of $75,000, which can be raised at once. The 
sentiment of the creditors was In favor of al- 
lowing the company to resume business, as it 
was thought that if time were given, a portion 
of the firm's indebtedness would be lifted. 

f AClFie F^URAId press. [Jan 2 1892 

The Opening Year. 

Your hand. New Year since we must comrades be 
Through the strange circles of the seasons four I 
P.odding in lonely paths 'raid drifting snow 
When days are dark, and whirling tempests roar 
Will your strong guiding arm be 'round me pressed? 
And when the ice-bars melt, and warm blue streams 
Laugh in the sun, and leap toward the sea, 
Will you, then, share my happy spring-time 
dreams — 

Tke waking songs that birds and poets know ? 
And when red roses burn on bended sprays, 
And lovers roam through shadowy woodland ways, 
Will you keep kindly pice? and list when brown 
I,ie the sweet fields, and faded leaves come down, 
And we are tired, both, and fain to rest- 
Will you be friends with me, still true and near? 
Then take ray hand and heart, dear comrade year. 
—Madeline S. Briixjes, in The Ladies' Home 

Love's Pain. 

[Written for the Ri'ral Prkss by 0. P. N.] 

A very hard and painful thing is this 
That hearts ask sympathy from none but they 
Who sweetly yield us love they would not stay; 

Who love us tenderly with such a bliss 

As we drink deep through word and look and kiss; 
And yet that those we know in this sweet way, 
Love shrinks from paining with our wan— array I 

That love from self should sympathy dismiss ! 

Vet we our every ill with love must share. 
Else love is grieved. In seeking not her own 
She tramples peace when bought at other's loss. 

Strange reasoning of love, that she would bear 
Her own life's constant round of trials alone, 
Yet grieve! be if love share not his cross I 

The Shape of Her Dress. 

(Written for the Rural Prkss by Mrs. C. P. Stktsok.] 
Doea this title strike the woman reader or the 
mtn reader, If there be any, as aometblng 
strange ? 

Probably not, and yet if it were " the Shape 
of her Skin," there Is a perceptible absurdity. 
What shape could her skin be, but the shape of 
b^r body, which it is made to oover. The skin 
by itself is nothing; it is only a covering, and its 
beaaty and valae depend on its perfect fulfil- 
meet of use. 

To consider the skin by itself as having an 
individual existence and shape of its own is 

And the dree* ? 

Ah I that is different, A drnss is a thing in 
itself, having a most decided individual exist- 
ence, and a shape more larprisine than any 
natdral form. It quite surpasses Niture, for 
ber shapes are all the result of special use, and 
the shape of a dress is not only without use, 
bat against use, not only having no relation to 
the form it is meant to oover, but contradicting 
and injuring it. 

The dress which I last heard of aa having a 
" shape," was a piece of exquisite organdie 
maslin, soft, tine and sheer, with a large but 
delicate pattern, in gentle colors, a most beaati- 
fnl fabric. 

I turned to plead with the happy possessor 
that she have it so mide as to do justice to its 
beauty, that the pattern might show freely in 
broad, soft, changing folds, with the lovely, 
rippling flow a figured fabric has over limbs In 

Oh, yes 1 she was going to h»ve it made with 
a plain, full skirt — over this, and she showed 
me a heavy sateen which was to line It. 

As well put feathers over a coat of mail — but- 
terfly wings on a turtle I How could that 
dream muslin show for anything over a heavy, 
close-fitting garment of sateen. 

I ventured to remark on this, but she re 
baked me. She must have the sateen nnder- 
neath, or the dress would have no "shape!" 

" But you are the shape,*' said I, "it will 
have yctir shape, and has no business to have 
knv other." 

Ko, she did not agree. Her own shape she 
did not wish to show, and the dress mast have 
some shspe of its own to cover hers. 

It was a little instance and common enough, 
almost nnivereal, but what vistas of ignorance 
and poverty it opens up t Ignorance of all 
laws of truth and harmony, nae and relation, 
poverty of that nnoonsoious daily beauty, which 
is onr natural right, and we do not even know 

We are content to live in fat or meager, an- 
wholesome, ill-made bodies, which are a harden 
and a mask to the spirit. Instead of the perfect 
vehicle of thought and feeling they should be. 

We are content to cover those poor bodies, 
thankfully hiding their known deficiencies and 
supposed unoleanness, with garments which 
oruelly injure our physical use and happiness, 
and give the lie to every motion of the sonl. 

We are content to live in these poor bodies 
and poor dresses, in houses as bad as either; 
houses brainless and beautyless, neither of per- 

fect nse as habitations nor of any satisfying 
loveliness as the outermost shell of the hnman 

We are content, partly because we know no 
better, and partly because we have not yet 
learned the relation between circumstance and 
conduct. We do not know that beauty and 
goodness and truth are one. 

We think it makes no difference what shape 
our dress is, our body, or our house — only the 
sonl. But the soul lives in these things, and 
should manifest itself freely through all three. 

Dabarred this, ignored, opposed, outraged, 
the soul shrinks back, and is daily and hourly 
crushed and bnrt by its ignominious coverings. 
It is so plain to see 1 If our bodies were those 
perfect and ready servants that they should 
be, oar Impulses toward doing right would not 
ba so checked and hampered as they are now. 

The soul suffers constantly from the inability 
of the body to perform its bjhests. Once 
given a body beautiful from full and perfect 
use, and we should find it far easier to grow 
nobly upward than we do now; and if the body 
were so perfect, how we should revolt from 
these imperfect clothes ! 

To have the swift and graceful movement of 
free limbs tied down by close-bonnd skirts, the 
full breaths of mighty lungs held in by Immov- 
able waists and bands, all the marvelous chang- 
ing expression of that image of God given the lie 
by the shape of a dress forsooth 1 We would 
not bear it. 

Once the human body fully won and worn, 
and with such garments as betit our princedom, 
then oar houses would become fair and perfect 
also, be they large or small. 

Vou can not wear lies on your outside and 
not feel it in year soul. Fancy an angel in a 
fashionable dress! It is the bitterest mockery 
to put this live immortal creature, crown and 
fruit of the ages, into the tangled upholstery of 
modern dress. 

The eyes of love should shame us when that 
Immortal passion stirs a heart that can not beat 
for the stays that crunh it. 

Our baby's hands should shame us when 
their clinging fingers wander amszsdly among 
the senseless curves and folds and trimmings 
that he mast not disarrange nor soil. 

Think of a hen saying to her chickens, 
"Go away, you'll muss my feathers." 

Every hampered step and clumsy movement 
that we make should shame us. To think of 
this divine body, God made and made like God, 
being unable to perform its simplest movements 
well because of the swaddling clothes we wear; 
unable to express its high, free spirit because 
of the false. Ignoble "shape" of these things we 
hide in. 

This question of human clothes is more than 
economic, more than hygienic, more than artis- 
tic, more even than specifically "moral;" it Is a 
question which closely concerns the soul-life 
and soul-growth of the world — a thing of 
miehty import to us all. 

Cin we not try to study it, we women? lock- 
ing at the snbjact with new eyes, from a new 
standpoint, as a matter not of stooping, but of 
noblest duty. 

The fashioning of a body to clothe and serve 
the human soul was a great task; and the 
fashioning of garments to clothe the body and 
express both body and soul is a great t»sk also. 

We need noble artists to teach us bow to 
rightly dreaa, and we need all of us to patiently 
and reverently study the subject, that we may 
be clothed as becomes oar rank — the Im- 

Lks.s Wink Dkinking at Dinners. — It is an 
undoubted fact that the serving of many and 
heavy wines at large dinners. Is gradually be- 
coming a thing of the past, writes George W. 
Cbilde in the January Ladies' Home Journal. 
Of course, I do not mean that wines are no 
longer served, for they are, and will continue 
to be, eo long as civilized men consider them a 
feature of dinners. Bat I do mean that of the 
varieties of wine, there are fewer, of the quan- 
tities, less, and of the qualities, lighter, than 
was the custom ten years ago. Were I pre- 
paring for a large dinner for men — which is al- 
ways, from the nature of things, more heavily 
wined than an ordinary " mixed " dinner — I 
should not think it in the least degree neces- 
sary to order anything like the same amount or 
assortment of wines that would have been im. 
perative a few years ago. And in contmation 
of the statement that the qualities of the wines 
served are becoming light 3r, the simple fact 
that at the average English dinner table, port 
wine has been almost entirely superseded by 
claret, may be cited. It is also becoming a 
very ordinary thing at English dinners to meet 
prominent men who do not drink wines of any 
kind, and in our country this Is aleo becoming 
more and more a fact. Of course, a dinner 
must have fluids; the best of solids require 
soma llauids with which to relish them, and a 
dinner would be bat wasted energy and mate- 
rial without them. Bat I think it is no longer 
imperative to serve wines, or, at least, we can 
serve with them some other beverage which 
will be of equal pleasure to the constantly in- 
creasing set of people who find that wining and 
dining together is rather too heavy a combina- 
tion for their comfort. 

The lovers are wandering amid the flowers. 
She has just plucked off the petals of arose. 
"You see," ha remarked, " even the flowers 
tell I love you." "Now I am going to ask one 
if ycu will be faithful to me." "Do; do you 
know I'd like to see how that turns out my- 

Rural Bathrooms and Bathtubs. 

(Written for the Rural Press by Mrs. J. Hilton.] 
You have all heard of the party who was 
insulted when told by their hostess whom they 
had just come to see: "there," pointing to a 
door, "is the bathroom." She supposed that 
a bath would be the first thing they would 
want after a long, dusty ride, but they took it 
as a reflection upon their cleanliness. I have 
met a good many people that I should be slow 
to mention the bathroom to, mainly because 
they had had such poor facilities for bathing 
more than the face and hands during their life 
time, that it would be almost a penance for 
them to bathe all over more than once a month 
or so. 

It has always seemed strange to me that 
farmers almost Invariably leave out the bath 
room wheh building a boose, the very ones 
who need a good bath every day, for plowing, 
pitching hay, grain and straw, is all very dusty 
work. And the farmers wives who toil at 
sweeping, cooking, hoeing in the garden and 
such work, Instead of being able to go into a 
private room and have a good wash, must 
needs go withoat, or else lug into their bed- 
rooms a horrid round tub that it is impossible 
to get more than a third of the body Into at 
once, or else take a sponge bath with the risk 
of spattering their nice clean floor. Some say 
it is such a trouble to heat water to carry into 
a bath tub even if I had it. Well, it would be, 
if you had to heat and carry in three or four 
pails full of hot water. But let me tell you 
how a friend managed. She had said to her 
men folks everytime they built a house or 
added an addition, ''be sure and allow for a 
bathroom, it does not have to be more than 
six by eight but a larger one would be nicer." 
Do you think she ever got one ? No, not she, 
not that way; they would put on a lot of fancy 
fixings on the front poarch, but a six by eight 
bathroom, oh I no, that would cost too much, 

A Homemade Bathroom. 

She possessed her soul with patience and 
when everything was propitious she got her 
bathroom; and don'c she enj jy It, 

Her back porch was the whole length of the 
house and about ten feet wide; on that porch 
was a movable cupboard four by six, that was 
not used except for a few things that could be 
stored elsewhere. One day the oldest boy bad a 
vacation and when asked by bis mother if he 
would help her to make a bathroom, he laugh- 
ingly assented, provided she would find the 
material. She explained her plan; by taking 
off one side and end of the cupboard and put- 
ting the end that had the {door in that it 
would make one side 10 feet long, the six foot 
side would do for one end and the wall of the 
house would make the needed other side and a 
couple of boarda would finish out the end still 
left on the cupboard, thus making a room six 
by ten, and seven feet high. What was to be 
done with the top, as the boarda that had been 
on the top were now too short and it would 
not be nice to leave it all open. They found 
two long strips of board and some old matting 
and covered it over as neatly as possible, and 
then the tub was the next affair to get. An 
old horse trough that leaked too badly to use 
but that happened to ba about the length and 
width of a bathtub, was brought up to the 
house.all rough places taken off and the seams 
corked up with strips of cloth. A thick coat 
of linseed oil and yellow ochre which is only 
six cts. per pound, was put thickly over the 
bottom and wherever the cracks were, inside 
and out, and left to dry for two weeks. As 
there was a plug hole in the end of the tub, a 
corresponding one was bored in the wall. 
The tub was set up on two oil can cases, and a 
tin spout, made from a piece of an oil can, 
was pushed through the wall and fastened to 
the end of the tub. Hooks were fastened 
inside the room in convenient places for the 
clothing. A pin cushion fastened to the wall, 
a sardine box with a cake of soap within it 
was fastened on the wall just in handy reach of 
the bather when in the tub, and a towel and 
wash rag hung on one of the hooks, and there 
she was, all rigged oat. 

How to Bathe Wltb a Pallfull of 

One hot day after everything was ready for 
use and being in perspiration from hoeing In 
the garden, she decided that a good hot bath 
jast then would be very much like a turkish 
oath. Feeling too tired to make up more fire 
and heat water to fill the tub, and seeing that 
she had a kettle full of water too hot to bear 
her hands in, she decided that she would do 
like the Japanese lady did that she had been 
reading about a short time before, only instead 
of sitting on the floor she would sit in the bath- 
tub and the water could run out onto the 
ground outside. So she filled an old pail with 
the hot water, set it within the tub, fastened 
the door, disrobed and sat down in the tub, 
first putting a woolen cloth in the tub where 
she intended to sit, with the pail between her 
feet, then took her bath. I hold that it Is 
muoh more cleanly to wash that way than to 
immerse the whole body in the water at once, 
for with the wet cloth well soaped and rubbed 
over the face, chest and arms, then compara- 
tively clean water is always in the pail or can, 
to wash off the soap and dust from the whole 
body, and It can be used very mach hotter than 
when the whole body is immersed. That kind 
of a bath never weakens like a full immersion 
In hot water, and the main saving is in time, 

15 or 20 minutes being long enough for dis- 
robing, bathing and dressing. 

Anyone who has a room suitable bat no tub, 
a four foot box wide enough to sit in and nse 
the arms freely and so that the water splashed 
will fall within the box, will be just as good 
for that kind of bath as a longer one. I have 
seen boot boxes that would do finely If they 
were oalked up and painted as directed above, 
and they are so much more satisfactory than a 
round tub that I know that it would pay for 
the trouble of fixing them. Even if you must 
use your bedrooms for a bathroom fix the box 
and nail leather handles on the ends and it will 
be as easy to carry as a tub and you will en- 
joy it much better. 

Los Alamos, Gal. 

John Wanamaker's Wife. 

The wife of the Postmaster General is her 
own housekeeper, and when it is remembered 
that her duties Include the management of 
four homes, some appreciation of the system- 
atization which accompllshfs snob manage- 
ment may be experienced, writes Alice Gra- 
ham McCoUIn in an interesting sketch of Mrs. 
John Wanamaker in the January Ladits' Home 
Journal. One of these homes is in Philadel- 
phia, where the family spend the early winter, 
the months of November and December. The 
rest of the winter season is given to Washing- 
ton, where they have a second beautiful home. 
The summer Is divided between "Linden- 
hurst," a magnificent house and estate about 
fifteen miles from Philadelphi,a and "Lilen- 
myn Cottage," a smaller country house at 
Cape May Point, which gets its rather peculiar 
bat entirely original name, from the dimina- 
tlves of the daughters of the house — Lillle and 
Minnie. The house in Washington contains a 
fine art gallery, which mast be taken as an 
evidence of its mistress' devotion to fine paint- 
ings and statuary. For dramatic representa- 
tions Mrs. Wanamaker cares little, but music, 
in the form of either concert or opera, finds 
her always a delighted and attentive listener. 
She is a most enthusiastic Wagnerite, explain- 
ing her love for this school of masic by her in- 
heritance of German blood from ber mother. 

In appearance she is most pleasing. Her face, 
though not strictly beautiful. Is a most charm, 
Ing and delightful one, and her expression 
while usually grave and preoccupied, is con- 
stantly broken by smiles, which brighten her 
gray eyes and display a charming mouth of 
l>eautiful teeth. She is of medium height, 
and weighs perhaps one hundred and forty 
pounds. Her figure is plump and pretty, and 
her gowns, which are usually gray, black or 
dark purple In color, always fit it perfectly. 
Her hair is brown, and by its utter abiencs of 
gray tries still further with her appearance to 
conceal the fact of ber grandmotherhood. She 
wears it twisted high on her head and in a 
light curly wave over her brow. 

She is most generous and kind to her friends 
of whom she has a great number, and is fond 
of taking them with her on trips and journeys 
of great and small length, always entirely at 
her own expense. They are never given an 
opportunity to spend any money on these oc- 
casions, but also, they are never allowed to see 
or feel the cost of their entertainment. It is 
perhaps eharacteristlo of her, that her gener- 
osities, like her duties are, accomplished quiet- 
ly, unoatentationsly, far from the sight of men, 
but that they are all performed, both duties 
and charities, ber happy busy life, and the 
number of people who call her blessed, are 

" Ethel," said Lionel Bertram Joner, aa he 
dropped his slice of bread In the plate with a 
nolle that set the canary in the gilt cage over- 
head chirping merrily. "Ethel, I have something 
to say to" you." They had been married four 
weeks, and the time had not arrived when she 
did all the saying, " Da you remember the 
day on which I proposed to yon?" "Yes,"' 
she replied, I will never forget it." "Do yon 
remember," be went on, as he abstractedly 
drilled a bole in the loaf with the point of a 
carving knife, "how, when I rang the bell, yon 
came to the door with your fingers sticky with 
dongh, and said yon thought it was your little 
brother who wanted to get in ?" "Yes." " Oh, 
Etheli! How could you? How oould you?" 
"How could I what," she responded, as a 
guilty look crept Into her face. " Bow oould 
yon make me the victim of such a bluff ?" 

Women Professors. — A two boars' discus- 
sion took place November 20th, before the 
Academic Senate of the University of Zurich, 
on the admission of women as professors. The 
committee of the Senate, constituting a major- 
ity of the same, then moved "That it is at 
present inopportune to permit women to enter 
the oorps of teachers at the University," The 
opposition made the counter motion, "That 
there is no reason why women should not be 
suffered to form a part of the University 
Corps," The ensuing discussion resulted in a 
vote of nineteen to ten in favor of the first mo- 
tion. The rector of the University was in 
favor of the second motion, but, as presidlng- 
oflScer, could not vote. Farther, one professor 
sent his written vote in favor, which was not ao 
ceptod. So large an afiBrmative vote shows a 
remarkable advance. 

" What does Good Friday mean ?" asked one 
schoolboy of another. " Yon bad better go 
home and read your Robinson Crusoe," was the 
withering reply. 

Jan 2, 1892 J 



Grand Words to a Noble Friend. 

Among the letters received by the poet 
Wbittler on the recent occaeion of his eighty- 
foarth birthday, was the following from Oliver 
Wendell Holmes, the poet's old friend and con- 

My Dear Whittier:—! oongratalate yon on 
having climbed another glacier and crossed an- 
other crevasse in your ascent of the white sum- 
mit which already begins to see the morning 
twilight of the coming century. A life so well 
filled as yours has been cannot be too long for 
fellow-men and women. In their afifections 
you are secure, whether yon are with them 
here or near them in some higher life than 
theirs, I hope your years have not become a 
burden, so that you are tired of living. At our 
age we must live chiefly in the past — happy is 
he who has a past like yours to look back upon. 

It is one of the felicitous incidents — I will 
not say accidents — of my life that the lapse of 
time has brought us very near together, so that 
I frequently find myself honored by seeing my 
name mentioned in connection with your own. 
We are lonely, very lonely, in these last years. 
The image which I have used before this in 
writing to you recurs once more to my thought. 
We are on deck together, as we began the voy- 
age of life two generations ago, A whole gen- 
eration passed, and the succeeding one found 
us in the cabin with a goodly company of 
ooevals. Then the oraft which held ua began 
going to pieces, nntil a few of us were left on 
the raft pieced together of its fragments; and 
now the raft has at last parted, and you and I 
are left clinglog to the solitary spar, which Is 
all that still remains afloat of the sunken vessel. 

I have just been looking over the headstones 
in Mr. Gris wold's cemetery, entitled "The 
Poets and Poetry of America." In that ven- 
erable receptacle, just oompleting its half- 
century of existence — for the date of the edi- 
tion before me is 1842 — I find the names of 
John Greeoleaf Whittier and Oliver Wendell 
Holmes next each other, in their due order, as 
they should be. All around are the names of 
the dead — too often of forgotten dead. Three 
which I see there are still among those of the 
living — Mr, John Ojborne Sirgent, who makes 
Horace his own by faithful study, and ours by 
scholarly translation; Isaac MoLellan, who was 
writing in 1830, and whose last work is dated 
1886, and Christoph'-r P. Cranoh, whose poeti- 
cal gift has too rarely found expression. Of 
these many dead, you are the most venerated, 
revered and beloved survivor; of these, few 
liTing the most honored representative. Long 
may it be before you leave a world where your 
influence has been so beneficent, where your 
example has been such Inspiration, where you 
are so truly loved, and where your presence is 
a perpetual benediction. Always affectionately 
yours, Oliver Wendfll Holmks. 


*' What are you reading, my dear?" "A 
letter from mother, pa." What does she say ?" 
" Oh, nothing." " H'm I Are you sure it's from 
your mother, my dear," 

'* Yes, she's pretty and amiable and all that, 
but she's awfully lazy; her mother can't get her 
to do anything," "Dear me, and she's one 
of the leaders of the Society of the Helping 

Wife — Your overcoat is all over mud. Hus- 
band — It fell last night when I was ooming 
home. Why didn't you keep a firmer hold of 
it ? Because I had it on at the time. 

Carlo Dealer — Here's a skeleton of George 
Washington's pat cat. Collector — I don't want 
one so large. What's this small one ? Curio 
Dealer — 'That's the skeleton of the same cat 
when it was a kitten. 

She — Would you believe it? That vicious 
little Mrs. Weston has taught her baby to call 
its father "Grandpa," He — What did she do 
that for ? She— So that Weston shall not for- 
get that he is old enough to be her father. 

Mother — I'm afraid that husband of yours 
neglects you dreadfully, my dear. He's always 
at hia club when I oall. Daughter — Yes, 
mamma, but he's at home all other times, I 
assuie you. Strange to say, the old lady didn't 
think any the bette: of him even then. 

Servant Girl (to census taker) — Mind yon 
put down in your book that I am the 11th girl 
missus hiB had since the beginning of the year. 
Census OoUeotor — That's no business of mine 1 
Servant Girl— Very likely; but I want every- 
body to know what sort of a hole this is to 
live in. 

An old bachelor says that giving the ballot 
to women would not amount to anything prac- 
tically, because they would keep denying they 
were old enough to vote until they got to be 
too old to take any interest in politics. 

Two Polish peasants happen to meet, " Tell 
me, did you know that Naida's cow was dead?" 
"Good heavens I But yon are not goine to 
tell him the news as blunt as that?" "No, I 
shall prepare him. First I am going to tell 
him that his mother has died; then I can break 
the news about the cow." 

Caught. — " Any letters this morning, 
Mary?" "Nothing but a postcard, ma'am," 
"Whom is it from, Mary?" "And did yon 
think I'd be reading It, ma'am," said the girl, 
with an injured air. "Perhaps not, but any 
one who sends me a moesage on a post-card is 
stupid andMmpertinent, that's all ?" " You'll 
excuse me, ma'am," eaid the servant, loftily, 
but that's a nice pnrty way to be talkin' about 
your own mother I" 


How Snap Helped His Mistress Out 
of Trouble. 

[Written for the Rural Press by Caroline K. Sakdbrs,] 

Terese Totham was the name of a little girl 
whose playmates always called Twinkle Totty, 
perhaps because her brown eyes twinkled with 
merriment, and she was altogether such a 
happy, joyons child that she seemed twinkling 
all over with fun and glee. But there came 
one sad day when hsr bright eyes were full of 
tears, and instead of sparkling with happineae, 
she appeared quiet and melancholy, and the 
worst part was, that it was only the day before 
Christmas, For weeks before, she bad been al- 
most dancing with delight in anticipation of the 
pleasure in store for her, not only the nice 
presents she would surely receive and the 
happy time she always had at home, but then, 
too, her mamma had said she might invite her 
Sunday-Bchocl class to take dinner with her, 
a half-dozen little girls with whom she was 
quite intimate, 

" And now to think it is all spoilt, Snap," 
said she to her dog as he came and stood beside 
her near the fire. Snap, whose right name was 
Sardanapnlns, given to him by her papa, be- 
cause he would always cry unless he had a soft 
bed, wagged his tail in a quiet, sympathetic 
sort of a way, and looked up in her face as 
much as to say, "I understand all about it." 

"I do believe Snappy," she oonti ned "that 
mamma thinks yon are to blame though she 
would not hurt my feelings by saying so." At 
these words. Snap stopped wagging his tail and 
gave a little whine as though his feelings too 
were wounded by anch an insinuation, " but 
we canfgueas who is at the bottom of it though 
Poll sits there in her cage blinking her eyes and 
pretending not to see anything, just aa she al- 
ways does before she flies do^n on your back. 
But suppose you go hunt for It," she added, 
as she opened the hall door. 

Off started the dog, barking furiously and 
smelling around under all the trees and shrubs, 
but after making the circle of the garden, be 
returned empty-handed, as it were. 

The trouble was this : That morning at the 
breakfast table, Mrs. Totham announced that 
her purse had mysterionily disappeared. She 
had lolt it lying on her bureau, intending to 
start out immediately after breakfast to do her 
Christmas shopping. " It contained all the 
money I had reserved for that purpose," said 
she, '* so if it la not found, I can buy no pras- 
ents or have any guests here that day," Poor 
little Terese felt her heart sink, for she knew 
it must be as her mamma had said, for her papa 
bad only his salary to support them and would 
not go beyond it. They did not for a moment 
suspect their faithful Mina, their only servant, 
who had lived with them since before Teresa's 
birth, and the hall door was kept locked so 
that no one from the outside could have taken 
it. Knowing Snap's mischievous propensttiea 
when a puppy, and that he had no*^ as fully 
overcome them aa his little mistress thought he 
had, Mrs. Totham had, before she msntioned 
her lots, searched every nook and corner where 
he would have probably hidden it, but it was 
nowhere to be found, and, as she had said, 
" it really seemed a most unaccountable thing," 
So the day passed on and a shadow of gloom 
appeared to have gathered around the usually 
cheerful little household, 

"Mamma," said Terese, softly, as she came 
and stood beside her the latter part of the day, 
" Mamma, I never thought before how sad it 
was for children who have to spend Christmas 
just like any other day, and I want to ask you 
if I may take some of my books and toys to our 
washerwoman's little girls, for I heard her tell 
Mina the other day that there would be no 
Christmas at their home." 

"Yes, dear," replied her mamma, "and I 
hope this will be a lesson you will never for- 
get: To always remember the poor, and mist 
especially upon tne birthday of our dear Saviour, 
who said when here upon earth: 'The poor 
ye have always with you,' And now yen see, 
daughter, how some good can come from every 
seeming misfortune if but met In the right 

"Yes, mamma; for if everything had gone on 
as uaual, I do not believe I should have thought 
of poor i)lnah's children," 

When Terese returned from her errand of 
mercy, she had forgotten all her own disap- 
pointment in the enjoyment of giving so much 
happiness to others. A snowstorm bad come 
up and the wind blew so bard that her um- 
brella could not keep it from flying in her face 
and all over her; but she was well wrapped up, 
and the sharp, frosty air made both her and 
Soap feel bright and merry, so aa she oame up 
the garden walk, her mother, who had been 
standing at the window watching for them, 
said to herself with a smile: "My little 
Twinkle is happy again," 

"What does Snap see in the tree, dear? 
What is he barking at ? " she asked, aa she 
threw open the window, 

"I cannot see anything, mamma," she re- 
plied, then " Oh yes, yes, yes; Oh come quick, 
mamma, do just only look I Isn't that too 
good 1 " and with many more such wild ex- 
clamations, she danced around the tree with 
Snap barking at her heels in a great state of 
excitement, so that it was several minutes be- 
fore Mri. Totham oonld understand what it 

was all about. There, behold, from the end of 
a branch which reached nearly to her room 
window hung her lost purse t 

Of course, the robbery was soon traced to 
Miss Polly, the parrot, who it was remembered 
was out of her cage when the window was 
opened to air the room. No one evinced quite 
ao much joy as Snap, no doubt because he was 
so glad to clear himself from all suspicion, 
while Polly sat on her perch looking very glum 
and downcast at being detected in her mis- 

Affection of the Horse. 

[Written for the Rdral Press by Freddie Qundrum.J 
I would like the readers of the Rural Press 
to know how affectionate colts and horses may 
sometimes be, and not only the great affection, 
but also the great intelligence they exhibit. 

I heard a gentleman tell my father the follow- 
ing story: He had a mare and a two-year-old 
colt, not her own, which bad been companions 
all spring and summer in a lot which contained 
a barn. 

About the middle of October, the mare was 
wounded and blood-poisoning set in and she be- 
came very eick. She was in the barn and the 
colt etayed close by. The colt was fed hay and 
grain, and what time it could spare from eat- 
ing, it remained close by its elder companion. 
After the sick animal had become very bad, 
and not having lain down for five days, she 
laid down, but could not rise again. 

Several men helped her upon her feet, and 
she started out in the large lot. After going 
some thirty rods, she stumbled and fell to rise 
no more. 

After lying there for some time, she gave a 
very loud and shrill neigh, and the owner, who 
stood by the eick animal, saw Immediately the 
colt rush out of the barn and come to its com- 
panion as fast as its legs could carry it. It 
oame close and put its nose up to the older 
animal's face, and it seemed to quiet her dis- 
tress. The colt stayed around awhile and then 
returned to the barn for food, but soon the 
mare would give that same shrill call, and the 
colt would run to the sufferer. This waa re- 
peated for 36 hours, the aick animal all the 
time growing worse and beyond help. 

Now when the colt would start for food and 
water, the mare would give that signal and the 
oolt immediately returned. 

The colt now began to show still deeper 
affection by licking the mare'a face and not 
leaving her again all day, refusing to either go 
for food or water. 

The owner carried food and water to the oolt 
while it remained by the side of its sick com- 
panion. When it became very tired, it would 
lie down directly in front of the aick animal, 
with its head to hers, keeping up its caresses. 
These caresses seemed to ease the sufferings, 
and when the dying companion seemed to suffer 
the greatest, the oolt was the more vigorous 
with its caresses. This scene continued until 
death relieved her. 

Some people may learn a lesson from this 
show of affection and sympathy manifested by 
dumb animals. 

Eseondido, San Ditgo Co., Gal. 

Heart Disease. 

"Yes," said an eminent physician, "heart 
disease is common; it is, perhaps, much more 
frequent than is generally realized, if yon take 
into consideration all the forms of heart disease. 
The heart, like other organs, is the seat of a 
large number of diseases, and the expression, 
'heart dise' Be' is as indefinate as the term skin dis- 
ease; it may have a score of different meanings. 
I am inclined to believe that heart diseases 
are more common than they formerly were," 
he continued. "This is due to the great ner- 
vous and physical etralns which attend our 
modern modes of living. But it is a great 
wonder that the heart is not more frequently 
the seat of disease than it is when we consider 
its delicate mechanism, its ceaseless labor, and 
I might add, the abuse to which it is subjected. 
The heart is one of the moet exquisitely con- 
stucted maohinea that can be conceived of. 
With its four chambers, its four sets of valves, 
and supplying its own motive power. It toils 
constantly, faithfully, for its three-acore years 
and ten without rest, without repair, respond- 
ing to every demand, however unreasonable, 
until, finally exhausted by labor or degenerated 
by disease, it is no longer capable of carrying 
on its function. It falters, then resumes its 
work, falters again as if to warn its host that 
he must be less exacting ; again resumes and 
again falters, until, sooner or later, the last 
point of enduranoe is reached and it oeases to 

A Tired Heart. 
" Did you ever hear of ' a tired heart '? No 
one ever thinks that the heart may become fa- 
tigued. But it la true, and frequently the fact. 
The heart is just aa liable to suffer from fatigue 
as is any other muscle in the body, I have 
never seen it mentioned in the books, but the 
condition may be recogcized almost as positively 
as any other abnormal state of the organ. A 
positive diagnosis cannot be made at once in 
most oases, because of the resemblance of the 
physical conditions to those present in dilation 
of the heart. But under rest and proper treat- 

ment the heart returns to its normal oonditi 
in a comparatively short time, which is almob 
an Impossibility in the case of a dilated heart. 
Not a few cases of so-called nervona 'prostra- 
tion' are nothing more than fatigue of the 

"Life would be prolonged by a little more 
attention to the heart; by paying a little respect 
to the most faithful servant we ever have. A 
good deal of good might be done, also, if par- 
ents would teach their children the danger of 
overtaxing the heart. They should teach them 
to stop and rest a few momenta during their 
play when they are able to feel the violent 
throbbing of their hearts against the chest- 

Where Quick Eyes and a Clear Head is 
Needed. — When a railroad company, eays the 
Philadelphia Record, handles as many million 
tons of coal annually as the Reading does, the 
question of weighing it becomes a matter of 
some Importance. Skill and long experience 
have solved the problem, however, and the bulk 
of the vast coal tonnage of the leading coal- 
oarrying road In the country is weighed on four 
scales, and then they are not crowded. The 
weight of the empty car is marked in chalk on 
the outside. As the oar approaches, a clerk 
takes the number of the oar and its weight, the 
weigher calls out the gross weight, and the dif- 
ference is the weight of the coal. The cars run 
as faat aa ten milea an hour acrosa the scale, 
and it is very seldom that one has to be stopped 
and brought back for reweighing, although 
that is done when the weigher is at all uncer- 
tain about his figures. The men at the scales 
can generally tell within a hundred pounds or 
so what a car contains. As soon as they see 
the clasa of car coming, they know the number 
of tona it contains, and have the scale so pre- 
pared that only the hundredweights need be 
adjusted while the car is moving over It, Ex- 
pert cfEolals of the company can tell at a glance 
what each class of oars should contain, and if, 
in looking over the weight sheet, any car ap- 
pears either too heavy or too light. It is 
brought back and reweighed. 

Increasing Use of Patent Medicines. — 
Thiity years ago the revenue from patent med- 
icines in Great Britiin was $210,000. It now 
amounts to many miiliona annually. 


Why Lobsters and Crabs Turn Red. 

" What makes lobsters and crabs turn red 
when they are boiled ? " said the observant fish 
man, in reply to a question. " Well, strictly 
speaking, they don't. The lobster or the crab 
is just aa red before it is put in hot water as it 
is afterward, only it is subdued by a mingling 
of blue in its make up that gives it a grayish- 
blue appearance. The blue and red of a live 
Icbster or crab are pigments in the shell. As 
long as they are there together, the red be- 
comes gray. But both of these pigments are 
not fast colors. The blue won't wash, but the 
red is there to stay. If it were possible to 
keep lobsters or crabs alive for any length of 
time in the sun, the blue would fade out as quick* 
ly as the same color does out of a cheap flannel 
suit, and the shells would be a vivid red, as if 
they had been boiled. It is not an uncommon 
thing to catch live lobsters and crabs, more 
frequently the latter, that are entirely red. It 
has been determined, however, that this eradi- 
cation of the blue pigment is the result of dis- 
ease. Live red crabs and lobsters are never 
put on the market. So the reason a crab or a 
lobster turns red, as the saying is, when it is 
boiled, ia because the hot water instantly 
washes the fugitive blue coloring matter out of 
the shell and leaves only the fast red. It doea 
not take long boiling to change the color. If 
you were to rescue a lobster from its hot bath 
two seconds after it is submerged, yon would 
flnd it as red aa if It had been boiled for an 
hour."— iV^. Y. Sun. 

Celery Omelet. — Two eggs, two table- 
spoons milk, two tablespoons chopped celery, 
salt and pepper to taste. Beat the yolks 
till thick, add milk, celery and seasoning. 
Baat the whites stiff, and fold and cut them 
into the yolks. Cook in hot buttered pan till 
brown underneath. Place In the oven till dry 
on (op. Fold over and turn out. 

Baked Fish — After cleaning the fish thor- 
oughly, let it stand In salt water for two or 
three honrr. Rub it well, inside and out, with 
pepper. Make a dressing of breadcrumbs, one 
tablespoonful of butter, a small onion chopped 
fine, peppar and salt to suit the taste. Stuff 
the fish with this dressing, and tie or sew up. 
Put it in the pan, with water enough to cover. 
Sprinkle it over with flour, and put in a small 
piece of butter. Bake slowly one hour. 
Garnish with hard-boiled eggs. 

Egos for Supper, — Take a little nicely fla- 
vored brown gravy, and put it into a shallow 
pledisb which has been well buttered. Place 
it In the oven, and let it remain until it boils, 
then take it ont and break into it as many eggs 
as will lie side by side together. Sprinkle sea- 
soned breadcrumbs cv>^r all, and place the dish 
again in the oven until the eggs are aet. Have 
ready one or two rounds of toast. Take the 
eggs up carefully with a alioe, lay them on the 
toast, pour the gravy over all, and serve hot. 


f ACIFie f?.URAb f RES5. 

[Jan 2. 1892 



Published by DEW EY & CO. 

Ogiee, 220 Market St., N. E. eor. Front St., S.F. 
Talte the Elevator, No. 12 Front St. "8-1 

Our SubscrlDtlon Rates. 

Our Annual Subscbiption Rate is Three Dollars 
ft year. While this notice appears, all Bubacribers paying *3 
In advance will receive 15 months' (one year and weeks) 
credit. For $2 in advance, 10 mnntha For $1 in advance, 
five moothn. Trial subscriptionu for three months, paid in 
advance, each 60 cents. AU agenta and clerks are required 
to adliere to these terms. No new names entered on the list 
without payment In advance. Our premium offerings are 
subject to these terms. 

Advertising Bates. 

1 Week. I Month. 3 Months. 1 Year. 

Per Line (agate) $ .25 « .50 « 1.20 $ 4. CO 

Half Inch II square... 1.00 2.50 6.60 22.00 

One Inch l.SO 6.00 13.00 42.00 

LarK'^ advertisements at favorable rates. Sprclal or read 
log notices, legal a'lvertisemeuts, notices appearinK In 
axtraordlnary type, or in par icular parts of the paper, at 
special rates. Four insertions are rated in a month. 

DEWEY & CO., Patiht Souoitors. 

a. T. DBWlir. W. B. BWBR. 8. H. 8TR0NO. 

Our lal'St forma g o to prras Wftinfeday evming 
Begis'ered at 8. F. Post Office as second-class mail matter. 


Saturday, January 2, 1892. 


BDITORIALS The Pierce Grane, 1. The Week; 

Develop the Wa'; Riverside Growers' Trust; 
New Hvbrid Be;!Onia; Implemeute Burned; A Lumber 
Combiiie; Mill tor Martinez; Will Protect HiB Own 
Brand. 8. 

ILLDSTBATIONS.— Pierce Grape — A Caliloroia 
Vaiietv New H.vbriJ Begonia— Perle Humfeld, 1. 

CORBESPONbfcNCK Napa Vallev ^ote8. 2. 

THE FIELD. -A Living on Eiiiht and One-Half Acres 
of Good Land; Wheat in Washington; Asparagus Cul- 
tur-, 2 

HORTICULTURE.— State Horticultural Society, 2. 
PruniiiB' Moorparka, 3. 

THE APIARY.— Comb Hooey vs. Extracted Honey; 
The World's Honey Producers, 3. 

PBUrr MARKETING.— Distribution by Grow- 
ers, 3. 

Desk; Two Rock Grange; Wooubridge Grange; Kibe- 
sillah Grange; M.ecellaneous, 4 

FARMERS' AL.LIANOK..-0ff)cial Circular from 
State President, F A. &. I. U.; MiseelUneous, 5. 

THE HOME CIRCLE.— Ilie Opening Year; Love's 
Pain; The ."hape of Uer Dress; Rural Bathrooms and 
Bathtubs: John Wanamaker s Wife; Women Professors, 
6. Grand Words to a Noble Friend; Chaff, 7- 

His Mist'CFS Out of Trouble; Affection ol the Horse, 7. 

GJOOD HEALTH.— Uea:t Diseate; Where Quick Eyes 
and a Clear Head is Needed; Increasing Use of Patent 
Medicines, 7. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY — Why Lobsters and Crabs 
Turn Rtd; Sundry Recipes, 7. 

MARKi^T RKPORTS.— Market Review; Market 
Information; Domestic Produce; Fruits and Vege 
tables; Livestock, 16. 

THB IBKIOATIONIST.— Another Irrieatlon Con- 
vention; Irrigation in Placer ( ounty; Reclamation 
In Lasien County; Desert P 'SSibilities; Congressional 
Aid Asked; A Great Sin Diego Enterprise; Notes of 
Irrigation Progress; Irrigating Grain; Steam Power 
Irrii^ation, 9. 


Counties irf California, 10. 
MISCKLLANHIOUS.— Tree and Vine Growths in 
New Mexico, 10 Better Uur.-es for Californ a; Scien- 
UBc: ExaminatiOD of Soils; Eaily Treasures, 11. 

Bnainess Announoements. 

!nbw this issca.) 
Pulverizers — Truman, Hooker & Co. 
Plows— Economist Plow Co., Snutii Bend, Indiana. 
Fruit and Nut Trees— Felix Gillet, Nevada City. 
Seeds and Plants— Storrs & Harrison Co , Plainsville, O. 
Roller Organs— C. H. Hammond. 
Seer's anil Plants— Vaughan's Seed Store, Chicago, III. 
Seeds and Plants— Gause &. Bissell. Richmond, Indiana. 
Weeder--Knapp. Burrell & Co., Portland Or. 
Seeds— W. W. Barnard & Co., Chicago, III. 
Seeds — Barteldes S. Co , Denver, Colora to. 
Seeds and Plants — Reasoncr Bros., Onico, Florida. 
Grafts mad Buds— F. S. Phoenix, Bloomingtoa, M. 
Windmills and Pumps— Wesley Rose, Sacramento. 
Poultry — James Quick, Patterson. 

t^See Advertising Columns. 

The Week. 

Ai we go to press, the heaviest storm of the 
winter is at work on the Pacifio Coast. High 
wiads, accompanied by copious rainfall, cover 
the territory from Central California northward, 
and the indications are for southward exten- 
sion, until the whole State is well moistened. 
The rainfall is still short of the normal figure 
at most California points, but the deficienoy is 
rapidly decreasing. Those who have tiken a 
hopefnl view of the season have so far the langh 
on the pessimists, and propose to keep it, if 
nature will do her duty. Everything is new 
wet enongh for work, and a little warmth will 
pat every one "up to the eyes in olover," as 
the saying is. 

We hope our readers will not forget to send 
something good to the citrus fair, nhlch will 
open in Auburn, January lUb. We have net 
seen a full copy of the premium-list, but we 
understand it will have awards for all good 

horticultural things. We hope next week to 
give the Rural something of a citrus and foot- 
hill flavor to harmonize with the great event at 
Aubnrn. If onr correspondents have some 
thing jaioy of this kind to put into it, send it 
along quick I 

Develop the Waterways. 

We are glad to see that propositions for im 
proving our watercourses and supplementing 
them with navigable canals where necessary 
are attracting more attention than formerly. 
The truth of the claim that water is the natural 
protestion against the extortion of rail-owners 
should ba made the most of, has always been 
acknowledged in a perfunctory manner, but, 
like other truths, it is of little account until 
men begin to aot upon it, Just now the time 
seems to be auspicious for a more thorough dis- 
cussion than has yet been had, also for adopt- 
ing plans of action involving State and Govern 
mental appropriation and assumption of indi 
vidual obligations, which shall result in faoili' 
ties for water traffic wide-reaching and effective. 

We doubt if there is a State with such exten 
slve means of internal navigation which makes 
so Utile use of them as California. It has been 
shown that instead of Improving our water 
courses we have allowed them to be seriously 
injured by mining debris, and that we have in 
fact much worse rivers, for all purposes to 
which rivers may be put, than we had in the 
early days of our history. This is certainly a 
course quite at variance with the procedure of 
other commonwealths In which rivers have 
been guarded from encroachment and improved 
notably. It is certainly time to wake up on 
this subject; to see to it that the rivers are not 
farther injured under any pretext whatever, 
and at the same time arrange for their improve- 
ment and development for internal navigation. 

There should be general and systematic 
action on this subject, including little streams 
and sloughs reaching from onr bays into pro- 
ductive regions, and including also great 
schemes for bringing the most remote interior 
valley points into water communication with 
tide-water wherever there is water to float a 
barge and land rich enough to fill it with pro- 
duce. Of course, all this perhaps cannot be 
done in a generation, but fortunately some very 
great undertakings can be accomplished within 
a reasonable time and with a reasonable ex- 
penditure of funds, Why should the great 
Santa Clara valley and its thriving city of Sao 
Jose be dependent for ontttet of its produce 
npon three lines of rail all owned by one com- 
pany, while a short canal would make it a port 
upon one of the grandest bays in the world ? 

It is fortunate that the great San Joaquin 
valley is awakening to the fact that its vast in- 
dustries and splendid future should not bo cor- 
ralled by one single track railway. Other rail- 
ways are talked of, it is true, and there should 
be others, and yet the possibility of water 
traffio nearly the whole length of the valley is 
within reach at quite a moderate cost. We 
have been interested in reading a good article 
on this Bobjict in the Fresno Central Cali- 
/ornian of D.;C. 26, It speaks at length of the 
productive capacity of the region, to show that 
a waterway composed of rivers, sloughs and 
oanals, oonld be made profitable as a business 
enterprise. It then outlines a plan by whioh 
the work could be accomplished, as follows: 

The canal is a public enterprise, and we believe 
should b'; built and maintained at public expense. 
San Joaquin, Stanislaus, Merced, Fresno, 'Tulare 
and Kero counties should unite in building and 
operating the canal, and thus secure the greatest 
possible benefits to the citizens of these counties. 
A tax should ba levied upon all the taxable prop- 
erties of the six counties to construct and equip the 
canal, and a Board of Directors, consisting of one 
member from each county and one at large, to be 
elected by the people, should manage the traffic. 
Rates can then be fixed so as to derive a revenue 
barely sufficient to meet operating expenses, and 
low freight charges would be permanently guaran- 
teed to the people of this valley. Estimating the 
cost of building the canal at $6500 per mile, and its 
total length from Stockton to Bakersfield at 220 
miles, it would require $1,430,000 to construct it. 
The taxable property in the six counties above 
named is upward of $156,000,000. A direct tax of 92 
cents on the tioo valuation would yield $1,435,000 
in a single year, or enough to build the entire canal; 
but there are other favorable circumstances to be 
considered, the first of which is that the river chan- 
nel can be used with slight improvement from near 
Slocliton to Firebaugh's, a distance of say 75 miles. 
Any expense necessary for the improvement of the 
river ch innel should be covered by Congressional 
appropriation, and in all probability would be. 
Then there would rem<in only 130 miles of canal to 
be ac ually constructed, allowing for 15 miles of 
deep waier in Tulare lake. Twenty-five miles more 
between the lake and the river would only require 
the deepening of the present channel of Fresno 

slough, so that the actual expense of constructing 
the canal would not in all probability amount to 
more than 120 miles at $6500 per mile, or a total of 
$780,000. A direct tax of 50 cents on the $ioo 
valuation in the six counties would yield this 
amount. To make the tax as light as possible, 
however, it might be advisable to collect only one- 
fifth each year for a term of five years. That the 
people of the six counties to be benefited would vol- 
untarily tax themselves for this purpose we believe 
goes without question, hence the Central Califor- 
nian will advocate making the great San Joaquin 
valley canal a public enterprise. 

We do not nndertake to say that this woald 
be the best way to carry oat snch an under- 
taking, that is a matter for consideration. At the 
same time,the figures, whioh we take it for grant- 
ed are reasonably acoarate, show that it would 
not be a dlfiicnlt matter to make the whole San 
Joaquin valley independent of railway dicta- 
tion and extortion, which is now the chief bar- 
rier to its progress. Sach sabjeots as that 
taken np by our Fresno contemporary should 
be inquired into by all pnblio journals and pub- 
lic-spirited individaals. This question of re- 
lief by water for extortionate railway charges 
will yield to diacnselon and to cooperative ac- 
tion, and sach foroe should not be denied it. 

Riverside Growers' Trust. 

We gave, in a previous issue of the Rural, 
an outline of a disoussion among Riverside or- 
ange-growers looking to co-operative frait sell- 
ing. At later meetings the proposition seems 
to have taken definite form, and according to 
last week's Riverside Prus, a nnmber of grow- 
ers have formed a corporation under the laws 
of the State, styled " The Riverside Orange 
Trnst," each stockholder being allowed but one 
share for each acre of bearing orange orchard 
of whioh he is owner. The shares are placed 
at the nominal value of |10. Eicb shareholder 
signs a contract of sale of his entire crop to this 
corporation, whioh proceeds to market them to 
the best advantage. At the end of the season, 
the prioe realized for each different variety is 
averaged and each stockholder receives the 
same price for the same grade and quality of 
fruit. At the time the fruit Is delivered, the 
corporation, having arranged a bank credit, 
will pay each stockholder for hia fruit, as fol- 
lows : 

For Seedlings, |1; Navels and Bloods, $2; 
Mediterranean Sweets and Paper rind St. 
Michaels, $1.50; half-cash, balance when col- 

This corporation has entered into a oontraot 
for three years with the Grifiin & Skelley Com- 
pany, to pack and sell their oranges, this firm 
having agreed not to buy or sell oranges daring 
that time on their own acoount, nor to handle 
oranges for any one else outside the corpora- 
tion, without the latter's consent, 

E, F. Kingman has been appointed secretary. 
Uis salary will be paid by the stockholders, 
and he will have a desk in the office of the 
agents, inspect all oorrespondenoe relating to 
sale or disposition of fruit, and act as an ac- 
countant generally, in the interests of the 

The sale of stock this year has been limited 
to 500 shares, representing 500 acres of orange 
orchards, or ahont 400 carloads. This is being 
rapidly taken up, over 300 shares having been 
subscribed for the first week. It is expected 
that the balance will be taken within the next 
ten days. 

We have given this outline of the plan 
adopted by the Riverside growers in order that 
the large number of onr readers who are now 
contemplating cooperative action, may compare 
their methods with those they have been con* 
templating. We propose that the Rubal Press 
shall be a sort of clearing house of information 
of this kind. Where many are thinking and 
acting toward similar ends, it is very desirable 
that each should have the advantage of the 
bright thoughts and shrewd plans of all. The 
idea of producers cooperation is old, bat the ap- 
plication of it to our local conditions is new, 
and should receive the widest and most careful 
consideration and discussion. 

New Hybrid Begonia. 

[Written for the Ri-ral Press by W. A. T. STRarroH of 

The illustration gives a fair idea of this bean- 
tifnl plant, the new hybrid begonia Perle Hom- 
feid. The color of the leaf is a deep dense 
green, heavily dotted with silvery spots. In 
habit it is of vigoroas growth, the larger point- 
ed leaves displaying their silvery markings in a 
most attractive and novel form; entirely dis- 
tinct from any other variety in cultivation. 
The foliage is remarkably large for this class of 
begonias, often measuring ten inches in length 
by six inches in breadth. Indeed, no begonia 
of reoent years claims so many points of in- 
terest as this new variety, being rapid of 
growth, easily grown, and brilliant and attrac- 
tive in foliage. 

The variety belongs to the hybrid Rsx class. 
A few years ago, hybrid Rex begonias were nn- 
known. We only had the flowering begonias and 
the R3X class, bat by hybridizing the Rax and 
the flowering varieties, a more hardy class has 
been produced, partaking of the character of 
the Rax In foliage, and with the upright habit 
and flowering character of the latter. 

In the hybridizing or crossing of these sorts 
the Begonia discolor was produced, which may 
really be considered the most valuable break 
in the hybridizer's work; and from Discolor, 
fertilized by various flowering varieties, nearly 
ail the heantifni hybrids of reoent years have 
been prodnoed. 

They all have beautiful, attractive foliage, 
many of them as beautifully zoned ai Rex sorts, 
and as many of them also have fine flowers, it 
is net ssying too much in their praise to assert 
that no consei vatory, however extensive it may 
be in its appointments, is complete without a 
collection of these autoorata of all foliaged be- 

Their cnltare is simple and easy. The soil 
shonld be a light, rich, silky loam. The term 
" silky loam " is a trade phrase, so to speak, 
to indicate a soft, delicate texture. The roots 
being fine and tender, must have a soil suited 
to their wants, to insure success. To simply 
grow them is quite different from growing them 
in their perfection. 

Many persons are in the habit of collecting 
loam from under forest trees for their begonias, 
as if this was leaf loam. It is a mistaken idea. 
There is no leaf loam in Oaiifornia of good 
quality that I have ever seen' Our long, dry 
summers seem to destroy all the notrition in 
these decayed leaves, and thongh it may be of 
value to mix with soil that may be too hea/y, 
to aid in making a light loam, I much prefer 
the more practical way of using fine, sandy 
loam and well decomposed manure in equal 

Hybrid begonias do not enjoy the hot, bhz- 
Ing sunshine. They require warmth and shade 
to get the best results, and in contrast to the 
R.'X varieties, that demand a moist atmos- 
phere, the hybrids require a dry one. 

Aa a window plant, they may be grown 
most successfully, but they should not be ex- 
posed to draughts of air. In fact, no plant, 
unlees it he of a cast-iron oonetitntion, can 
withstand the alternate changes of the extremes 
of hot and oold air, so commonly experienced 
in window plants. Give them a reasonably 
good care, and no class of tender plants In cul- 
tivation will give more real pleasure for the 
labor than the hybrid Rex begonias. 

Implkment.s BrRSKi). — We are glad to know 
that Biker & Hamilton had a good amount of 
insurance upon their warehouse at Sioramento 
which was recently destroyed by fire. The 
contents of the warehouse were wagons, reap- 
ers, baggies, scrapers — In fact, all kinds of ag- 
ricaltural implements, barbed wire, rope, etc., 
aggregating a value something like $80,000, 
which some acoonnts say was fully insnred. 

A Manly Compliment. 

Editops of the Pkess:— Wishing you most 
sincerely a happy and a prosperous New Year, I 
further congratulate you on the Pacific Rural 
Press having arrived at manhood. As an infant 
and a boy, it has always had a manly way of its 
own. Its decorous deportment, its cleanly habits 
and entire absence of the disagreeable which char- 
acterizes so many boys of the press, has given it a 
character of which it may be proud, and has attract- 
ed the attention of the thoughtful and progressive. 

During the time I have been acquainted with the 
Press, I do not recollect a word in it that could 
ofTend the most fastidious, and while it has been 
careful not to offend, it has bad an opinion of its 
own, which, when opportunity called, has been ex- 
pressed forcibly and clearly. I am only sorry that I 
have not been able to encourage the boy according 
to bis merits, and now that he is a man, we will 
look for all of the manhood that was predicted by 
the boy, and sincerely hope that new friends, true 
friends, grander hopes and more glorious victories 
await the deserving efforts of the PACIFIC RURAL 
Press and its painstaking, untiring corps ol editors 
and managers. Respectfully and frater&ally yours, 
J. W. Mackie. 

Jan. 2, 1892 j 


PQhe XrR'®ationist. 

Under this hcadinp: the Rural Press will publish the 
latest and most accurate information upon the proereFS 
of irrigation enterprise on ihe Fac flo coast. Contribu- 
tions upon the subject are earnestly requested, in order 
that the public may be kept fully informed. 

Another Irrigation Convention. 

The dlacuasion of irrigation topics aeems to 
be the orderof the day. Hardly had the echoes 
of the Salt Like CoDgress died away before 
preparattODS were made for holding another 
convention In Montana, to be confined to dele- 
gates from that State alone. This gatherinc; 
will take place on the 7th of January, and 191 
delegates have been chosen from various por- 
tions of the State. 

The idea of holding State and Territorial 
Conventions for the consideration of irrigation 
matters is a good one. While the entire arid 
region Is interested in a general way in Irriga- 
tion development, yet each locality has peculi- 
arities of Its own and interests of diverse char- 
acter, It by no means follows that what is ap- 
plicable to one seotion Is snitable to all. Hence 
the desirability, before holding further meet- 
ings such as that at Salt Like, of first having 
preliminary local conventions, where local needs 
may be disonased, and some definite form of 
action decided upon. Then, when a plan has 
been outlined. It .will be time to hold another 
National Convention, the delegates to which 
shall attend with a distinct idea in their minds 
of the best courae to pnrsae, and of all the de- 
tail that is desirable to carry out. 

While the recent convention at Salt Lake did 
well In enunciating the broad principle of the 
desirability of allowing each State and Terri- 
tory to deal with the reclamation of the arid 
lands within its borders, this proposition had 
not been suiSolently discussed beforehand to al- 
low of the formulation of any distinct plan for 
carrying out the scheme. In fact the delegates 
to the Congress did not appear to have any 
very clear idea as to the details. They were 
unanimous as to the broad principle of cession 
to the States and Territories, but beyond that 
they did not go. 

Bat before any measure looking to the car- 
rying out of their plans can be adopted, the 
public will demand the fullest details of the en- 
tire scheme of reclamation, and to meet this de- 
mand a great deal of work must be done. It 
is to be hoped that the Montana Convention will 
formulate some suitable plan and thus open the 
aubjeot for discussion. 

Irrigation in Placer County. 

A plan Is on foot to supply water for irriga- 
tion in a portion of Placer county, where It is 
believed better results can be obtiinedfrom the 
cultivation of the soil with that aid than when 
pole dependence is placed upon the rainfall. 
From the published aocounts, it appears that 
the proposition is to sell perpetual water rights 
npon the basis of the minet's inch of flow. 
Five hundred dollars is the amount asked for 
each inch, the purchaser being given ten years 
in which to complete payment, in the mean- 
time payirc! six per cent interest thereon. In 
addition, $7 60 a year is to be charged for the 
cost of delivering the water to the purchaser. 
This makes a payment of $37.50 annually for 
each inch delivered. 

A miner's inch, perpetual flow, is sufficient, 
according to the practice that obtains in South- 
ern California, where the greatest economy In 
the use of water Is enforced, to irrigate from 
four to eight acres of land. On the assumption 
that one inch to six acres is a fair average, there 
would therefore be an annual tax of $6.25 an 
acre to be met by the irrigator. 

When the full payment of $500 an inch shall 
have been made by the irrigator, the intarest 
charge ceases, but at the same time it h only 
fair to include in the expense of irrigation the 
same rate of interest on the $500 invested. At 
the rate of an irch to six acres, the water 
right would oost $83.33 an acre. The owner of 
a 20-aore farm would therefr^re find himself un- 
der the necessity of paying $1666 for the privi- 
lege of paying annually in interest and charges 
for delivering water a further sum of $125, 

When this proposition Is contrasted with the 
district system, the benefit of the Wright law 
becomes apparent. Under that law, the aver- 
age coat of supplyioe water rights is some $8 
an acre, instead of $83, The annual expense 
for delivering the wi-tor is but a few cents an 
acre, and the irrigator owns his own water, in- 
stead of being compelled to contribute to the 
funds of some corporation or individual who 
has established a monopoly of the sources of 
supply. If the would-be irrigators of Placer 
county will look Into the matter a little, they 
will soon see that their best interests will be 
subserved by the district system, rather than 
by the one proposed. 

Reclamation in Lassen County. 

The Union Land and Stock Company, a Sac- 
ramento concern, are engaged in reclaiming the 
barren wastes of Madeline plains, says the Rsno 
Oazette, They commenced the construction of 
a dam in Squaw valley (Red Rock crer k) two 
years ago, and carried it to a height of 30 feet 
last fall. They now propose to build it to a 
height of 70 feet. At that height, it will back 
the water up to an average depth of 45 feet and 
ooTer about 640 aorea. This is known as dam 

No. 1. They have just completed a dam four 
miles south of dam No, 1. It has a retaining 
wall 35 feet wide at the bottom and is built to 
a height of 10 feet; from this on it was run up 
15 feet higher, tapering to six feet on top. The 
system includes three dams — the third will 
make a reservoir that covers 500 acres to a 
depth of 30 feet. The two reservoirs will fur- 
nish water sufficient to Irrigate 50,000 acres of 
as fine land as ever the sun shone on. From 
reservoir No, 2 a 3anal has already been con- 
structed, nine feet wide at the bottom and 16 
feet on top, around the canyon to the valley 
below, and the plains of Madeline will blossom 
into one of the most promising sections in the 
near future. 

Desert Possibilities. 

A man in Southern California who thoroughly 
understands lemon culture, and who has suc- 
ceeded in successfully curing California lemons, 
so that they rank with the best in the markets 
of the world, says that a lemon grove which is 
as it should be, will pay $1000 net per acre 
every year, says the Bikersfield Cali/omian. 
Certain conditions are requisite. No frost, of 
course, but above and beyond that, a dry, even 
temperature is absolutely essential. 

There are little nooks all along the edges of 
the Mojave desert clear along its course, as far 
as to the Colorado river, where a small amount 
of water can be had; where there is no frost 
and, if located with the proper exposure, no 
wind; where surely that dry serenity of atmos- 
phere. In which lemons do so much delight, is 
the condition every da^- in every year. 

Oae o^the loveliest oases in the wide, wide 
world has been built right out of sand in the 
desert of the Smoky valley in Nevada, by pip- 
ing a very small stream of water from Kingston 
canyon. A traveler on his weary way through 
all the aridoess of Smoky valley comes suddenly 
upon this dainty little green gem and declares 
it the Garden of Elen. And truly it is, for 
everything grows and peace and balminess 
retgn. Yet the thrifty housewife, to whom 
credit for this oasis is due, has never thought 
of lemons — perhaps she never saw one — but 
raises splendid vegetables and a few posies. 

That water is sufficient for several acres— 
ten, perhaps, with a Riverside economy in its 
use — and if lemons are lemons, as we are led to 
believe, in the 20 years the good old lady has 
lived there, she has lost $200,000 by not being 
in lemons. 

In what is called the Mojave desert, moun- 
tain chains are not continuous, but are more 
as though the chaia had been broken into links 
and strewn at random in dreary wastes of sand 
and cacti. Yet It Is likely that near . the head 
of the principal canyon in each mountain link, 
quite an amount of water can be found, and in 
that same canyon, or reasonably near it, are 
generally little valleys which, if watered, would 
prove exceedingly fertile, 

A good lemon man and the Mojave desert 
ought to get together. 

Congressional Aid Asked. 

Senator Dolph has introduced a bill to aid 
the several States and Territories to reclaim 
the arid lands within their boundaries. It pro- 
vides for the loaning by the United States of 
funds to States or Territories for the purpose 
of assisting the construction of reservoirs, wells 
and all other works to be used for the develop- 
ment, conservation and furnishing of water 
supply for irrigation and in aid of agriculture. 
Loans are to be made in any sum not exceeding 
$2 500,000 in any one year to a siogte State 
or Territory, nor exceeding a grand total of 
$10,000,000 to any one State or Territory. The 
terms provide for the issue by the State or 
Territory of Irrigation bonds of the denomina- 
tion of $500 each, redeemable in five years and 
maturing in 50 years and bearing interest at 
the rate of one per cent per annum, to be de- 
posited with the United States Treasurer, and 
the Secretary of tbe Treasury is to issue there- 
on United States notes In the amount of the 
par value of the bonds, the said notes to be 
legal tender. 

Whether Congress can bs induced to pass 
any such bill as this remains to be seen; but 
the view taken of the proposition even in the 
sections that are moat vitally interested cannot 
be said to be very encouraging. While all are 
convinced that some action by the General 
Government should be taken, there Is a wide 
spread skepticism as to whether the public 
sentiment of that portion of the country where 
the necessity for Irrigation is not felt can be 
brought to support any such measure as that 
proposed by Senator Dolph. 

So far as tbe security behind such a loan as 
that proposed is concerned, there could be 
nothing better. If tbe matter be honestly con- 
ducted, and the money loaned be economically 
applied to the construction of works for the ir- 
rigation of arid laod, that land will become at 
once, upon being supplied with water, the best 
security possible for the repayment of any rea- 
sonable loan that may be made, Tbe average 
cost of supplying water need not, except in ex- 
ceptional oaser, exceed $10 an acre. There is 
an abundance of testimony to the effect that 
lands that are so arid as to be absolutely with- 
out value, become, upon being supplied with 
water, worth from $25 to $250 an acre. Per- 
haps a fair average would he $50. A loan to 
the extent of $10 upon such land, therefore. Is 
certainly well secured, and there can be little 
reason to fear any default in its payment. 

If this fact can be emphasized so strongly 

that the public will endorse such a proposition 
as this, well and good. To do this, however, 
will require a vast amount of labor and much 
time. The entire snbj ict of irrigation is such 
a mystery to nine-tenihs of the people of this 
country that to educate them upon the sub- 
ject will require the most persistent effort for 
an extended period. In the meantime, and 
until such education shall have been completed, 
it must be confessed even by tbe most ardent 
friend of irrigation that tbe outlook for obtain- 
ing legislation of the character referred to is 
not particularly encouraging. 

A Great San Diego Enterprise. 

The opening of the Linda Vista and Otay Ir- 
rigation Districts in San Diego county has been 
brought about by the development of the Mt. 
Tecarte Water System, by which 100,000 acres 
of these mesa lands, extending from the Sweet- 
water river on the north to the Mexican border 
line on the eonth, are to be reclaimed. 

Lsn B, Harris, Jr., the mining engineer, 
gives the Chronicle the following particulars of 
the great work done in the neighborhood of 
those districts: 

" It was thought impossible tofloftt tbe mesa 
lands until within a few years back, when it 
was found by a party of investigators, of which 
I was one, that the Cottonwood river might be 
diverted from its course through Lower Cali- 
fornia, and made to cover over 100,000 acres, 
Sarveys proved that the water of the Cotton- 
wood could be brought through Dilzara Piss, 
distant 30 miles from Sm Diego to Jamul val- 
ley, and thence by way of Janal Meca into San 
Diego itself, If necessary. This led to the 
planning out of the Mount Tecarte system. 

"The pioneers were: J. F. Sinks, Vice- 
President of the Sin Diego Bank of Commerce; 
J. W. Young, H. P. Whitney, O. H. Mnlfield, 
D. D. Maynard, T. E. Pope, S. J. Sieb, and sev- 
eral others. Surveys were proj acted and work 
commenced four years ago. Cottonwood river 
has a summer depth of 18 inohes, and in winter 
runs a torrent. 

" A cut has been made through Dilzira 
Pass, 1000 fest long and 20 feet deep, Auother 
important work is now being done, and within 
a year or so the great undertaking will be com- 

At the junction of Pine Valley and Cotton- 
wood creeks a dam will be constructed 100 feet 
high and 450 feet on the crest. A reservoir 
covering 800 acres, and containing 6,000,000,- 
000 gallons, is to be built. The cement used is 
obtained at Jamul at a comparatively trifling 
cost. From the dam a flame, 15 miles long, 
will extend to Jamul creek, terminating at Dal- 
zura Pass, where an elevation of 1450 feet is 
reached. The flume will cost at the rata of 
$10,000 a mile. At Dalzura the water will be 
aiverted into ditches, and conveyed over three 
districts (including Utay and Linda Vista) of a 
total acreage of 95 000, with a reserve capacity 
of many thousand more. Bat the marvelous 
usefulness of the almost exbaustless system does 
not end here. At the west terminus of tbe 
Otay mesa the branching waters leap over a 
cha°m of 300 feet, developing a horse-power of 
15U0, which may be used to operate faotories or 
electric dynamos. The system in its totality 
also includes the supplying of San Diego with 
drinking water. 

The total cost of the work will be $1,000,000, 
and the recently formed district will vote bonds 
eufficieot to cover this sum. 

Notes of Irrigation Progress. 

The temporary setback caused to the Madera 
district by the discovery of a technical error in 
the confirmation proceedings has only had the 
eff3Ct to emphasize the determination of the 
friends of the district system to persevere and 
perfect their organization. They are as en- 
thusiastic as ever, and If any have hoped they 
would be discouraged, that hope is not well 

Suit has been commenced to dissolve the 
Selma district. The parties who have exhaust- 
ed legal technicalities in retarding the prog'ess 
of this district will come Into court and allege 
the delay caused by themselves as reason why 
tbe district should be broken up. This is a 
rathar peculiar method of procedure, to say the 

The directors of the Tale River district held 
a meeting recently at Woodville for the pur- 
pose of deoidinz on the dimensions of the pro- 
posed canal. Engineer Newman was instruct- 
ed to survey the line and report on the cost. 
If the price is suitable and meets with the ap- 
proval of the directors, operations will be 
commenced at once, and the ditch will be car- 
ried through Porterville to Woodvillle and be- 
yond that point. The Irrigation District em- 
braces 18,000 acres of land, which, when irri- 
gable will become very valuable. 

The snpervlsors of Los Angeles county have 
granted tbe petition for the organization of the 
Glendora district, and have set January 13th 
as the date for the election. 

A bill of exceptions has been filed by the 
plaintiff in the Elsinore District case, recently 
decided against them. A notice of intention 
to move for a new trial was also filed on the 
grounds of insuffiQlenoy of the evidence to 
justify a decision, and that the decision was 
against law, and errors in law occurring at the 
trial and excepted to by the plaintiffs. 

The South Riverside & Water Com. 
pauy advertises for bids for the oonstruotlon of 
a large amonnt of pipe lines, tunnels, eto. 

Irrigating Grain. 

Among countries where irrigation is gener- 
ally practiced, California stands alone In the 
unwillingness of her farmers to make use of the 
irrigating canal In producing wheat. For some 
reason impossible to define, they have a deep- 
rooted oppositiou to this ianovation, and even 
where there is an abundance of water running 
to waste, that could be utilized upon the wheat 
field at small expense, they prefer to sit idly 
by and see their grain suffer from lack of 
moisture rather than undertake the snnall 
trouble and expense of supplying from the irri- 
gating canals the needed water. 

The farmers of Colorado, Utah, Arizona and 
other portions of the arid region are held down 
by no such fancy and governed by no such 
stupidity as this. They were quick to see the 
benefit of the application of water to their 
grain lands, and it has become a general prac- 
tice with them, wherever practicable. The re- 
suit is that they have become independent of 
the vicissitudes of the climate and reap good 
harvests regularly regardless of the rainfall. 

In speaking of irrigating grain, it must not 
be supposed that application of water to the 
growing crop is meant, except under unusual 
circumstances. In this case, the irrigation ia 
best done before the crop is planted. If water 
be applied subaequently, in most soils a crust 
will form npon the surface which cannot be 
broken without damaging the young plants, 
and harm rather than benefit will result 

By giving the soil a thorough saturation, 
however, before plowing, and by plowing 
deeply, a seed-b°d may be prepared that, with 
the aid of the rain that is certain to fall, will 
produce a good crop even though the precipita- 
tion be muoh less than the amount usually re- 
garded as necessary to mature grain. 

Perhaps a little personal experience of the 
writer npon this point may be of benefit, as it 
explains his earnest belief in the advisability of 
using water in the grain field wherever practi- 
cable. He found himself some time since In 
control of a ranch in the south upon which was 
a tract of about 20 aores which had been reg- 
ularly cropped with grain until it had become 
apparently exhausted. The last owner of the 
place had for several successive seasons not ob- 
tained enough from It to pay the cost of seed 
and plowing. This latter process, by the way, 
had been done so faultily that at a depth of 
three or four Inches a hard, almost impervious 
crust had b?en formed, through which it was 
impossible that the roots of tbe grain should 
penetrate, and which also prevented the mois- 
ture from saturating the soil to any depth. 
Only by thoroughly soaking the fisld could It 
be plowed as it ought to be. Near at hand 
was an irrigating canal, in which, during the 
fall and winter, the water ran to waste. The 
experiment of irrigating for grain was deter- 
mined upon. Shallow furrows were acoordiug- 
Ingly struck out at intervals of 20 to 25 feet 
across the field in both directions, and into 
these the water was turned. It was allowed 
to run slowly for two or three days until every 
foot of the surface had been covered and thor- 
oughly soaked, until, in fact, tbe field was so 
soft that a man would "mire down " in it any- 
where. After thus being saturated, the water 
was shut off, and in about two days' time 
the soil was dry enough to plow. The clevis 
was set so that the plow was sunk almost to 
the beam, and such a stirring up was given 
to that worn-out field as it had never bad up 
to that time. Tbe neighbors frequently halted 
to laugh at the poor greenhorn who was spend- 
ing so much time and taking so much trouble 
in the preparation of his little grain field, and 
they kindly Informed him that he was a fool 
for his pains, and that he would not get enough 
back to pay for the seed. Bat he persevered, 
and when the field bad been thoroughly plowed 
barley was planted, and it was then left to its 
own devices. That barley grew as if bewitched. 
Never had such a stand been seen in the neigh- 
borhood, and when it was harvested there 
were four great stacks that had more grain in 
them than any 80 acres in the same locality 
produced without Irrigation, In a word, it 
was a triumphant success. 

Tbe irrigation of grain may be practiced on 
a large scale fully as profitably as on so small a 
one as the case jast noted. Down in Kern 
county last year wheat was Irrigated at a oost 
of less than ten cents an acre, and the result 
was a harvest larger by a hundred per cent 
than the average. Wherever grain-growers 
have had the enterprise to make use of the 
water running to waste in tbe irrigating canals, 
they have been amply rewarded. Why more of 
them do not thus insure the certainty of a good 
crop is a mystery that passes comprehension. 

Steam Power Irrigation. 

There appears to be a widespread belief that 
the only successful method of obtaining a sup- 
ply of water for irrigation npon a scale of any 
importance is by the use of ditches wherein the 
water flows by gravity from the sonroe of sup- 
ply says the Chronicle. The proposition to 
utilize pumps operated by steam or other power 
Is uniformly discouraged, and the idea has been 
sedulously fostered that the expense of auch a 
method of irrigating will far exceed tbe bene- 
fits to be derived and will be much greater than 
the cost of water supplied in the ordinary man- 

One of tbe reasons for this belief or for en- 
couraging people to entertain it is not far to 
aeek. Were the pump system generally adopted 



[Jan. 2 1892 

where it ia practioable, the oooapation of a 
great many canal oompanies woald be seri- 
ously injared, and the baeineia of selling 
water for 10 to 50 times more than it costs 
wonld suffer leriona curtailment. Hence noth- 
ing has been left unsaid which wonld tend to 
discourage experiment in this direction. 

Despite the oppo«ition and discouragement, 
however, several successful experiments have 
been carried out in providing a supply of water 
by steam pumps, and others are now under- 
way. One of the latest Is reported from Batte 
oonnty, where a similar enterprise now under 
Buocessfnl operation has enoouraged the con- 
struction of still another pumping plant, con- 
sisting of a 25-horEe power eogineand an eight- 
inch centrifugal pump by which water will be 
raise i from a well and distributed o?er the or- 
chards and vineyards of the Rio Bonito Com- 
pany, Similar efiforts in the same neighbor- 
hood have shown this method of irrigation to 
be reasonable in coat and in every way success- 

From the southern portion of the State come 
reports of similar snccesa in pumping water. 
Mention was made some time eioce of the re- 
markable success of such an experiment at 
Yuma, where water waa raised from the Colo- 
rado river. Now a similar enterprise has been 
commenced at The Needles, where a plant will 
be pnt in to Irrigate a large tract on the high 
mesa above the same rlrer. The advantage of 
such a plan is obvious. In order to ob- 
tain water by gravity in localities like thle, 
where the river has only a small grade 
and the banks are high, It would be 
necessary to go a long distance up stream 
and construct a canal many miles in length, 
which would be a constant source of expense to 
keep in repair. The interest alone on the first 
cost of such a canal would much more than pay 
the expense of operating a pumping plant 8n£S- 
oient to supply all the water needed. 

The Sm Bernardino Times Index reports the 
experience of an irrigator in that valley who 
has pumped water to irrigate a large tract of 
land for a number of years. He obtains his 
water from a surface-well 18 feet in depth, and 
with an engine and plant, costing not to exceed 
$1000, is able to pump, when required, 50 
inches of water under a four-inch pressure, 
night and day, continuously. He has found 
the ooH of this water to be much less than the 
cost of water taken from ordinary irrigating 
ditches, where a number of miles of ditches 
have to be built and kept in repair. 

In the San Joaijuin vallry there are many 
oasea where settlers, unable ta obtain water 
from the compaoles oontrolling the canals, ex- 
cept at exorbitant pricep, have put In pamping 
pUnti with Invariable success. They have set 
a good example, which, were it more generally 
followed, wonld have a salutary effect In more 
ways than one. 

Tree and Vine Growths in New Mexico. 

G. O. Shields of Eddy, New Mexico, sends 
na a list of measurements of growth in Pecos 
valley, New Mexico, a region whiob is now b.^- 
ing settled up under Irrigation auspices. The 
fignres may be interesting to our readers as in- 
dicative of what that new country can do, and 
also for comparison with growths in other 
parts of the county. 

The following table shows growths made by 
various fruit trees, grapevines, etc., during the 
past snmmer. 

Orowtb in 

Tree or Vine. Feet. loches. 

Raisin grape 18 

Apple 4 

Pear 4 

Plum 5 

Cherry 1 

Crab Apple 1 

Mulberry 1 

Black Locust 8 

Apple g 

Apricot 6 

Peach 3 

Box Elder 6 

Mulberry 7 

Lombardy Poplar . ' . . . 6 

Castor Bsan S 

Peach " 7 

Cottonwood 18 

Osage Orange 14 

Native Willow 16 

Pecan g 

Black Walnut . . . . . . 4 

Plum "' g 

Mulberry a 

Witt Bros, have several cottonwoodr, nine 
years old, that are 62 to 64 inches in circumfer- 
ence and over 60 feet high. Mr. Hogg has a 
peach tree three years old from the seed that ia 
3i inches in diameter and 17 feet 5 inches high. 
Ho haa a cottonwood four years old that ia 28 
inches in circumference. Mr. Gilbert has a 
pecan tree six years old that is 24 inches in cir- 
cumference and 23 feet high. He has a black 
walnnt tree three years old from the seed that 
Is 12 inches in circumference, 11 feet 10 inches 
high, and that bore several walnuts this year. 
Maynard Sharpe of Eddy has two peach trees 
two years old from the seed that bore and ma- 
tured seven peaches this year. He has one ap- 
ple tree two years old from the seed that bore 
three apples the past season. 






















^Agricultural JJotes. 

Oregon HoRTictJLTUBAL Sociktv.— The Sev- 
enth annual meeting of the Oregon State Horti- 
cultural Society will be held in the Olty Conn- 
oil Chamber of Portland, Oregon, on Tuesday 
and Wednesday, January 12 and 13, 1892. A 
very attractive program baa been prepared, 
and the attendance ahould be large. — Dr. J. R. 
Cabdwell, Portland, President, and E. R." 
Lakb, Portland, Secretary. 


Palermo Orange Notes. — Cor. Oroville 
Mercury: W. J. Grier ia entitled to the honor 
of shipping the first box of orangea Eiet this 
winter from Palermo, They were shipped in 
stylp, too, with different colored tissue wrap- 
pers bearing the inscription: "From the Or- 
ange Grove of W. J. Grier, Palermo, Butte 
Co.. California." They were sent to his brother, 
T. J., at Lead City, Dakota. Palermo's older 
orange groves are loaded with oranges this 
winter, and present a beautiful appearance to 
pasaers-by, as their golden globes flash from 
the network of dark-green leaves. 

The Wheat Crop. — Biggs Argu$: We have 
made inquiry among a nnmber of farmers, both 
on the adobe sections and the red lands, in re- 
gard to the condition of the wheat crop, and 
all are well satisfied with the crop showing 
at present. The rains have not fallen alto- 
gether satisfactorily, but the intervals between 
the showers dnrlng the last month have been 
short, and the first spronted wheat, instead of 
rotting as was first feared, has continued to 
grow, although retarded somewhat, and will 
come out all right. All the grain has now 
sprouted and ia growing nicely, and with a 
reasonable amount of rain from now on, this 
section will raise its nsnal abundant crop. The 
open season has enabled the farmers to get in 
more grain than usual, probably more than haa 
ever been planted during any one aeason be- 
fore, aad with a fair showing for good prioes 
next year, bright prospects are in store. 

The Forestry Station. — Chico Enterprise : 
W. S. Lyon, botaniat of the Forestry Commis 
sion has been visiting the Chico atation, and 
we are told haa made some arrangement for 
some work being done. A part of the ground 
is to be prepared for some seeds to be planted 
this winter. Several rare plants and trees have 
been received from Australia, and the Oommis 
slon will plant seeds of several different va 
rleties of trees including the broad-leaved 
wattle, a native of Australia, the bark of which 
is said to ba a good substitute for oak tanbark 

Rio BoNiTO Orchards. — Oroville Register 
In this vicinity there are six miles of continu 
ous oroharda, The loweat of these is the Reed 
& J ohnson orchard of 550 acres. Hatch Sc Rook 
1650 acres; Alexander & Hammon, 300; Hatch 
& Rock, upper place, 220 acres; W. Treat, 160 
acres; M. Goldman, 31 acres; Mr. Preble, 20 
aores; Rio Bonito Colony Co., 80 acres; Marion 
Biggs, Jr., 50 aores; R, A. Moore, 40 acres, 
John Beall, 30 acres; A. Goldman, a second 
tract, 30 acres, and two other 20-acre tracts 
This gives a total of 3176 aores. More trees 
will be aet ont thla winter, bnt the number we 
did not ascertain. Thia gives over 300,000 
trees, however, on the weat side of the Feather 
river in what is known as the Rio Bonito coun- 
try. The treea all look In fine order and have 
a aplendid growth. 


Wild Hogs.— Sites Cor. Colaaa Herald: 
There is quite a nnmber of wild hogs in the 
hilla near this place. Not long alnce, Jas, Ken 
nedy killed one that dressed about 300 pounds. 

FiCAm.— Herald : J, R. Karris has gathered 
bis pecan crop and ia enthnsiastlo over the 
adaptability of our soil and climate for thia 
valuable nut. A few years ago a conple of 
bushes were sent him from Texas and he set 
them out, and again took them np and trans 
planted them, and yet they flonrished. The 
tree haa a long root similar to the walnut, 


Raisin Shipmbnt.s.— Fresno Expositor: The 
total amount of freight shipments from thla 
county in 1891 is enough to make one carload 
of ten tons every half hour the whole year, 
day and night. This is an enormous quantity. 
The most valuable article ia raUina, footing 
nearly 28,000,000 pounda. Mere figures are 
apt to confuee, rather than give an idea of the 
exact nnmber, when the nnmber is large. In 
the raisin crop of Fresno oonnty this year, 
there were 1,376,795 boxes of 20 pounda each. 
These boxes, laid end to end like brioke, wonld 
build a wall ten milns long and 40 boxes high. 
The same boxes, stood on end, wonld form 80 
columns, each column overtopping the highest 
mountain in the world. Laid end to end, they 
would form two lines from the top of the 
Sierras to the top of the Coast mountains, and 
enoueh boxes wonld be left to form a string 
from Fresno to Modesto. Last year the nnm- 
ber of boiea waa 873,220. The gain from last 
year is 503,575 boxes, or a gain of 57 per cent, 
this is an enormous gain, in the face of the in- 
jury to the raisins from the hot wave in July, 

Apple Trees Condemned. — Eureka Stand- 
ard: Horticultural Commisslcner J. D. Berber 
visited Ferndale and condemned a large nnm- 
ber of apple trees. The diseased treea came 
from a nursery in Oregon, and were being de. 
livered by W. A. Gilmore. They were infected 
by the wooly aphis. Mr. Barber served notice 
on the agent to either disinfect or destroy the 
trees or ship them ont of the county within 10 
days, the agent agreeing before witnesses to 
comply fully with Mr. Btrber's instrnctiona. 

Large Acreage Seeded to Grain.— Delano 
Courier: J . P. Stewart baa now at work 62 
head of atook on the Harrelson ranch. One 
hundred and ten acres of grain la being aeeded 

each day, and the work will be continued till 
the total area of 4400 acres la seeded. 


Tree Planting. — Lakeport Avalanche: 
Messrs. Krumm and Fisher, who bought land 
of Frank Gibson, on Glenwood ranch, are just 
beginning the work of pntting in 20 acres, each, 
of prunes. This, with that already planted by 
Mr. Gibson, makes a block of 60 acres for 1891 
and 1892, by the three parties. The former 
gentlemen will also pat out ten acres of other 
orchard. Other orchards on the ranch make in 
all 155 acres of prune and other treea. Mar- 
shall Arnold alao haa 20 acres of the same tract, 
the planting of which has just begun, 

L.08 Anerelea. 
The Orange Crop.— L, A. Califomian: In 
the early part of the season, California indulged 
in an aspiration rather than an estimate, that 
the orange crop might reach 6000 carloads. 
The shipments last year were 4600 cars, and 
the increase was only about 30 per cent. 
Many new trees bad been coming into bearing, 
and many yoong oroharda that bore lightly last 
year should produce more this year; then all 
the old orchards had been taken excellent care 
of, and here was more ground for hopefulness. 
The present crop hinges on these facts: The 
budded varieties generally are bearing a good 
crop; the seedlings a light one. The seedlings 
are large trees which often bear 15 boxes each, 
while the budded varieties are much amaller, 
with proportionately less surface, and four or 
five boxes is a good crop per tree. The young 
orchards will run at only half a box to one or 
two boxes per tree. The ratio of budded to 
seedling trees in the whole sectionia perhaps 
ten to one. The crop of San Bernardino oonn- 
ty will ba larger than It was last year, by a 
very considerable amount. The same la true 
of Orange county, although the inorease will be 
smaller. The same will apply to San Diego, 
Ventnra and Sinta Barbara. The deficit will 
therefore fall on Los Angeles county, which 
last year produced 2200 carloads, and the year 
before, 781, Here is where most of the seed- 
lings come from. Then the wind of last week 
knocked cff, say 300 oars, mostly in Los An- 
geles connty. These are about all the faots. 
The Citrograph says the season will turn ont 
5200 oars. Spencer K, Sewell puts the crop at 
.3000 cars, alleging that Los Angeles county 
will fall back to the figures of the year before 
last, and that the iocrease in the other counties 
will not be very large. The Southern Pjtolfic 
people estimate the crop at 4500 to 5000 cars. 
Importing Florida Orange Trees.- Po- 
mona Progress : The importation of orange 
trees from Florida has brought thus far this 
season over $1000 ioto the hands of the South- 
ern Pacific Railroal Agent in Pomona for 
freights. In two days last week J. A. DrifiSlI 
paid $1450 in freight on lemon trees, 


Asylum Orchard. — Napa Register: Six or 
seven men, employee of the aaylnm, who are 
on that portion of the Asylum farm known as 
"the Spencer tract," have been for some time 
engaged in grubbing ont oak and other trees, 
most of them of comparatively small growth, 
on the hillside toward the southern line of the 
above named tract. Already some 50 acres 
have been cleared of trees and shrubs and 
plows started. All the land grubbed will be 
turned over this winter. In all, 75 or 100 
aores of virgin soil will be put under cultiva- 
tion. As soon as convenient, this land will be 
planted to prune, apricot and other fruit trees, 
Dr. Gardner intending to raise all the fruit the 
Asylnm will require, fresh or dried, on the 
farm. The soil on the tract mentioned ia, for 
the greater part, of good depth, and that it is 
productive is evidenced by the rank growth of 
trees and shrubs to be seen on every hand. In 
many places the decayed vegetation of connt- 
less years makes thia land well adapted to the 
purpose to which it will be put. 


Grain Crop.— Newmark & Edwards eatl- 
mate the grain crop of Los Angeles and Orange 
as follows: Wheat thrashed .364,588 sacks and 
barley 1,106,269 sacks. Wheat averaged 133.^ 
pounda per sack, making a total of 486,000 
centals (or hnndredweigbt); average value, 
11.40 per cental. Total valuation, $680,400. 
Barley areraged abont 110 pounds to the sack, 
making the total oentals 2,216,895, at a valua 
tlon of 90 cents per cental, equals say $1,095,- 
200. Oorn is a very difficult grain to get data 
on, being shelled and marketed from the field, 
or held in cribs till spring, sa may sulk the 
farmer's oonvenienoe. Grain in public ware- 
bouses and mills, Los Angeles county, Dio. 1, 
1891: Wheat, 207.120 centals; barley, 377,- 
600 centals. Orange oonnty: Wheat, 12,000 
centals; barley, 75,000 centals. The wheat 
raised in this and Orange connty Is principally 
red (called white Russian), D.fitnce and Scotch 
Fife, being less liable to met than AnstraliaD. 
The Los Angeles Farming and Milling Company 
raise much fine Australian on their ranches in 
San Fernando valley. Four cargoes of wheat 
have been made up in these counties. Two by 
Spreckels Brothers, loaded at Sm I'edro. The 
balance of the wheat not needed for seed 
ia now principally in the hands of three local 

San Bernardino. 
A Large Citrcs Grove.— Riverside Press 
and Horticulturist : A thousand-acre orange 
and lemon grove is to be planted in South Riv- 
erside by an association of gentlemen under 
the name of the Orange and L^mon Grove Com- 

San DleKo. 
Farm Notes.— Duooo Oor. San Diegan : It 
rained .65 of an inch Dec. 19 : Thia makes a 
total of 1,14 inches for the season. The moun- 
tains were white with snow this morning. 
Farmers are rejoicing and teams are in demand. 
Plowing will be commenced in every direction 
now, as the ground is in fine condition. There 
Is already nearly 1003 acres in wheat and bar- 
ley that were sown dry. Deputy Bug Hunter 
Smith of E'oondido has been doing this valley 
lately and has fonnd several orchards infested 
with San Jose scale, and in every case the 
owner has dug the trees np and burned them 
or has applied an effective remedy. 


To Begin Planting.— Anderson Enterprise: 
Fruit-tree planting will soon begin in this 
neighborhood, and while there will be many 
thousand trees planted, we think the nnmber 
will fall short of each of tho last three preced- 
ing years, which were exceedingly heavy 
years of planting, 


The Fruit-growers' Association.— Dixon 
Tribune: The fruit-growers of Solano and 
Yolo counties living in the neighborhood of 
Winters have organized an association with 
the following (ffioers : G. W. Thissell, Pres.; 
Wm. Baker, Vioe-Pres.; C. F. Wyer, Seo'y 
and Treas. Meetings will be held on the sec- 
ond and fourth Saturdays of each month. 
Many of our orchardiata are novices in the busi- 
ness, and will be glad to avail themselves of 
the opportunity of profi iog by the experience 
of these successful horticulturists. 

Barnhart Farm Notes,— Cor. Dixon Trib. 
une.: From preaent indications, the coming 
season will be all that the lowland farmers 
could desire. This idea prevails gei^orally, and 
all the tule farmers in both Solano and San 
Joaquin counties are seeding vast areas of laud 
in anticipation of a dry season. Seventy head 
of mules were sent over to Stockton recently 
to assist in preparing gronnd for solving. All 
the land sown lies In or adjacent to the tnles. 
Four scrapers were also sent over to strengthen 
the levees along the banks of the San Joaquin. 
Tne nine eight-mule teams wh ch were sent 
away are hardly missed from the number still 
at work here. More than 80 head of animals 
are still at work on the levees, which have 
grown broader and higher until they cow look 
like small-sized mountain range'. Still, Man- 
ager Barnhart is not aetistied. He intenda to 
continue the work, weather permitting, until 
nothing abort of a cloudburst oan make an im- 
pression on the embankmeoti. The grain is 
already springing up fresh and green all over 
the broad plains, and in a few more weeks they 
will be thiokly carpeted with growing wheat 
and barley. 


Sebastopol Packing Co.— Sebastopol Times: 
The Sebastopol Packing Co. held a meeting 
Dec. 2l8t, at which was received 10 per cent of 
the S20,000 subscribed. The meeting was well 
attended, with signs of growing interest. The 
proper steps were taken, and articles of incor- 
poration filed with County Clerk Juilllard. The 
gronnd for the cannery haa been purchased by 
the Direotora from John A, Brown, and la 
located east of the Winery of the Santa Rosa 

Hop Culture. — H^aldsburg Enterprise: Jno. 
MoMlnn, Secretary of the Sonoma County Hop- 
Growera' Association, furnishes a liat of hop- 
erowers in Gaerneville, Healdaburg and Santa 
Rosa districts, with the number of balea pro- 
duced by each for the current year. In Gaerne- 
ville district, A. McPeak is credited with 42 
and R. S. Drake with 80 bales— a total of 122, 
Healdsburg is credited with 13 growers, ranging 
from 33 bales produced by J. T. Sheehan to 155 
biles by M. Radding— a total of 993 biles for 
the district. In Santa Rosa district, 45 in- 
dividuals and firms are named, ranging from 2 
to 620 bales, R, Peterson being credited witli 
the latter nnmber. Ah Sam, a Chinese, stand- 
ing second with 405 bales, Joseph Purrington 
third with 400 bales; and the district foots np 
6259 bales, an aggregate of 7285 bales for the 
three districts mentioned. Toe same authority 
reports 23 new hop yards started, covering an 
aggregate of .361 acres. Farmer and Peterson 
standing at the bead of tho liat with 75 aores, 
John Peterson following with 40 acres, C. Y. 
Caldwell and Miller and Purrington wich 30 
aores each and S. Gillmon with 25 acres. There 
has been no disease in the Sonoma hop fields, 
and the product commands an extra prloe. 

Price-s or Raisins. — Hanford Journal: 
There is a great difference between reports 
from different parties, of prices ruling in the 
East for raisins. Several persons residing in 
Eastern towns have written to relatives here 
that California raisins are selling there at from 
25 to 30 cents per pound. While these state- 
ments are arriving from individuals ont of the 
trade, a gentleman who had consigned hla 
gooda to a certain firm to be aold, received 
word from aald firm that they were "just in 
receipt of a letter from Chicago which states 
that three cars of choice London layera from 
Freano were sold last week at $1.10 and $1.15 
per box for three-crowo; also a copy of an auc- 
tion sale in Philadelphia of 20OO boxes of Lon- 
don layers carried over from last year in oold 
storage, and sold by the agents there at 50 
cents per box, which wonld not cover freight 
and warehouse charges. All these things go 
to show that the market is in a horrible condi- 
tion, etc." The grower who received this letter 
informs ua that he believea that the main oanae 

Jan 2 1892] 


of the difference in price between the producer 
and the oonaumer is the lack of distribution of 
the California raisin crop. Nearly all the 
raisins are sent to one of five cities — New York, 
Ohicaf!0, Baston, Philadelphia or St. Louis. 
There is a consequent glat In the raisin mar- 
ket in these cities, and the goods are sold at 
prices ruinous to the producers, and the mid- 
dlemen get the big profits. Lack of proper 
distribution is one of the principal caniea of 
the low prices of raisins this year, and the 
remedy therefore should be and is a subject of 
earnest discussion among the horticulturists. 

Butter Scakce. — Journal: Batter is a very 
eoaroe article in Hanford now. A great deal 
of the milk from the dairies hereabout goes to 
the Hanford cheese factory. Farmers who 
make butter find no difficulty in securing city 
patrons who agree to take butter the year 
round, and pay remunerative prices therefor. 
There is a call for more butter milking in this 
vicinity, as a large amount of this product is 
shipped in here annually to meet the demand. 

Oanal Work, — The Tulare LakeOanal Com- 
pany, of which ex-Mayor Pond of San Fran- 
cisco is president, Mr. Turnbull is vice-presi- 
dent, and in which C. W. Clarke, a large land- 
owner of this county, is interested, have just 
finished building a dam, which cost about 
$2S00, across Tulare river, four miles from the 
lake, and now a canal, which Is 36 feet wide 
and is to be 10 miles long, is in course of oon- 
strnotion. This cansi will irrigate some 50,- 
000 acres when completed, and will supply 
with water for irrigation what was Atwell's 
island. In Tulare lake, in the '70s. 

Levee Built. — Hanford, Dao. 21 : The 
Kings river levee, which redeems from over 
flow about 11,000 acres of rich agricultural lands 
on the south side of Kings river and north of 
this city, was completed last Sunday, It is a 
little over 14^ miles in length and varies in 
height from 3i to 10 feet, I. N. Weight of 
Tulare was the contractor and it took on an 
average 250 horses and 100 men to oomplete 
the work in 80 days. 


Starch Factory Running, — Cor. Ventura 
Free Prets: The Hueneme Starch Factory 
started up in full blast on Deo. 21st, and Is now 
chewing up murphies worse than any Irish 
paddy. Potatoes are not coming in very fast 
just at present, owing, we suppose, to the fact 
that few know that the factory is started. Mr. 
J, E. Borohard, who was the prime mover of 
the project of building the factory, hauled the 
first 660 sacks of potatoes, but as they are 
capable of handling 100 sacks per day, these 
will not last long, J. B. Alvord has followed 
■nit and will deliver 500 sacks more. 


Fruit Culture in Salt River Valley 
Gen. E, S. Gill of Phoenix in Orange Belt: 
The first fig orchard of any oonsequenoe was 
planted in 1887. It consists of sixty acres, 
and on an adjaioing ranch eighty acres were 
planted the next seasoo. Since then, additions 
have been made on these two ranobes and 
others until now there are over 500 acres 
planted to figs in the valley. Our soil and cli- 
mate seem to bo especially adapted to the sue 
oessfnl cultivation of the fig, and I may add, 
the raisin grape. The soil contains an unusual 
amount of saccharine matter and as a conse- 
quence the figs are very sweet and luscious 
The skin is thin and lender, and there is no 
necessity for dipping in lye to cut it, as ie the case 
in most of the fig-growing districts of the Medi 
terranean. All that is required to put them in 
first-class condition for the market is a little 
bleaching. Two crops a year can be relied on, 
and in some seasons three and even four orops 
can be produced. Rtisin culture is aho new with 
us, but the work already done shows that we 
will produce a very superior quality of raisins, 
equal to the beet from the famous El C^joa dis- 
trict in Sin Diego county. This is owing to 
the great amount of sugar in the grape. For 
the same reason we cannot produce good light 
wines, but there is no question that Salt River 
valley grapes will produce a very superior arti- 
cle of port, sherry and burgundy. The oldest 
orange orchard in the valley will be three years 
old in February. Over 500 acres were planted 
to oraoges last year, and twice that acreage 
will be planted this season. The success of 
orange-growing, particularly on the foothill 
lands, is now assured, as well as the growing of 
figs, raisins and the deoidious fruits. Apri- 
cots, especially, do well all over the valley. 


Cattle Notes. — B.sdo Oazette, Dao. 10, W. 
S. Biiley, while in Smith's valley, Lycn county, 
bought 400 head of cattle; — 100 head of beef for 
his market here and in Virginia and 200 stock 
cattle for his Churchill county ranch. He says 
the people of Mason Valley are holding public 
meetings to discuss the building of a creamery, 
and have about decided to build one. Mr. 
Bailey is going to put a 500 cow creamery on 
his Oburchill county place, and has the lumber 
on the ground to build it. Mr. Bailey has 
been trying the experiment of dehorning old 
cows to be fattened for beef, and Is highly 
pleased with the result. He says he dehorned 
100 head with great success. He says three 
men can run 100 through a chute in a day and 
do the job. Mr, Bailey is thoroughly con- 
vinced that old cows feed better and take on 
fat more readily, make better beef and in every 
way are more satisfactory by being dehorned. 
He says there are fully 2000 head of beef being 

fed in Mason Valley and about the same num- 
ber in Churchill county, J. M. Tannell came 
up from San Francisco after the two steers fat- 
tened by Louis Dean, which were shipped to 
that city where they will be fed until just be- 
fore Christmas and then taken to the snambles 
by Mark Straus of the Bay City Market. Dean 
sold them to C. W. Welby for $500 and Straus 
bought them of Welby, They are twin brothers 
of the Shorthorn family and weigh in the neigh- 
borhood of 3000 pounds each. 

Beef Cattle, — Reno OaztUe,: A careful 
estimate of all the cattle this side of the moun- 
tains, foots 22 680, divided up as follows: Ruby 
valley, 880; Clover valley, 600; Paradise val- 
ley, Owens river and all points notth of Winne- 
mucca, 2000; Lovelocks, 2000; Mason valley, 
2000; Antelope valley, 400; Carson sink, 1500; 
Truokee meadows, 8000; Birney Horn, 800; 
Honey lake, 4500, Besides these, there are 
about 2500 in Shasta valley; looks as if San 
Francisco butchers would have to pay for beef 
before spring. Baef is selling now at Omaha 
for 11^ and 12 cents. Washington has none; 
Oregon is short; Arizona will not contribute 
any considerable number to the market, and it 
looks decidedly encouraging for the feeders this 
year. The Oazette will be greatly disappointed, 
if beef is not worth 7 or 7^ cents before the 
close of February, 

Better Horses lor Calilornia. 

The interest is manifestly Increasing over the 
State among good, intelligent farmers and 
breeders for a larger class of good, heavy 
horses and fine single and double carriage 
teams. Whoever has large draft or fine car- 
riage horses to sell finds a ready market at good 
prices, while small, inferior and nnreliable 
stock will not sell at any price worth raising. 
If the farming community in general would 
pay more attention to breeding to good im- 
ported pure-bred registered stallions the im- 
provement in the horse industry would soon be 
felt throughout the State in the price of horses, 
and no enterprise well followed will increase 
the prosperity of any section more than pro- 
duoing the best kinds of coaoh and draft 
horses that always sell at paying prices in any 
market, Eistern horses of ordinary quality 
are shipped here and sold at good prices on ao- 
oonnt of the demand for kind, reliable, well- 
bred stock for general use. They can be as 
well or better raised in California by using only 
good sires as to pay transportation and profit 
to bring them from the E let. Importers and 
dealers are now introducing in this State sev- 
eral kinds of breeds of excellent merit and 
proven endurance in the Eistern States, and 
having no superiors. Holbert & Conger of Los 
Angeles, importers and dealers, showed some 
grand Shire draft horses and the great German 
coach horse Adonis, at our last State Fair, and 
we learn are now receiving at their stables in 
Los Angeles, two carloads of Shires, Cleveland 
Bays and German coaoh stallions — all imported 
this season direct from Europe, and among the 
very best that could be bought. This firm is 
the first to introduce the celebrated German 
and Oldenburg coaoh horse on the Pacific 
Ooast. Their German coaoh stallion Adonis, 
sold to Mr. Sperry of Stockton, is rapidly mak- 
ing a State reputation for the beet coach type. 
With this importation they have two younger 
ones of much quality and character — a raven 
black and mahogany bay, as well as Superior 
Clevelands and Grand Shires, all registered full 
bloods in Europe and America, We are satis- 
fied no successful breeder can make a mistake 
in using this kind of stallions to the exclusion 
of all grades and scrubs. 

The growth and development of the Pacific 
Slope will certainly demand as good horses for 
coach, carriage and draft uses, as are now pro 
duced for sporting purposes. 

Scientific Examination of Soils. 

We have received a copy of Wahnsohaffes' 
"Examination of Soils," published by Henry 
Carey Baird of Philadelphia. It is a compila- 
tion of the various methods of mechanical and 
chemical analyses aa pursued by German chem- 
ists, and includes some of the appliances de- 
vised by Prof. Hilgard of our State Uaiversity. 
It does not include, however, the important 
contributions made to a knowledge of the sub- 
ject by French oheciiste, and is thnrefore de- 
ficient as a general review of the sobj ;ct, The 
publication is not adapted to the use of farm- 
ers, but is a text-book for consultation in the 
laboratory, and should ba included in all book 
collections for such purposes. It is sent post- 
paid for $1.50 by the publishers. 

Early Treasures, 

Eds. Press: — To-day I picked on the Asylum 
Farm, near this city, fine samples of our favor- 
ite California poppy (EschsehoUzia) in full bloom, 
with many buds clustering about them. These 
are the avartt eourier» of the grand army of 
wild-flowers that will come trooping on in a 
month or two. This is very early for these 
flowers to bloom in this valley. Have they 
been noted in bloom elsewhere by any of your 
readers, I wonder, this winter ? 

Also the same day I gathered fresh sprays of 
Maidenhair fern (Adiantum), coffee fern, 
(Pteris Androme da/olio) , the pretty "Lace 
fern" and the common "Polypodlnm." R. 

Napa. Dec. S6. 

Why Plants Grow Erect. — Why trees or 
other plants grow erect has never yet been 
definitely determined. It has been supposed 
to have some relation to the action of light. 
Certainly, a plant usually growing erect turns 
toward any opening for light in a dark cellar, 
but when there is no light, they grow erect. 
Dr. Maxwell S. Masters has recently called at- 
tention to some cases in an English coal mine 
1000 feet deep. Some props made from green 
posts pushed out into growth, and though In 
absolute darkness they were perfectly erect. 
They were perfectly blanched. 

An Ingenious Invention Is an orange 
peeler that removes the coat without cutting 
the inner skin. It is claimed that 1000 oranges 
may be peeled without soiling finger or glove, 
or losing a drop of jnice. The peeler is a piece 
of wire, nickel-plated, very much in the shape 
of a button-hook, but with a tiny blade let Into 
the inner bend of the hook. When the point 
of the hook is drawn into the fruit it slides be- 
tween the pulp and the peel without danger of 
entering either, while the blade divides the 
peel easily and rapidly, after which it may be 
removed without trouble. 


To meet with ready sale at good prices butter muet 
not only be sweet but rich in flavor. 

To the dairyman and fa'mer a satisfactory color is an 
item of great importance, and there have been many 
preparations put on the marliet for this purpose. 

The Improved Butter Color, made by Wellp, Richardson 
& Co., Burlington, Vt., is far ahead of all other colors, in 
shade, strength, and purity. It Is free from taste or 
smell, absolutely without sediment, and gives the natu 
ral shade produced by good June pasturage. The manu 
facturers off«r to ma l free enough of this preparation to 
color sixty pounds of butter on receipt of six cents in 
stamps. We hope all the butter-making readers of the 
Rural Pskss who do not use the Improved, will take 
advantage of this generous offer. 

Complimentary Samples. 

Persons receiving tills paper marked are re- 
quested to examine its contents, terms of sub- 
scription, and give It their ovm patronage, and 
as far aa practicable aid in circulating the 
journal, and making its value more widely 
known to others, and extending its Influence In 
the cause It faithfully serves. Subscription, 
paid in advance, 5 roos, $1; 10 moa., $2; 15 
mos., $3. Extra copies mailed for 10 cents, 
if ordered soon enough. If already a nub- 
sorlber, please show tHo paper tn nthnrs. 



Cheap, Durable and Effective. 

Pickets colored red bv boiling in a chemical paint to 
preserve the wood. We make it 2 ft., 2i ft., i ft. and 4^ 
(t. high. Send for circulars and price list to 


14 & 16 Fremont St San Franrigco. 

The above cut shows a section of the Judson 2-ft. 
Rabbit-Proof Fence. By stretching barbed wires on the 
posts above it, it will turn any stock whatever. 



Before Buying a Sewing Machine. 
It is the leader in practical progress. Send for price list 
J. W. BVANS. 29 Poet St., S. F. 


The regular Annual Meeting of the Stockholders of 
the Grangers' Bank of California, for the election of 
Directors for the ensuing year, will take place at the 
office of the Bank, in the City of San Francisco, State of 
California, on Tuesdiy, the 12th day of January, 1892, 
at one o'clock, P. M. 

For Grangers' Bank of California, 

San Francisco, Dec. 14, 1891. Cashier and Manager, 


Mr. J. T. Mock, of Danville, Ky., say»: " I can cheer- 
fully recommend Quinn's Ointment to all horsemen as 
the very best remedy in use. Would not be without it " 
For Curbs, Splints, .><pavin9, Windpuff", or any enlarge- 
ments, give it a trial. Sample box 25 centf, silver or 
stamps. Regular size 31.50 delivered Address W. B. 
Eddy & Co., Whitehal', N. Y. 

Don't Fail to Write, 

Should this paper be received by any subscriber who 
doee not want it, or beyond the time he intends to pay 
for it, let him not fail to write us direct to stop it. A 
postal card (costing one cent only) will suffice. We will 
not knowingly send the paper to any ooe who does not 
wish it. but if it is continued, through the failiu-e of the 
subscriber to notify us to discontinue It, or some irre- 
sponsible party requested to stop it, we shall positively 
demand payment for the time it is sent. Look oabefcllt 


The German Savings and Loan Society, 

526 California Street. 

a dividend has been declared at the rate of five and 
four-tenths (5 4-10) per cent per annum on Term De- 
posits, and four and one-half (4J) per cent per annum on 
Ordinary Deposits, payable on and after SATURDAY, 
January 2, 1892. 

GEORGE TOURNY, Secretary. 

Grain Harvesting has been reduced to a 
fine point In Cilltoraia. A recent report frcm 
Stanislaus county shows that it ooate jast 80 
cents per acre to harvest the orop from a ranch 
of 7330 acres. 


Dia St., corner Webb, branch, 1700 Market St., cor. 
Polk. For the half year ending with December 31, 1891, 
a dividend has been declared at ihe rate of five and four- 
tenths (5 4 10) per cent per annum on term depoei s, and ' 
four and one-naif (4J) per cent per a-num on or(iina>y 
deposits, free of taxes, payable on and after SATURDAY, 
January 2, 1892. LOVELL WHITE, Cbshier. 


"The New Tiealinent" for Ca- 
tarrh, by petroleum. Send stamp for 30 
page pamphlet, free. Agents wanted. 

The Sower Should Take No Cbacces, 

But assure the success of his planting by using seeds 
which have been put to tbe test and th ir virtue proven. 
In another column appears the advt. of W. W. Baruard 
& Co., Chicago, among the largest of western seedsmen. 
The growih and success of this firm have been due to the 
prompt execution of or lers and to the fact that their 
tested seeds when u»ed cau-e no dieappointment. 



market rate of interest on approved security in Farm- 
ing Lands. A, SCHULLER, Room 8, 420 Cali- 
fornia St., San Francisco. 



real estat." below market rates. HOWF, BAND 
MANN & CO.. California St.. F. •• 

Unitarian Literature 

Sent free by Ihe Channing Auxiliary of the First 
Unitarian Church, cor. Geary and Franklin Sts., San 
Francisco. Address Mrs. B. F. Giddings as above. 

I» I -A. lO" <3 S. 


Tone, Touch, Workmanship and Durability. 

Baltimore, 22 and 24 East Baltimore Street. 
New York, 148 Fifth Ave. Washington, 817 Market Space. 

Oldest Music House. 




3« O'Farrell Ht.. H. V. 


Piactical Horticulturist of California 
experience can have steady employ- 
ment on one of the largest fruit 
Unvfirnltnricf farms in San niego County, conslst- 
nUllitlUllilloli log of Oranges, Lemons, Olives, 
Apricots and Grapes. Only competent, wide-awake 
parties need apply. Address, with references, E. M. 
FRANK, 215 California Street, San Francisco, or F. F. 
ADAMS, Fallbrook, Cal. 

Addrea* C. R. (iRCUTT. Oroutt, California 







Sprains, Bruises, Burns, Swellings, 


f ACIFie I^URAb f RESS. 

[Jan 2 1892 


A.Ancliie CnnDingliain, F.C.S.&c 



14 Chronicle Buildine. 

San Francisco, 

Prof, of Chemistry IfahnenianD Hospital College, S. F, 
KveniDR Classes in 'Theoretical and Practical Chemistry, 
Instruction aHo given by mail. Terms on application 

School of Practical, Civil, Mechanical 
Electrical and Mining Engineering, 

SurveyioK, Architecture, Drawing and Assaying', 
Open All Year. 
A. VAN DEK NAILLKN, President. 
Assaying of Ores, 32S; Bullion and Chlorlnatlon Assay 
(26; Blowpipe Assay, $\0. Full course of assaying, 160 
ESTABLISHED 18M tT Send tor circular. 

Bowens Academy, 

University Ave., Berkeley. 


For Boys and Young Men. 
Special university preparation, depending not on time, 

but on progress in studies. 
T. 8. BOWENS, M. A Head Master 



24 POST ST., S. F. 

Colieire Instructs in Shorthand, Type Writing, Book 
keeping, Telegraphy, Penmanship, Drawing, all the 
English branches, and everytliing pertaining to business 
for six full months. We have sixteen teachers, and give 
Individual Instruction to all our pupils. Our school has 
Its graduates in every part of the State. 

E. P. HEALD, President. 

C. & HALEY, Secretary. 


Ditson s 


Music Books. 

Latest Series! Jnst Issued! 

Nc Plus Ultra Piano Collection. 

IfO pages Brilliant but easy pieces. 

Ne Plus Ultra Ballad Collection. 

160 pai'es. Latest and best sungs. 

Ne Plus Ultra Son^ and Chorus Collection. 

Each song has a ringing chorus. 

Ne Plus Ultra Dance Collection. 

Every style of dance music; not diWcult. 
All these bonhH are largre sheet masic size. 







'K fmoiir 



tiaed on Ao Other. 
Save much trouble and expense. 
nearly one horse lighter than any other. It 
does not require weighting down with iron, 
dirt or Btone, which also makes it lighter draft. 
Send for book «<The Reason MTiy." 

KEYSTONE MFG. CO., Sterling, III. 

Mention this papei; 

Branch Houses conTeniently 



■ ■ I I ■ 'n?.lV/nrf4S(cam«ac/i'i/. Encyclopedia SSc 

■ ■ „ ""TheflmerlcanWellWorks.Aurora.llL 

11-i3S.Canai,St.,CHICAGO,1LL. I „ 
Elm Street. DALLAS. TEXAS i Branch Hauaeg. 


A practical treatise oy T. A. Qian 
giving the results of long experi- 
ence in Southern California. IM 
pages, oloth boand. Sent po«t-paId 
' le doced p rise of 76 eto. pei codt 
sewn k 00.. PabiWun. a.v. 

A Panic! 

Will it affect yon and me? 

Yes, it is very fer reaching. 

How did it all happea ? Please tell ! 

Yes, certainly. Read what is said about 
it in the story below. 

It is not like other Panics— You will be 
benefitted by it rather than injured. 

A certain mercantile house gathered to- 
gether an immense stock of goods from 
the markets of the world— consisting of 
almost every article of commerce needed 
in trade to make things run smoothly. 

Things to eat, things to wear, things to 
play with, things to work with, things to 
keep folks warm, things to keep them 
cool, things to build and furnish houses, 
things that farmers and housekeepers 
buy and use all the time, books and 
other things to read. 

These are all or nearly all of the best 
quality — when you try them once you 
will want them again. 


Because they are better and cheaper 
than anybody else can sell you any- 
where in the " wide, wide, world." 

Is this Place ? 

At 416-418 Front St., San Francisco, 

Do you know who I can write to about it ? 



NATION OF 80IL.S. Comprising Select Methods 
of Mechanioal and Chemical Analysis and Physical In- 
vestigation. Translated from the Oerman of Dr. F. 
Wahnschafle. With additions by William T Brannt, 
editor of " The Techno-Chemical Receipt Book." Illus- 
trated by 25 engravlnga 12mo. 177 page*. Price, SI. 60. 

Sy tnnil free 0/ postage, at the publication price, to any 
address in the ivorld. 

CotiTi!.>(T8.— I. Derivation and Formation of the Soil. 
II. Classification of Soils. III. The Object of Soil Analy- 
sis. IV. Preparatory Labors for SoU Analysis. V. Me- 
chanical Soil Analysis. VI. Determination of the Soil 
Constituents. VII. Determination of the Plant-Nourish- 
ing Substances. VIII. Determination of the Subntances 
in the Soil Injurious to the Growth of Plants. IX. De- 
termination of Various Properties of the Soil. X. Gen- 
eral Rules for Soil Analysis Index. 

IS' A Circular showing the full table of contents 
of the above book sent free to any one who will apply. 

Our new Revised Detcriptive Catalogue of 
Practical and Scientific Books, 83 pages. Sin, and our 
other catalogues, the whole cocering every branch of 
Science applied to the Arts, tent free and free of postage 
to any one in any part of the world who will furnish 
his addrejts. 



810 Walnut St., Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. A. 




Including the 

It Stands the Test! 

Sharpies ImproTed 

Twenty per cent cheaper than any other Separator. 

It IS recommended by all commission houses. 

Hetrler & Johnson, «'m. Uatton and J. Warren Dutton 
have adopted it in pr- furence to all rivals. 

I now have on hand the small-sized Sharpies Improvjd 
Separator and the Russian Steam Separator. 

Second-hand De LavalB, good as new, tor sale cheap. 

A. J. VAN DKAKE, Pacific Coast Agent, 

203 Fremont St., San FraoclBCo, Cal. 




A Great Advantage and Convenience. 

Also the 


J* Barrel Churns. 

Made of Selected Oak 

Perfectly Finished Inside 
and Out. A General Fav 
orite Everywhere. Also 

Printers & Molds. 

Send for Catalozue of Im 
proved Dairy Machinery. 



346 N. Main St., Los Angeles. 141 Front St., PortlaniL 




Manufacturer of the Rose Deep Well Pump. No 
1111 Ninth Street, SACRAMENTO, CaL Catalogues Free' 

IS THE BEST, because 
it combines simplicity 
of construction with 
power and economy in 
space. It can be run 
with natural or maou- 
lacturtd ;as or gasoline 
at a cost of 20 to 25 
cents per horse power 
per day. 

It can be used for 
pumping purposes, 
w'cll as for all purposes 
where a perfect engine 
is required, with the 
advantage of lessening 
the risk of explosions. 
Ne licensed engineirr at 
a high salary needed to 
operate it. 

Send for circulars and 
prices if a good safe en- 
gine is what you need. 

The OrieDtil Lanacli is PerfectioD. 

Inventor and Mannfactarer, 

Illustrated Publications, with 

MAPSfd*^!^(^'ril>i 11^ Minnesota, 
T>i.irtii Dakota, MuntaDa.Iiiaho, 
^V;^slliIi)^toIl and Oregon, tba 


, PACIFIC R. R. . 

1 ing and TiilibtT Lands' 

I now open to settlt ra. Mailed FREE. Address 
CUAS. U. LanBOIlN, Land Com. K. P. B. B., GU Paul, Bias. 



Eye without operation. Keeideuce and Office, 1482 
Ueaiy St., corner Laguna, Sao Fiancisco, 


Mexican Phosphate & Sulphur Co., 


Now favorably known throughout tlie Citros 
Growing Sections of the State, Stands Unrivaled 
as a True Fertilizer. 

Certain in its Action, Great in Results, it 
maintains a high standard of fertility without 
undue stimulation. 

Growers in San Bernardino County — notably 
Riversi le — and Butte County — notably Paler- 
mo — can attest its merit. 

We guarantee uniformity in its analysis, an I 
seek correspondence with bonafide purchasers 
of a reliable fertilizer. 

Mexican Phosphate &SuIpIinr Co., 

H. M. NEWHALL & CO., Agents, 

309-81 1 Sansome Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

Tlllat C'O.'ni'I.KTK KIT OF TUUUI 

Send for No IH Illustrated Cataln(;iie. 

TRUMAN, HOOKER & CO., San Francisco. 


The Kernel Without the Shell. 

If you want to keep posted on the established rules 


Without the trouble of sifting the information out of a 
mass of matter only suitable for study by protessiODal 
legislators, get the 



The only publicatiuQ on the subject that admits of easy 
and ready reference on all questions. 

Priie: Bound In flexible cloth covers, postpaid, ten 
cents. Address DiniT & Co., 220 Market St, 8. F. 

O. H. EVANS & 00. 

(Sucoeeeors to TUOUSON & EVANS , 

110 and lia Beale Street, 8. F. 

Steam Pumps, Steam Engines 

and aU kinds of UACUINERY. 

klods cheaper 

11 elsewhere. B*- 
tou hoy. aend 
nutiH. t.,r iiiti.«trated 
»r. EiK' 10 Th« 

DICTni ClCi. ^^'^^ ■ ■ 8tr««l, 

r\9 1 UL5 /&c WATCiuu, iuuYuxj;b,*«. cinoixuisttOIilo. 

Jan. 2, 1892] 

pACIFie I^URAId f ress. 

Best's Improved Combined 

It haa beoome a settled fact that in 
the great valley wheat • prodacing 
areas of Gilifornla the combined har- 
vester is peculiarly adapted to wheat- 
growers' needs. These harveeters 
have been in the field for the last ten 
years. They have now assamed a 
shape, loope and capacity that make 
it desirable for all large farmers to 
have a combined harvester, and for 
neighbors who have small farms to 
join for the pnrpose of coopejating in 
rai'ing wheat. 

The sketch of the new harvester, 
shown on this page, is believed by the 
inventor, Mr. Beat, to be the acme of 
perfection. Ic has been need in all 
portions of the inland wheat-raising 
sections, on the hillside and in the 
valley, and tested severely in catting 
lodged grain. 

It has been demonstrated long ago 
that the thrashing of the combined 
harvester was not intricate or hard 
to accomplish, but economic qaei> 
tions came in. Among these were the sepa- 
rating of the grain from the straw, regn- 
iating the wind for fast or slow motion, and 
cleaning the grain to pat It in marketable con- 
dition, and last but not least of these require- 
ments was the necessity of piling the thrashed 
straw in heaps, instead of scattering it over the 


Best's combined harvester haa solved these 
questions by (Ist) the automatic wind break, 
(2d) placing the Bast's cleaner on top of 
the machine, as if it were a crown for cleaning 
grain, (3d) making a long distance for the straw 
to carry, with plenty of pitchers, and the 
last and latest, as shown in the cut, the dump- 

All these improvements have been tested by 
experience, and Mr, Best has a hat full of tes- 
timonials from all portions of the State, saying 
that by the nee of this improved grain-cleaner, 
separator and harvester, the farmer saves 
from one-fourth to one-half in the cost of har- 

It fbould be a stbjeot of coneratulation to 

Mr. Best to know that the best part of his life 
haa been spent in making labor-caving devices 
and machinery for the agrioultarist, and in 
every Instance he has been crowned with the 
success of endorsement and first-class prem> 
'ums, until his great agricultural works at San 
Leandro have hardly the capacity to meet the 
orders that are pouring in upon him. 

Dewey & Co., Patent Agents. 

Reasons Why Pacific Coast Inventors 
Should Patronize this Home Ageucy- 

It is the ablest, largest, best, Aost convenient 
economical and speedy for all Pacific Coast 

It is the oldest on this side of the American 
continent, most experienced, and in every way 

It has the largest library of Patent Law 
books, American and Foreign Patent Office 
Reports, scientific and mechanical newspaper 
files, latest works on science, art, inventions, 
and mechanical and other new discoveries. 

The Mining and Scientific Press and Pacific 
RuKAL Press, published at this office, give well- 
written, timely and wide-spread information of 
all worthy inventions, whenever desired by 

Conducted from 1863 by present owners, this 
agency has the best knowledge of patents al- 
ready issued, and of the state of the arts in all 
lines of inventions most common on this coast. 

Patents secured in the United States, Canada, 
Mexico, all British colonies and provinces, 
England and other civilized countries, through- 
out the globe. 

Caveats filed, assignments duly prepared, ex- 
aminations made, and a general Patent Agency 
business conducted. 

Established and successfully and popularly 
conducted for nearly thirty years, our patrons 
number many thousands, to whom we refer 
with confidence, pride and due acknowledge- 
ments. Jld and new inventors are cordially 
offered the complimentary use of our library 
and free advice, etc. No other can afford Pacific 
States inventors half the advantages possessed 
by this old, tried and experienced firm. 

Chestflutwood's Business College. 

Chestnutwood's Business College was never in a 
more flourishing condition than at present. It is an 
institution which Santa Cruz feels proud of, hence 
its success is a matter of gratification. The course 
of study is directly adapted to the exigencies of the 
age and times — short, practical, useful and reason- 
able — training: young men, young ladies, boys and 
middle-aged men, for a successful start in life; teach- 
ing them how to get a living, make money, and be- 
come enterprising, useful citizens. 

When the F. A. Hihn Co. prepared plans for the 
building which now stands on the corner of Pacific 
and Walnut Avs., Prof. Chestnutwood immediately 
spoke for rooms on the second floor. The rooms 
were arranged for the exclusive use of the college, 
and the professor's suggestions put into practical 
shape by the builders, until it can be safely said 
that the collf ge now occupies the handsomest, best 
hghted and ventilated place in the State devoted to 
business college purposes. 

There are no vacations at Chestnutwood's, ex- 
cepting a short one at the holidays. Work goes on 
the year round and students m^y enter at any time 
and proceed at once with their work. For further 
information, address J. A. Chestnutwood, Box 
43, Santa Cruz, Cal. 


e= -- - ■ SEND TO^'--'^ 



THE Most reliable house '♦'v,we:st. 


Out Agents. 

Otm KaniNDg can do mucb in aid of our paper mud the 
ckuee of practical knowledge ftnd science, by assisting 
AKeota in tlielr Iat>or8 of canvassing, by lending their in- 
Suenoe »nd encouraging favors. We Intend to send dod* 
but worthy men. 

,T. C. H0A8— San Francisco. 

R. G. B4ii,KY— San Francisco. 

Geo. Wilson— Sacramento Oo. 

J. H Crossman— Ferris, Cal. 

Chauncby a. Dayton — San Lucas, Cal. 

G. R. Gibb— Cambria, Cai. 

Frank A. Swbetser — Colusa Co. 

W. E BRAYTON-San Penito Co. 

J. T. Austin— Tulare County. 

Wm. T. Hkald— Cloverdale, Cal. 

Samukl B. Cliff— Creston, Cal. 

W. W. Mason— Nevada. 

Newspaper Agents Wanted. 

Extra inducements will be offered for a 
few active canvassers who will give their 
whole attention (for a while at least) to so- 
liciting subscriptions and advertisements 
for this journal. Apply soon, or address 
this office, giving address, age, experience 
and reference. Special inducements to old 
agents. Dewey & Co., Publishers, 
No. 220 Market .St.. S. F. 




Will Save the Labor of 30 Men, 

Besides doing much better worls than hand grubbing and 
is the most practical and succ ssful machine of the kind 
In existence. Send for Catalogue to 



The Armstrong Antomatic 



The Best, Lightest, Cheapest 
^i^p. Engine in the world. Can be 
arranged to Burn Wood, Coal, 
Straw or Petroleum. 5or8H.P, 
Mounted on sIcldR or on wheels 
TBUIIAN. HOOKBB A OO San Franoisoo. 


farm, by a married man with five years experience 
in growing and packing raisins. Wife can take charge 
of packing department, being a first-class packer. Pre f. r 
taking position January 1, 1892, but can come at any 
time debired. Best of reference given as to capacit>, 
honesty, etc. For particulars, address C. N., Box A 
this office. 

FRIWt trees. French Prune on Myrobo'an, 
dormant, 2 buds each stock. French F<une anu 
Peach on t-each. Almond on Almond, 8 In. to 20 in., 
standard varieties, S6 per 100, $6(i per 1000. AlsoBut- 
lett Pears, 2-vear.old, cheap. Fur samples adurets, 

NURSERYMAN, P. O. Box 363, Sacramento, Cal. 

A PositiYe, Sure and Safe Remedy for all Diseases of Fowls. 

LEWIS' pouTTry remedy. 

The ssle of this splendid remedy has doubled every month this year, and all the leading ranchers in this county 
are C'ldorsing and using it. 

B sidee biing the sttest remedy, it is the most economical, as a FIFTY-CENT BOTTLE will go as far as three 
times that amount invested in anvtiiing else, and then you have the sttisfaction of using a remedy that will do the 
wurk. and no fooling about it. Being put up in liquid form, it is less trouble to give tban powdeis, and you get at 
the di'ease at on<^e. 

This remedi' is also a POWERFUL DISINFECTANT, and. given aa a preventive, keeps the fowls to a healthy 


ANGEL CITY CHEMICAL CO., No.255 S LosAngeles St., Los Angeles. 

Free samples can be had of all Grocers and Druggiatp. 

IVt. NJEl^WTk/LA^JE^JS^ eky GO., 




Porteous Improved Scraper 

Patented Apri' 3, 1883. Patented April 17, 1883. 

Manufactured by G. LISSENDEN. 

The attention of the public is called to this Scraper 
and the many varieties of work of which it is capalile, 
such as R-ilroad Work, Irrigation Ditches, Levee Build- 
ing. Leveling Land, Road Making, etc. 

This implement will lake up »nd carry its load to any 
desireil distance. It will dittribute the dirt evenly or 
(,'epo"it its load in bulk as desired. It will do the work 
of Scraper, Grader, and Carrier. Thousands of these 
Scrapers are in use in all parts of the country. 

This Scraper is all steel— the only one manufac- 
tured in the State. 

Price, all Steel,, (40 ; Steel two-horse, $31. 
Address all orders to O. LISSENDEN, Stockton, 


I-OH iS A TiE. 

ten miles S. W. from the town of Williams, Colusa Co., 
Cal.; 460 acres of choice tinit and grain land; the baUnce 
nrst-cla«s grazing land, cai able of keeping 200 head o i cat- 
tle the year r'>und; plenty of living wat> r; two-»torv house 
uf 11 rooms, hard fi ibhed; tank-house, bard finished, all 
new; hot and cold nater in kitchen and bath room. 
Nice lijcation; fine view of the surrounding country. 
Crops never fail. Price, $36,000. Terms, one-half down, 
the other secured by mortgage at eight per cent per 
annum. This property will be sold in subdivisions to suit 
purchasera Apply or write to L. H. BAKER, on premises. 


SECTION 15, T. 23, R. 24-640 ACRES OR LESS-Si 
milts S. W. of Pixiey, can be had at a nominal rent 
the firs' year, with preference for after years. Would give 
U'e I f 160 ac ea ur more for two years fur boring a flowing 
artesian well. Call on L. E. Smith. Wells, rargo & Co.'e 
office, Pixiey, nr addre'S the unders gned, A. T. DEWEY. 
Also, one quarter Sec. 13, T 21. R. 23, 9 miles S. W. of 
TuUre City. Satisfactory arrangements can likely be 
made for irrigating the latter. 

We have llie FIneMt anil l.ariceiit I'urrlaKC 
Kepoitllory on llio I'acliic <'ouHt. 

For prices and full particulars, address 


San FranclBCO and Freano. 

F' $MMd 



Of IB per doi. dellTMed. L f. WHITE * SON , >'«moD», 0*1. 



[Jan. 2, 1892 

hreeder3' birectory. 

six lines or lem In thia Directory >t Uc per line per month, 


SUUon, a F. k N. P. R. R. P. O., Penn'e Grove, 
Sonomd Co., C»l. WlHred Page, Maoacer. Breederi 
of Short Horn Cattle, English Draft Horsea, Spanish 
Merino Sheep and Berkshire Swine. 

for Sale. Bonnie Brae Cattle Co., Holllster, CaL 

JOHN LYNCH, Petaluma, breeder of thoroughbred 
Shorthorns Young stock lor sale. 

F. H. BGRKB, 626 Market St., S. F.; Kegistered 
HolsteiDs; winners of more first prizes, sweepstakes 
and epecial premiums than any nerd on the Coast 
Pure registered Berkshire Plga. All strains. 

J. H. WHITB, Lakevllle, Sonoma Co., CaL,bie«d«i 
of Registered Holsteln Cattle. 

Cattle. H. A. Mayhew, Niles, Cal. 

P. H-MUKPHY, Perkins, Sac. Co. , CaL , Importer and 
Breeder of Shorthorn Cattle and Poland China Hogs. 

M. D. HOPKINS, Petaluma, Importer and dealer In 
Gaetern registered Shorthorns, Ued Polled Cattle, Hoi- 
etelne, Devoos and Shropehire Sheep. 

H. P. MOHR, Mount VAen, Alam-da Co., Cal., breeder 
and iojjiorter ol Kefrintered Clyiieedale Horses, Uol- 
stein-Friesiau Cattle and Berkshire I'lKS. Young ptock 
always on hand anil lor sale. Cinespoodence solicited. 

PBTBR SAXB Si SON, Lick Bouse, San Frandsco, 
Cal Importers and Breeders, for past 21 years, ol 
every variety of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs. 

P. PETERSEN, Sites, ColuoaCo., Importer & Breeder 
of registered Shorthnru Cattle. Young bulls lor sale. 

A. Ueilbron & Bro., Props., Sac. Breeders cl thorough- 
bred strains and Cruikdhank Shorthorns; also Registered 
Uerelords: a line lot ol young bulls in each herd for sale. 

CHARLES B HDMBBRT, Cloverdale, Cal., Im- 
porter and Breeder ol Recorded Uolsteln-Frieeian 
Cattle. Catalogues on application. 

PBROHBRON HORSES.— Pure bred horses and 
mares, all ages, and guaranteed breeders, lor sale at 
my ranch near Lakeport, Lake Co., Cal. New cata. 
logue now ready. Wm. B. Collier. 

WILLIAM NILBS, Los Angeles, CaL Thoroughbred 
Registered Holsteln and Jersey Cattle. None better. 

T. PHILLIPS. Siml, Ventura Co., Cal. Pure Bred 
Percheron Horses lor sale. 


JAMBS QUICK, Patterson, Cal., Breeder of Pure 
Bred Poultry of Choicest Varieties and Best Blood. 

MADISON H. OBITCaBB. Santa Crui, Santa 
Cruz Co., CaL Thoroughbred Poultry. Settings, IS. 

OALT POULTBY YABDS. Gait, Sac. Co., Cal. 
Pure bred Fowls, Pekin Ducks, Belgian Hares, etc. 

JOHN McFARLtNO, Callstoga, Cal. , Importer and 
Breeder ol Cliolce Poultry. Send lor Clrcuiiar. Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire Pigs. 

R. G. HEAD, Napa, Importer and Breeder of Land 
and Water Fowls. Send for New Catalogue. 

Box 283. St. Helena, Cal. S. C. White Leghorns, 
Toulouse Oeese and Pekin Ducks. 

J A S. M I T OHB LL, St. Helena. W. G. & S. Wyandottes. 
O. J. ALBBB, Lawrence, Cal. Pore bred poultry. 


retry, Cal., breeders of Merino Sheep. Rams for sals. 

B H. OBANB, Petaluma, Cal., breeder and Importer. 
South Down Sheep; also Fox Hounds from Missouri. 

FBANK BULLARD, Woodland, Cal., Importer and 
breeder ol thoroughbred Spanish Merino Sheep. Pre- 
mium band ol the State. Choice rams and ewes lot sale. 

ANDBBW SMITH, Redwood City, Cal.; see adv^ 


WILLIAM NILBS, Los Angeles, Cal. Thoroughbred 
Poland-China and Berksnire Pigs. Circulars Iree. 

TYLBB BEACH, San Jose, Cal., breeder of 
iborsnghbred Berkshire and Essex lioga 

ANDBBW SMITH, Redwood City, Cal.; see adv't. 


quarters, Wm. Styan, San Mateo, Cal. 

APIABIAN SUPPLIES fir sale by Hts. J D 
Eoas, Napa City, Oal. 


Imp irteis and Dealers 
Direct from Kurope, 
English Shire Draft, 

Cleveland Bay 
and German Coach 
129 Klchleenth St.. 
L.oa « UKnlxH.Cnlifornla 
Wri!e lor Catalogue. 


Short Horn Cattle and Draft Horses. 

Catalogues and Prloes on application to 
Bftdan Stauon, • Sma Mftteo Oo.. OmL 



Brood Mares, Colts and Fillies. 



(Sold on Account ol III Health.) 

ON WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 27, 1892, AT 10 A. M., AT 

Salesyard, Gorner Van Ness Avenoe and Market St., San Francisco. 

The continued ill-health ol Dr. Hicks compels him, reluctantly, to permanently retire Irom the buslnesH ol 
breeding atandard-brcd horses. He hastfeased his stallions to parties in Indiana, and through the medium of the 
auction block proposes to dispose cf his broodmares and young horses His splendid array of brooilmares, with 
their produce, collected and bred with such care and excellent judgment, will be placed unreservedly In the hands 
ol the public, he leeling confident their merit will be recognized and lair prices obtained. His stock runs largely 
to the great speed lines ol the country, and judicious crossing has produced broodmares which are invaluable to 
the breeding community. 

Full citalogui 8 giving breeding, registry, etc , together with breeding of stallions, lor reference, may be had 
upon appllcttion to the undersigned, 22 Montgomery street, San Francisco, Cal. 

Walnut Grove Herd of Poland China Hogs 


, Proprietor, 


33 X=t. X3 X3 X> X3 XI 


Strictly Bred 


At the head of the herd stands PERFECTION KING, No. 7579; KING OF THE WEST, No. 8931; 
HOOSIER BOY 2d, No. 8923. Breeding Bows as fine IndivldualB and as strictly bred as any in the land; 
also recorded in the C. P. C. R. record with pedigrees full to standard. Breeders for sale at all times. 
I have first-clas-s Pigs of both sexes at reasonable prices. Residence 1>4 miles northeast of Davisville, Cal. 
Personal inspection eoliclted. All Inquiries promptly answered. Yours tnily, JOSEPH MELVIN. 

3xr 13 n Es snvxiTH, 






TouDg Stock lor sale at reasonable prices. Every animal giiaranteed. 
OFFICE— ai8 Oallfornla St., San Francisco. BBDWOOD OITT, CAL. 


Importer and Breeder of ABKRDEEN ANGUS CATTLE. Proprietor, J. B. CAMP, Sacramento, CaL 


Importer and Breeder of 

EDgiisli Sbire, Clydesdale, Percheron and Coach Horses. 


OUR STCD consists of a Hne lot of young Stallions and Marcs, combining Size, (,>uality 
of Bone and Choice Breeding, being descendants of some of the most noted Prize-Wmnliig 
Strains in this country and Europe. Particular attention uiveu to the forming of Stock 
Companies and Breeders' Associations. Breeding Stock purchased in this way has invariably 
proved a success and a paying investment. Our Forms for their organization and manage- 
ment has proved one ol the bust. LOW PRICES AND EASY TERMS. 

Stable, Broadway and 3!9d Sta , Oakland, Cal. Address Box 86. 


Ducks, Turkeys, Geese, Peacocks, Etc, 


Publisher of " NUes' Paclflo Coast Poultry and Stock Book,'' 

a new book on subjects connected with successful poultry and stock raising on 
STa^ the Pacific Coast Price 50 cents, post-paid. Inclose stamp for Information. 


Jersey and Holsteln Cattle. Also, Poland China and Berkshire Pigs. 

Address, WILLIAM NILES. Los Angeles, Cal. 



Genuine only with RED 
BALL brand. 

Hccommendcd by Gold- 
smith, Marvin, tt^mhle. 
Wells, Fargo & Co., eta., etc. 

It keeps Uorses and Cattle 
healthy. For milch cows; 
it increases and enriches 
their milk. 

ess Howard St., San 
FranolMO, Oal. 



Red Polled Cattle. 

We have 1 9 head of Imported Stock. 


Importer and Breeder of Shropshire Sheep. 

They were all Imported from England In '88, or bred 
dlreot from Imported Stock, and all registered. 

Kxx: CTT ATVr , 

Breeder of American Merino Sheep With- 
out Horns. 

The only flock In the United States. When we bought 
our sheep Eatt 20 years ago, among them was a ram with- 
out horns. He grew to he a 8oe laige sheep, shearing at i 
ypars old, a 12 months' fleece, 3fi lbs. of long white wooL 

I have bred from him and his get ever since and have 
never made an out-cross and never used the same ram 
but one year on the same flock. My rams at two years 
old will weigh from 180 to 180 Ihi., have a strong consti- 
tution, without wrinkles, and will shear on an average 
about 25 Ibn., a 12 months' fleece, of long white wooL 
Rams and Ewes for sale. P. O. Addrnss, 

Stony Point, Sonoma Co., Cal. 

K. R. Station. Petalaina. 

F O :E%. » ^ ILs DEI. 

A Consignment of SEVEN 

Clyde Stallions and Mares 

Due on the steamer Mariitota from Auntralia on the,20th 
Inst.; shipped by John Scott. Inquire of 

O. Xji. T-<a.YIjOH., 
488 Oalifornla Street, San Franclaoo. 



One and a half miles northeast of San 
Leandro, Alameda County, 


Every Facility for Breaking Colts Properly. 

Hates Very Reasonable, 


P. O. Box 140 SaD Leandro, Oal. 


each; uute«tcd, ^ 1.00 each. L Hive.-<, ^Jl.i'O e 
KrooTu sectluDs, $5.00 per 1000. Dtulant's cuml) fouiid&tiou, 
58c and 65c a pound. Hmokum, $1.00 f«ch. Glub« veilti. $1.00 
each, vtc. WM. STYAN ft BON. San H»(ao, Oal. 

Gok'en Ital- 
ian l^ueeun. 
Ttited. 92.00 
each. Iloot'h V 

Jan. 2, 1892.] 



If you expect to 


In the Chicken BuBlness you 
need the 

Pacific Incubator and 

It is Cheap, Reliable, Sub- 
stantial, Easily Understood, 
and will hatch akt kind of 
EQoa better than a hen. 

08I.D Medal at San Fran- 
cisco and Sacramento State 

ij l ' Send 8c stamps to pay 

; "'"ll / postage on our new 82-paee 

Illustrated catalogue of In- 
cabatorg, Xhorougrhbred FowIh, Gal. Hex. Net- 
tings, Bone Mills, Poultry Supplies, etc. 

This book contains 30 full-sized colored cuts of Thor- 
ouithbred Fowls, and is replete with information. 

"""'"'pacific incubator CO., 

1817 Castro Street, Oaklacd, Oal 



r^v>T?r\(2r\yr\Ts.Tn^ ""^ ^"^^ """^ cheape t, 

KyL\lh(JnyjZj(Ji\ ]li remetly. When it is used on 
the roosts or in nest boxes, will kill all lice on the 
hens. Ask your dealer for it, or send direct to us. 
Price BOcts per quart can, by express. Circulars free. 

Petaluma Incubator Co., Petaluma, CaL 



ISia MjrU* Street, Oakland, Cat. 

Send Btamp for Oircular, 

Wellington's Improved Egg Food 

Gives a fortune in plenty of eggs when high in price. It 
cures and prevents every disease known to poultry. Ask 
any Grocer— or Proprietor, 425 Washington St., 
San Francisco, Val. 




Horse Liniment 

Is certainly the best preparation of its 
kind In the nnarket. Ranchers, Stock 
Raisers and Horse Owners of every 
description will tell you that It does 
good work every time. 

HESHts. H. H. MoORi & Sons, Stockton, Cal.— Qektli- 
ubm: In answer to your inquiry, would state that I used 
your H. H, H. Liniment on my Holland prize-winning 
cow, " Lena Uenlo," for a wrenched shoulder, and it re- 
lieved her very much. She calved the next day, and wh lie 
still suffering from the sprain gave the largest authen- 
ticated quantity of milk ever given on this coast (lOJ 
gallons per day), showing conclusively the great relief 
received from your remedy. I consider it a necessity in 
my stables, and when away from home feel perfectly 
safe, as Inexperienced men can do no harm with it, as 
they can with the more powerful blisters. Respectfully 
yours, FRANK H. BURKE, 

Breeder of Registered Holsteins and Berksbires. 

Uenlo Park, Cal., January 22d, 1889. 






SPLIT ROCK, No. 2758, Wallace's Register. 

Sired by Alcona (730) (Sire of Flora Belle 2:25, Clay 
Duke 2:29J, Alcona Jr., and others; dam. Pansy by Cas- 
sias M. Clay Jr.; 9 years old;15J hands high; weight 1100 
pounds; peifectly sound, well proportioned, very hand- 
some and an active and spirited traveler. Has no record 
but can go fast if given a chance. Is a sure breeder and 
colts are large, well framed, stylish and speedy and 
always of standard colors. 

For further particulars apply to 

AptoB, Santa Crnz Co , Cal. 



ary Surgeons, London, England. Late Veterinary 
Surgeon in the United States Army. Veterinary Con- 
tributor to the " Pacifio Rural Press." The diseasts of 
all Domestic Animals treated on Scientific Principles 
Special attention given to Chronic Lameness and Surgical 
Operations. 405 BRODERICK ST., SAN FR.VNCI.SCO. 
Calls to tb* country promptly attended to. Telephone 
No. 4667. 

Veterinary Surgeon, 

Graduate of Ontario Veterinary College, Toronto, Canada. 

8S1 Qolden Gate Avenue, San Francisco. 

Telephone 3089 
No risk in throwing Horses. Veterinary operating table 
oo the premises. 



Warehouse and Wharf at Port Gosta. 


Money advanced on Grain In Store at lowest possible rates of Interest. 
Full Oareoes of Wheat famished Shippers at short notice. 

ALSO ORDERS FOR GRAIN BAGS, Agricaltnral Implements, Wagona, Grocerlei 
and Merchandise of every description solicited. 

E. VAN EVERY, Manager. A. M. BELT, Assistant Manager. 




What We Guarantee Carbolineum Avenarius to Do: 

1 — To preaerva any kind of Wood above or under ground or water, and prolong its life at least 100 per cent. 

2 — To prevent moisture from penetrating into briclc or stone walls and preserve them Bame as wood. 

3— To keep ofl all toits of Insects, Vermin or other enemies to wood or obj:ctionable and deetructive agencles. 

4 — T3 prevent Rats and Mice gnawing wood coated v/iih Carbolineum Avenarius. 

5 — To disinfect barns, stables or residences and destroy Microbes. 

6— To force all moiiture out f f the wool without cloEing Ihe pores. 

7— To prevent shingles coated with Carbolinmm from retting, warping or cracking. 

8— 'I'o prevent Rope treated with Carbolineum from rotting, causing it to remain [.liable and excelling Tar Coating. 

9— IMPORTANXt Teredoes will not attack Timber coated v/.lh rarbolrcum Avenarius. 
10 — It does not contain any acids or other poisonous ingredients injurious to fibers of wood. 
11— It ij the cheapest and best wood preserver in the world. 

All the above statements are facts, and all our testimonials to that effect a e genuine and Indisputable. 


MUECKE & CO., Pacific Coast Agents, 319 California St., San Francisco, Cal. 




i> in 


-n m 
5 -< 




Rooms and Board by the Day. $ 1 to S t .J>0 ; by the Week, $6 to $10 ; by the ^Tonth,$25 to $4 0. 

Good Rooms and Elesant Table. Meals, 25e. .Single Rooms, 50c, Free 'Bus. 

S. W. Corner Kearny and Montgomery Avenue, San Francisco. 

Fraa Oosob to and from the Henss. J. W. BBOKHR. Proprietor 




Etc., Etc 



Absolutely Guaranteed. 

Illustrated Circular sent Free. 
(Mention this paper.) 

MFGTcO., Three Rivers, Mich. 


Commission Mercl\ants 



Qreen and Dried Fruits, 
Grain, Wool, Hides, Beans and Potatoes. 

Advances made on Consignments. 
308 ft 310 Davis St., San Pranolioo 

(P. 0. Box 18S6.1 
J^'Conalgnments Solicited. 


501, 503. 505. 507 & 509 Front St., 

And 300 Washington St., SAN FRANCISCO. 



AND wool.. 




General Commission Merchants, 

310 California St., S. F. 

Members of the San Francisco Produce Exchange. 

IS'Personal attention given to sales and liberal advances 
made on consignments at low lates of interest. 


Gommission Mercbants. 



4IS, 416 & 417 Washlnston St., 

(P. O. Box 2099.) SAN FRANCISCO. 

TRUMAN, HOOKER & CO., San Francisco and Fresno, Agents for tbe Paclflc Ooast. 





^9 Olay Street and 28 Oommerctftl Strest 
8iti Franoisoq, Cal. 

KuasNB J. Grboory. [Established 1862.] FrasiI Griookt. 

Gommission Merchants, 


126 and 128 J St., - Sacramento, Cal. 

8an Francisco Office, 813 DbtI* St. 



And Dealers In Fruit, Prodaoe, Poultry, Game, Eggs 
Bides, Pelts, Tallow, etc, 122 Front St., and S21, SS8, 
226 and 227 Washington St., San Francisco. 


Commission Merchants. 

All Kinds of Green and Dried Frulta. 
Consignments Solicited. 324 DavlS St., S. P. 



Incorporated April, 1871. 

Anthorlzed Capital $1,000,000 

Capital paid np and Reserve Fund 800,000 
Dividends paid to Stocliholders. . . 67S,000 


A. D. LOGAN President 

I. C. STEELE Vice-President 

ALBERT MONTPELLIEB Cashier and Manager 


General Banking. Deposits received. Gold and Silver. 
Bills of Exchange bought and sold. Loans On wheat and 
country produce a speolaltv. 

January 1, 1891. A. UONTPBLLIBB, Ifanager. 


f ACIFie I^URAb f RESS. 

[Jan. 2, 1892 


Market Review. 


San Francisco. Dec. 29, 1891. 
The year goes out on a stronger market, except- 
ing for orchard products, than usually obtain. The 
causes that have operated to bring this about, have 
been touched on from time to time in this depart- 
ment, and therefore are famihar to those who keep 
informed on the market. Rains following cold 
north winds have brought a genuine cheerful feel- 
ing to the trade, for with favorable weather from 
now on, we will have large crops of farm products. 
This feeling is emphasized by the rains having held 
off well into winter, which is accepted as a forerun- 
ner of a longer continuance in the spring and sum- 
mer months. The grain market has held to strong 
prices, particularly wheat. The Eastern and Eu- 
ropean markets for wheat have fluctuated only 

Foreign Grain Review. 

London, Dec. ^i.—Mark Lane Express: Only 
a fractional busmess was done m English wheats. 
The Board of Agriculture reports the crop of infe- 
rior quantity andjquality. In many districts an abnor- 
mal proportion of grain has been shed in the 
fields. Foreign wheat and flour sold slowly and 
generally at a decline. Barley, corn and oats de- 
clined, but the absence of Russian supplies has 
given them a tendency to revive. At to-day's mar- 
ket prices of best English wheats wtre maintained; 
ordinary grades and corn were steady; malt and 
foreign wheats dropped 6d; flour was unchanged. 
JLilverpool Wbeat MarKei. 

The following are the closing prices paid tor wheat 
options per ctl. for the past week: 

Dec. Jan. Feb. Mat. April. May- 
Thursday 8s8 d 


Saturday , 

Monday.... 8«8}d 837}d 888 d 8e8 d 8^8 d SsSl d 

The following are the prices for Calilomia cargoes 
(or oflf coast, nearly due and prompt shipments for 
the past week: 

O. C. P. S. N. D. Market for P. S. 

Thursday ISsOd 43s6d 439 Firm, inactive. 

Fridav _ 


Mjnday 4369J 43»6d 4369d Inactive. 


l<Jasteru Oraiu Mar&ete. 
The following shows the closing prices o) wheal 
at New York for the past week, per cental: 

Dav. Dec. Jan. F.b March. April. May. 

ThuTsd'ay 177 177J 177§ 181 .... ISOJ 



Monday 176J 175i 177J 1794 ISIJ 178 


Eastern Wool MarlEet. 

New York, Dec. 27. — Wool sales at New York 
are light, being 286,000 pounds of domestic and 
165,000 pounds of foreign. Holiday week is us ally 
a quiet one here; besides, our assortments have been 
pretty well overhauled. New England had an en- 
couraging week, with values well maintained. At 
the moment there js evidence of a disposition to 
work into economical foreign slock, but as yet it 
has caused no feeling of weakne=s among holders, 
and it is believed that alter the first of ihe year the 
offering of domestic will be brightened up by desir- 
able round parcels that can and are expected to 
come (rom the interior. California wool is solid, 
though the movement is light. Boston Sold 3,000,- 
000 pounds of domestic, and 600,000 pounds of for- 
eign. A large proportion of business was in fleeces 
and high grade wools. In addition to the free sales 
manufacturers carried away many samples of im- 
portant lines. 

Dried Fruit Review 
New York, Dec. 27. — A good-sized line of sacked 
peaches brought 6c, the price being an inducement. 
Sacked prunes are unvaried from the counts last 
noted. Several cars of Three Crown raisins in sacks 
were sold at 45ic, the top price for extras being sc. 
Two Crown brought 35ic. Boxes are dull and un- 
settled, loose and layers are quoted about alike in 
actual sales. Buyers could be approached better if 
the East had some trustworthy estimate of the un- 
marketed raisins on the Coast. As it is they are all 
inclined to magnify the primal holdings and will 
keep up the " hand to mouth policy " of buyers 
until something definite can be disclosed. A favor- 
able point in the situation is the wine consumption 
at a good end of the season. Apricots are weaker. 

New York, Dec. 27. — Hops are quoted strong, 
with confidence: the world's markets are all favor- 
able: exports are active: almost 4,000 bales go out 
this week, making for the season thus far 37,000: at 
Ihe same time last year, 15, 5°°; best Slate, 2i'^c; 
Pacific, 22c; special lines are held above; there is an 
efilort to hold regular future sales on Change. 
Liocal Marsets. 


Buyer Season. Buyer 1891. Seller 1891. 

H. L. H. L. H. L 

Thursday. 18SJ 18SJ 181 J 181J 



Monday . . 187J 1871 



Buyer Season Seller 1891 Buyer 1891. 

H. L a. L. H L. 

Thursday.. 115J 115J 111| m 



Monday 114i lUJ Ill llOJ 


BAGS— The rains have created a stronger tone to 
the bag market, although so far as we know there 
are no changes to report in quotations. Hand- 
sewed standard-sized are quoted at 6^@7C for 
June-July deHvery. 

BARLEY— The local market has held to fairly 
steady prices. The demand for feeding continues 
large, owing to more outdoor work. In futures, 
trading on Call has been light. The following are 
Ihe reported sales on Call : 

Morning Session. — Buyer 1891, 400 tons, $i.ioK- 
Buyer season, 600 tons, $1.13)^; 300, $1.13^; 900, 
$t. i3)i: 40''. $I-I3H. Seller season, 100 tons, 
$1.07 Ifi ctl, Afternoon Session, — Buyer season, 300 

tons, $i.i3H; soo, $i.i3'A; 600, $i.i3H. Buyer 
1891,500 tons, $i.ioJi; 100, $i.ioH; 400, $1.10. 
Seller 1891, 700 tons, $}4 ^ ctl. 

BUTl ER— While dealers report light stocks and 
only a moderate demand, yet owing to rains and 
improving pastures, they are not disposed to let a 
buyer go i( a slight concession will do for a bait. 

CHEESE— The market has a weak and some- 
what irregular tone. The stock here is light, as is 
Ihe demand. Receipts, it is claimed, will soon be- 
gin to come forward more freely. 

EGGS— Judging by increasing receipts from the 
southern part of the State, feed is improving, which 
if the case, Californian will soon supply Ihe demand, 
when prices will rule lower. 

FLOUR - Concessions are still in order for round 
parcels. Bikers are taking more flour from Eastern 
Oregon and Eastern Washington. They buy it for 
making a certain kind of strong bread. 

WHEAT— The sample market is reported slow, 
but firm. In futures, trading is light, barely enough 
to justiiy reporting. The following are the reported 
sales made on to-day's Call : 

Morning Session.— Buyer 1891, 200 tons, $1.80. 
Buyer season, 1200 tons, $1.86; 2400, $1.85^ ^ ctl. 
Afternoon Session. — Buyer season, 900 Ions, $1.86; 
400, $1.86^ ^ ctl. 

Market Int'ormation. 

Produce Beceluts. 
Receipts of produce at this port for Ihe week end- 
ing Dec. 29th. were as follows: 

Flour, qr. ske 156,871 Bran, " 11,64S 

Wheat, ctls 631,803 Buckwheat" 

Barley, " . 19,804 MiddlinRs, sks ... 3,365 

Rye " 156CMcory, bblg 116 

Oats " 10,642 Hops, bis 168 

Corn " 4,238 Wool, " 151 

'Butter " 364 Hay, tons 1,411 

do bxs 26 Straw " 121 

do bbis Wine, gals 151,290 

do keirs 8 Brandy, " 60,560 

do tuba Kaljins, bxs 1,668 

do } bxs 23 Honey, cs 28 

(Chee e, otig 302 Peanuts, sks 385 

do bxs Walnuts, " 68 

Eges, doz 21,«00 Almonds, ske 286 

do "Eastern .. 7-2,810 Mustard, sks 

Beans, ctls 2,072 Flax, sks 

Potatoes, sks 27,302 Popoofn, sks 26 

Onions, " 918 Bruom corn, bbls 

♦Overl'd ctls. fOverl'.: 631 ctls. 

Deep Water Receipts Outside of Cali- 

The receipts of certain articles of produce from 
Oregon, Washington and other distant points com- 
pare as follows : 

July 1, '90 to July 1, '91 to 
Deo 27. '90 Dec. 27, '91. 

Flour, i shs 125,814 260,842 

Wheat, ctls 569,399 930 799 

Barley, ctls 9 ,881 26,805 

Oats, ctls 177.581 271,595 

Wool, bales 6,745 5,626 

Hops, bis 338 838 

Rye, sks , 2,83» 

Potatoes, sks 42 421 19,471 


The strength of the wheat market at home and 
abroad has created no little surprise in certain quar- 
ters, but to Ihe bulls it has not proved a surprise, for 
ihey pxpected the year to go out on strong markets, 
which they argued would more than likely bring bet- 
ter prices in the spring. While this may probably 
prove correct, yet the fact must not be lost sight of 
that the spring markets for shipments from this 
coast will depend largely on the crop prospects 
abroad. A ship leaving this port consumes from 
four to five and one-hall months on passage, which 
would bring spring shipment arrivals outward, into 
European new-crop season. The list of vessels on 
Ihe way to this port is gradually growing smaller, as 
it is to Oregon and also to Puget Sound ports. The 
exports (flour reduced to wheat) from this port since 
July I, 1891, aggregate about 500,000 tons. The 
vessels in port now loading will take out an addition 
of about 150,000 tons. The bulk of this has been 
provided (or. 

Generous and well-distributed rainfalls in the val- 
leys and on the foothills, with heavy deposits of 
snow on the mountain ranges, will encourage 
farmers in the belief that we are to have a propitious 
season, and acting on it, they will unquestionably 
put in large crops of grain. 

The barley market has held strong. The light 
receipts and continued good demand cause the bears 
to confine their operations to cross orders and fic- 
titious sales, so as to try and break prices. The re- 
ceipts from Oregon continue light. 

Oats bold up well, notwithstanding the North is 
send ng to us unusually large quantities. So far 
this season, the increased receipts from up North 
aggregate about 5000 tons. The supply of Cali- 
fornian is light. 

Corn is essentially unchanged. The demand and 
receipts appear to be about evenly balanced. 

Rye is slow and easy. 


For ground feed, the demand, which was quite 
active, is now slow, owing to rains causing dairymen 
and stock-feeders to look for a decided improvement 
soon in pastures. Rpceipis of bran are large, 
and with any falling off in the demand prices will 
shade off. 

The receipts of hay are light, but as feeders con- 
fine their purchases to actual requirements, the mar- 
ket does not strengthen, but on the contrary it is 
easier for poorer grades. 

Live StooR. 

The market has a stronger tone for bullocks, with 
a slight advance obtainable. Cold weather has 
stimulated the consumption, which has also been 
aided by fewer fruits and vegetables. Mutton sheep 
are firm. Lambs and calves are scarce. Hogs are 
essentially unchanged. 


Receipts of oranges are increasing, causing prices 
to shade off. The quality not being of Ihe best, 
buyers bid lower for those not fully ripe. Ripe or- 
anges move off frtely. 

Limes and lemons are quiet at steady prices. 

Although pears are in light supply yet Ihe market 
is barely steady. 

Persimmons move off slowly at unchanged prices. 

Northern counties and Oregon are sending to us 
liberal supplies of apples. The more choice varie- 
ties, if not defective, meet with quick sales at quota- 
tions. The low prices and an absence of other fruits 

have a stimulating effect on consumption. The re- 
ceipts clean up well. 

For raisins the market is quiet and will probably 
continue so until the spring trade opens here and at 
the East. Low prices have caused them to go into 
more general distribution than ever before, which 
has laid Ihe groundwork for large demands in 

Dried fruits are slow. All forced selling is met by 
lower bids Irom buyers. The latter appear disposed 
to wait until Ihey can form a better idea how the 
spring trade is likely to be before venturing, except 
at lower prices, on Ihe market. Holders, as a rule, 
are not offering, seemingly preferring to hold for 
one or two months. They believe that the market 
cannot go much worse, but may do belter. 


Cold winds have given way to heavy rains, which 
with clear skies will cause more attention to garden- 
ing. 1 he truck market is poorly supplied, although 
the southern part of the State continues to send us 
green peas, etc., but in small quantities. 

Onions are firm and higher for the more choice 
good keepers. 

Potatoes have a stronger tone for good keepers 
free from worms and other defects. Oregon is be- 
ginning to send us more liberal supplies. The 
rains will lessen the receipts of Californian, 


From reliable advices up to Dec. 29, the following 
summary tonnage movement is compiled : 

^In port.-^ 

1891. 1890 1891. 1890. 
San Francisco. .. 282,392 £91,812 •]31,325 •4r,002 

Sau Ditgo 12,678 5.149 ) 

Sau I'odro 5,612 7,478 ... f 21,262 

Orexun 63,106 35,363 46,412 ) 

Puget Sound 25,375 41 937 . 


Totals 387,493 392,273 182,886 

*Ent;aged (or wheat, 1891, 92,455 1890, 44,710 
The statistics of produce exports (rom this port 
compiled by the Commercial News, from July ist 
to Dec. 25, are as follows: 

1891. 1890. 

Wheat, ctls 7,812,619 5,286,788 

Flour, Obis 523,741 642,000 

Barley, ctls 754,703 166,376 

Poultry, while reported unchanged, shows a 
stronger lone, with an advance obtainable for the 
more choice. 

Honey is quiet, as is beeswax. 

In beans there is nothing new to report. It looks 
very much as if a quiet movement is on fool 10 cor- 
ner supplies. 

Hops continue to steadily advance. On this coast 
there are very few unsold. 

For wool the market is reported firmer, but the 
absence of assortments is against sellers. 

Domestic Prodaee. 

Bztra choice In good paokaKee (etch an advance on %Of 
.jQOtatlouB, wtiile very poor gradee sell lesa than the lower 
^uocatioDS. TuESDAV, December 29, 1891. 


Bayo, ctl 1 75 @ 2 10 

Butter 2 20 @ 2 66 

Pea 2 35 (a 2 65 

Bed 1 90 @ 2 05 

Pink 1 70 a 1 95 

Bm»U White . . 3 25 @ 2 55 
Large White ... 2 10 @ 2 45 

Vitn, OityMlila 5 40 @ 5 50 
DaOountrjrMiUi) 5 23 @ 5 50 

tuperliae 3 40 ^. 3 65 



Walnata, OaL lb 

D} Oboice 

Do paper shell.. 

I 6i (g 2 i5 |Do Ohili. 

fid Pean.Mkere 1 50 (§ 1 75 

Dagrcpii 1 9J W 2 10 

Do Eastern do.. 2 60 @ 2 80 

Dj NLee 1 35 @ 1 45 

opUt 4® — 

n»L Poor to ( 15 @ 30 
Do good to choice 32^® — 
Do Glltedged... 35 (3 - 
Do Creamery rolls 35 @ — 
DodoGiltedge.. 38 @ 

Eaateru 18 

Oal pickled 26 @ 

Oal. choice mild 13 (g - 
Do (air to good 11 W — 
Do gilt edged.. 14 @ — 
VoUDg Am-rica 12 (g 15 

Oal. ranch, aoz. 37i@ — 
Dado selected. . 42 (ft — 

Do store 25 (a 35 

Eastern 25 @ 36 


8 @ H 

9 @ - 
H'S 9 

\Hg - 

6 @ 71 

^.Imonds, aft shl _ _ 

Paper «h»ll 13 @ 

Hard Shea " C 

Brazil 6i'«C 

P«cauB small.. . 13 ^ 

Do large 15 ig 17. 

i*eanutts 3^3 5 

Filberts lljg 14 

Hickory 7 W S 

— iCbestDUts UiS )t> 


30 Silver Skin 60 @ 1 20 


Early Rode, ska. 30 m 50 

— I Peerless 35 @ 65 

— IBurhank Seedling, 35 «t 5J 

— I Do do Salinas.. 90 @ 1 15 
15 Sweet's 2 60 :a 3 00 

G.iruet Chiles.. . 40 (8 - 

— Kiver Reds 30 @ 45 


Hens, doz 6 00 @ 7 00 

Koosters.old.... 5 00 St 7 CO 

Do young 6 50 I 

8 00 

Bran, ton 16 50 @18 50 Kroileia. small. . 3 50 

Feedmeal 26 00 (g — IDo large 6 HO @ — 

Gr'd Barley.... 24 00 ^27 CO 'Kryers 5 50 ® 6 50 

Mlddlluga 20 00 Ca 22 OO Uucks 6 00 ® 9 60 

Oil Oake Meal.. 25 00 (827 (lO Oeese. pair 3 fO @ 2 60 

Manhattan Food » cwt. 7 50 Turkeys. Qobrr. 16 @ 18 

<Vheat, per tou.I4 00 @ 

Do choice 16 5J & 

Wheat and OatelS 00 m 

Wild Oats 12 00 @ 

Cultivated do.. 12 50 S 

Barley 11 00 @ 

AlfaUa 10 00 @ — 

Clover 12 00 «* — 

Straw bale 50 @ 60 

Barley, feed, ctl 1 07i@ — 

Do Choice 1 12i& - 

Dj Brewlag .... 1 12l(S — 
Do do Choice... 1 16 @ - 
Do doGiltedge.. 1 20 (S — 
Do Chevalier... 1 20 @ 1 45 
Dodo Uiltedge.. 1 48!(g 1 S2i 

uuckwheat 2 00 M 3 23 

Com, White.... 1 35 § — 
YeUow, large... 1 261(1 1 311 

DosmaU 1 33iS 1 36j 

I jata, milling.... 1 46 @ — 
Feed, Oboice.... 1 42i® — 

Da good 1 35 @ — 

Do &lr I 3J @ — 

Surprise 1 60 @ — 

Black Cal 1 60 (a 1 95 

Do O.egoD... 1 45 @ 1 60 

Gray 1 32Ko 1 41} _ 

Kye 1 75 1 80 ISo'n Coaat.def.. 

Turkeys, Hens.. IG & 

Do Dressed 18 @ 

Manhattan Egg 
Food ^ cwt. ..11 50 @ 
Oal.BacoD,he'vy,lb 9i@ 
Medium 11 @ 

Light am 

Lard 9 ( 

Oal. Sm'k'dBeef llt^ 
Bams.Cal salt'd 
do Eastern... 



Clover, Bed. 


Flaxseed. , . . 


Mustard, yellow 2 81 
do Brown ... 3 (jO 
Spring, 1891. 
Humb't&Meii'ciiio20 @ 

Sac'to valley 16 @ 

Free Mountain. 19 @ 
8 Joaquin valley 13 & 
do mountain. IS @ 
OalaW k P'thll. 16 @ 
Or.jgOD Eastern. 14 ^ 
do valley. 

3 80 

3 00 
3 25 

Wheat, milling. 
Gilt edged.... I 8S 6 

D> Oboice 1 831| 

Do (aiitogood.. I 80 « 
Hlilpping, obo'oe 1 80 l| 

Do good 1 785* 

Do fair 1 75 « 

Ouminou 1 7li<s 

Sonora 1 71il$ 

1391 Choice to Ex. 30i| 
Fair to Good... 14i@ 

80'n Coast, free. . _ 

— Fall. 1391. 

— .San Jnaquiu 9 @ 

— Mountain 10 Vt 

— Uumb'tft Men'cinn 14 a 


— WhiteComb,2-tb 10 (3 

— ' dodoi-lb(ram3 
. 80 {White extract'd 

Amber do 
21i Beeewax, lb 

12 "« 


Live Stock. 


Light, $ B>. cents 4i 

Heavy 4 I 

Stuck Hogs 3il 


Stall (-d «m - 

Gra-s (ed. extra. ... 

jThird quality * 9 - 

Bulls and thin Cows.. 2 @ 3 

Small 7@ — 

Large 6i@ — 


Wethers 8 ffl 9 

Ewes 7 ® 8 

Lamb 9 (a — 

Do Bpriac UitaiS 

Dried Fruits. 

The quotations given below are (or average prices paid. 
Something very fancy (etch an advance on the highest quo- 
tations while poor sells slightly below the lowest quotations. 
Prices, unless otherwise spedfi d, are (or trait In sacks; add 
for 60-lb. boxes ic per lb., aad for 25-Ib boxes, |o to ic per lb. 

APPLES. Dodo (anoy 7 @ 71 

Bun-diled, fs, com'on 2i@ 3} Son-or, pl'd. prlme,bl.lO Sll 

Do do prime Zi'g 4 i Do do choice 11 ml2 

Do do choice 4 (d 431U0 du (ancy 12 @13 

Do -iticed, common. . . 3g9 4 E/ap,peeted, In boxes. 

Do do prime 4 @ choice. 15 @— 

Do do choice 4i@ 6J|Dodo(ancv 16 (gn 


8 ,SuD-drIed, quarters... 3 ^ 4i 

[Do sliced 4 @ 6 

4 lEvap, sliced, in boxes. 6 @— 

6J Do ring do 10J@- 

6jt PLUMS. 

— Pitted, aun-dried 4J@— 

Do «vap. boxes, Dholce. — (s — 

Evap. hieached. ring. 

60-lb boiBs 7 I 

Sun-dried, uubl. com. 3 I 

Do do prime 5 I 

Do do choice 6 1 

Do bleached, prime. . . 7 l_ 
Do do choice 719- 

Do do (ancy 8i§ 9i Do do do f%ncy. . . 

Evap. choice. In boxes. 9S@I0 iUnpitced 2 ^ 

Do (ancy, do 10 (gm\ PRUNES. 

FIGS. |<^al. French, ungraded 6 6 

Sun-dried, black 3 @ 3}! Do graded, 60 to 100.. bi^ 

Do white. , 
Do do washed . 
Do do (ancy... 
Do do pressed. 

Smjrrna boxes — (d 

Do sacks .., 

Sun-dried, stemless. . . 3 1 

Do unptemmwl 


Red. sun-dried 

Do Evap., in boxes. ..61 


Do do 40 to 60 64 _ 

Fancy sell (or more money 

London Layers, 

choice bx $1 S0@ - 

Do fancy, do 1 75^ — 

uayers, $ bx 1 25@ — 

3] Loose Muscatels, 

3 common,^ bx.. 1 00@ — 

Do choice, do 1 20@1 30 

5 lUo fancy, do 1 50(g — 

Unseem'ed Musca- 

White, sun-dried 5 ^ 6i tell. In sacks, $ lb 4@ 5 

~' 7 Stemmed dodo.... 5^ 54 

1 ^ee^Uess do do &@ — 

Dodo^30-lbbi... 1 15@ — 
I— ; Sultanas, unbl, bxs 1 16^1 40 

— |Dd bleached, in bxs 1 Jmi 60 

— I Halves, quarters and eighths 
64 1 25, 60 and 75 cents higher re- 

— lapectively than whole boxes. 

Do evaporated 

Sun.dried, unpeeled, 
common, bleached.. 34 

Do do prime, do 44 

Do do choice, do 6ii 

Do do (ancy 6 < 

Evap.unpe'l'd, choice. 6 1 

Fruits and Vegetables. 

Choice selected, In good packages, (etch an advance on the 
quotations, while very poor erades sell leas than the lower 
quotations. Tuehd&v, December 23, 1891. 

Limes, Mex .... 6 SO @ 6 SO Do Lady Apple* . 1 00 @ - 

Lemons, box.... 1 .^0 (a 4 00 Grapes SO @ 75 

Do Sicily 6 53 @ 7 00 Do Black 75 (g 1 25 

OrauKee, Winter Pears, box 

small box 50 @ 1 25 DoWinter Nellia 

Do Seedlings - Keeu, sk 

River ide 3 00 @ 2 (0 Carrots, sk 

Los Angeles.. 1 35 O 1 75 okra, dry, lb 

Do Navels— Paranlps, ctl. . . . 

Los Angeles.. 3 00 @ 3 (0 Peppers, dry, lb 

RiversUe 2 00 (i« 3 50 Turnips, ctl 

Duarie 2 m @ 3i50 Cabbage, 100 lbs 

Apples, box.... 40 (* 75 Garlic, lb 

Do choice 1 00 (A 1 25 Hqua8h,Mr(t, tn. 6 00 

Do extra choice 1 50 @ - Pumpkins, ton. 7 00 

Lessons in Volapiik. 

The International Language of the Bntlre 

Lesson 12. 

The Reflexive Verb and the Impersonal 

The reflexive form applies to active verbs only, 
and is expressed by suffixing the pronoun otc to the 
proper person of the verb, or by u^ing the personal 
pronouns, instead of ok, for the first and second 
persons, in which event these pronouns are declined 

FlApobok or flipob obi, I strike myself. 

Flapolok or flapol oli, you strike yourself. 

Flapomok, he strikes himself— never flapom omi. 
which means only he strikes him (some oue other 
than himself.) 

Reciprocity is expressed by the adverb balvoto 
when the reciprocity would be expressed in English 
by "each other," or by KG balvoto when the 
English would be " with each other," or by balim 
len VOTIM when Ihe English would be "of each 
other;" thus: 

Hetoms balvoto, they hate each other, 

Golobs ko balvoto, we go with each other. 

Tikols balim len volim, you think o( each other. 

The impersonal form is always the third person, 
and may be either active or passive. It adds the 
indefinite pronoun OS to Ihe verb root; thus: 

Tbtos, it thunders. Kibios, it has thundered. 

Pasagos, it is said. Pesagos, it has been said. 

Uts kels hetoms balvoto binoms badik— Om it no 
kidom jiblodi obik, ab jiblod omik e obik kidofs bal- 
voto— Man e vcm at tikrms gudiko balim len volim 
e vipoms binbn flens— Cils el golobs ko balvoto al 
dom fatela omsik ia Bum al givbn ome flolis svidik 
kells laboms in nams omsik; no li-logol otis?— It 
oibtos no ob nob len dom olik — Jipul obik elemoi 
plo of buki ab elemof magis e flolis plo blod smalik 
ofik— Yagoms nimis in fol rbka oh-ik— Li-vlpol 
lemon jevali el keli elogobs len lorn flena obik?— 
Pasagos das man e vom at laboms cilis balsebal, lul 
omas binoms jipuls e mal puis; cils et Ibdoms in 
dom ot ko nels lei e jinels fol. 

These children ought to kiss each other and think 
of each other as brothers and sisters— Children, it 
is not well to strike each other; it is better to kiss 
each other — They have been walking together and 
have come to (al) your house to see your grand- 
father—Think of one another in the most friendly 
manner and you will be good boys and girls— The 
man who teaches himself goodness will not teach 
his friends badness— Who says that it did not 
thunder in Ihe forest by Ihe river shore ? The chair 
under Ihe table is the one which your little boy can 
have— Let us go together to your sister's house to 
see her books and pictures- Which animal will you 
buy, a horse, a dog or a cat ? The boys who live in 
the bouse in front of the forest hate each other and 
teach each other to be bad. 

This series o( twenty lessons was begun In the Pacific 
Rural Press o( Oct. 10, 1S91. Those desiring assistance 
in the systematic study of the language will be put In the 
way of obtaining it without coat by addressing A. L. Ban- 
croft Vijel for CaUforiiia, 303 Sutler St.. San Francisco. 

Condemned by His Ow.v Standard.— The 
late Prof. Dr. L. Bishofl 01 Mantuu was one of 
the laskding physiological Kiivooates of the men- 
tal inferiority of women, founding bis theory 
ohiefly on hie own cbiervations, which he said 
sbowecl that the average weight of a man's 
brain is 1350 grains, but of a woman's only 
1250, Bat after his death, the pott-mortem 
examination elicited the interesting fact that 
bis own brain weighed only 1245 grains. 

Jah. 2, 1692.J 





Positively TJneqaaled for Baking Meats 
Fowls, Fish, Puddings, Etc. 

SELF-BASTING— Any article cooked in it RETAINS 
TENDER, than if cooked in any otlier way. 

^NO PARBOILING. It bakes Br«ad, Cakes and 
Puddings. Try it thoroughly, and you will never use 
any other. 


No. 3ie Fine Street San Francisco, Cal. 

Sole Agent for the Pacific Coast. 



Write us for prices and full particulars. Address 



Commission Dealer in 

Shingles, Posts, 
Pickets and Piling. 

Manufacturer & Pacific Coast Agent 
of the Popu ar 


Sheathing Lath, 

A valuable invention but recently 
^ used ou this Coa't. Send for Sam- 
plea, Circulars, Price Lints, Etc. 

42 Market Street, 


Greenbank" 98 degrees POWDERED CAUSTIC 
SODA (tests 99 8 10 per cent) recommended by the 
highest authorities in the State. Also Common Caustic 
Soda and Potash, etc., for sale by 

Manufacturers' Agents, 
104 Market St. and 8 Oallforala St.. S. F. 

J. F. HouoBTON, President, J. L. N. Shepakd, Vice-Pres. 
Oha». R. Story, Sec'y, R. H. Maoill, Gen. Ag't. 

Home Matoal iDsnrance Company, 

N. E. Cor. Cslirornla and Saiuome Sta.. 

Incorporated A. D. 1864. San FrancUeo. 

Losses Paid Since Organization $3,175,759 21 

Assets, January 1, 1891 867,512 19 

Capital Paid IJp in Gold 300,000 00 

NET HURPLTTR OTer evenrthlog 278 901 10 

Metal Engraving, Electrotyplng and Stereotyping 
dooe at Uie office ot Uils paper. 





— AN- 


Because it is more 
profitable to some 
one else. 



No story need be told of the Cyclone or ot the number that have been sold. They can be seen working in 
every Inhabited part of the Pacific Slope whilst hundreds are exported every year. 

The Cyclone mill Is not an experiment, but acknowledged by all who have used it to be the most powerful and 
durable mill on the market. 

It is simple In construction, has no cogs or complicated gearing to get out of order. Has only three principal 
bearings, heavily bahbite'l boxes and self oiling apartments. 

The wheel and vane of the Cyclone (which are the most durable parts of any solid wheel mill) are made strong 
and of well seasoned wood finished with the best lead and oil which neither blister In the sun nor is consumed by rust 

Send for Illustrated Catalogue to 

Pacific Manufacturing Company, 


Manufacturers and Jobbers of Windmills, Pumps, Tanks, TUBULAR 
WELL TOOLS. Pipe, Fittings. Etc., Etc 

side draft. 

neck weight. 
No lifting 
at corners. 
Brake prevents 

/'fcYrai(7ftferjii/TO!t'j,^-^=;:=*»^ plow running on team. 

Ourliook^ ~ - " / and Lighter Draft than any plow on or off wheels. 

"i'un on the Fnrm," wnt v / Equally adapted to Western prairies and hard, stony 
J'/ Cf to all who rm-ntidii thisiiaper. ground, or hillsides. 

ECONOMIST PLOW CO., South Bend, Indiana. 

»$pecial prices and time for trial siven on first orders from points where we have no Agents, 

Whitewashing Machines &Tree Cleansers. 

Complete Outfits at prices from $3 to $60. 
The Pumps are all BRASS, with BRASS AND RUBBER VALVES. 

For Orchardists, Florists, Stockmen, Poultry Raisers 


Pump sent complete as in cut lor $li Send for Illuitrated Catalogue. 




Notary Public. 



No. S80 California Street, 

Tnlephnne No. 1T«(l. OAN ^AvriBOO OAl, 


iIVE two-cent stamps will get you a sample of Arthub'8 
Home Uasazinb, Pbila., Pa. Agente wanted. 



$eed3, )'laiit3, ttc. 

B arren HltL N ursery. 




The Largest and Finest Collection of 


To be found in the United States and 
excelled nowhere in Europe. 


Proeparturiens, or Fertile Walnut, 

Introduced into California In 1871 by Felix Gil et; and 
also of the great market walnuts of tlie world, 

Mayette, Franquette and 

The "HARDIEST" walnut varieties known, and which 
render walnut culture possible as tar north as the State 
of Washington. 





APRIL CHERRIES, four varieties, the earliest kinds 
ever introduced in California. 


By FELIX GILLET, of Nevada City, Cal , an Essay on the 
Different Modes of Budding and Grafting the Walnut; 
illustrated wi h eieht cuti made a'ter nature. 

Will be spnt with descriptive catalogue to any address 
on receipt of 25 cents in postage stamps. 

California Dessert Prunes, 


Prepared by Felix Gillet's Process Elegantly packed In 
two-pound sunar pine bixfs. 75 bents per box, by ex- 
press to any part of California and Ore^'on free of charge. 
80 cents by mail to all parts of the United States. 

plement" con'aining chapters on Walnuts and Prunes, 
illustrated with 20 cuts, and Price List, sent free on 





We have the Largest Collection 

— OF— 

Frnits, Palms, Ferns, 

Economic Plants, 


From the FOUR CORNEWS of thel arth, grown for 
sale in the U. S. No nursery like ours. ^Supply Caa- 
tomnrs all OTer th« Wh«le Wor d, by MAIL, 


Established 1883. 


Apple, Pear, Plum, Etc. 

Peach, Apricot, Etc. 

Complete Assortment. Order now for Spring Planting. 

F. S. PHCENIX, Nurfseryman, 


X>r7 ^ . ^ ^ A LAST 4 BEAK like WHOLE 
Y C-CJ 1/mL^^4[# root Trees; see •■Fruits andl 

_ _ _ Fruit Trees" — Fi'ee. ^»/''r.. 

/i/isays: Novel, UiiEFUL, to the point. (Irii mif .hiilil\ 

Fiiriii. r: Ably written: gives trusty INFORMATION. ( Vi/.yvy 
Fruit (Irofrer: Surprising LOW prices! Apple. Fear.Clicr- 
ry, Plum. PRUNE, Peach, Ap't, Quince, Nut, Or. Trees. Grai'ts, 
ROBEB— rl'<TV(/i!;!(/. No larger stock in U.S. No BETTER. Vj 
Nocheaper.,STAKK BROS.,lGth 6t., Louisian.i, A> 
Cao.— Foun<iedl835; 0LDE8T. 1000 Acres; LARGEBT.W 



<jiai'<lcu aij<l Flower Seeds, Hanly WhrnbH, 4'lematiH and 
Ilar<ly Vine*— a (general collectiuti of tireeii ll4»UHe Plants. 
Send for our set of U Gem Rosea— white and Mlriped La France 

iiiid Waban, only 75et«.— bouutifully illustrated on our catalogue 
< (i\'(T. They should be in every collection. Our handsome illus- 
•<l Catalogue, containing Premiums that will interest you, 
' FKK.F to ALL. Ni r our Lo w Prices. 20 KoneK, SLOG : 20 «eranl- 
unmVI.OO; 18 Chryaanthemnms 8>-00: IN Carnationit 81.00. 

(;u;n;iriUe(l to be well niolt-d.a Qm^ assortineut of colors :tn<l to rrarh ytiii In good coiKlilioD. 
ThiK iifftr in onfy jriadr to ind^ft you to give tin a trttil. Don't ordrr i/our Koiicii, 
I'lantH or Ncedn ttefort. trring our prices. Oj^ We cbh nave you money. 
We have some fine novelties in Roses, Regonias, Chrysanthemums 
_ ..^1^^ n amaMMBaa ■ i'ud Carnations that will please von. Address 

CtAUSE & BISSELL (successors to hill & CO.) RICHMOND, IND. 


f AciFie i^uraid press. 

[Jan 2, 1892 

?6eil3, l^lapts, ttc. 

The Hoit Grafter. 



Rapid in Operation. Easily Handled. 


Send for free descriptive painpblet to 


724 J Street, Sacramento, Cal. 


Tbe Eartb 

With a Hoe, SOW FERRY'S SEEDS and 

nature will do the rest. 
Seeds largely determine the harvest — always 

plant the best— FERRY'S. 
A book full of information about Gardens — how 
and what to raise, etc., sent free to all who ask 

for ii-yH Ask to-day. 
D. M. FERRY /\J P. O. Box 1033 





Strictly First-Class. 

Special Attention called to Magnificent Stock of 

FRKNCH PKUNE;« (Petite A'Agen), 

Send for New Catalotrue. 


Fine Small Fruits a Specialty. 


and luscious, stands travel finely, bears immens ly, 
and baa two crops a ye«r; 50 cents per dozen; |3 per 100. 
Also Strawberries, blaclibeiries. Gooseberries, Currants, 
etc, of the finest imported varieties. Prices on applica- 
tlou. L. U. HgOANN. Santa Oroz Cal. 


One year transplanted, 5 to 6 inches, 84 per 100, $16 per 
800, 830 per M. Other small stock for traLSplanti ir. 
Send for list. Address 

GEO. VEt)TAL, Little Rock, Ark. 




Ciitiili.irii. H Sont Free on Applleutlon. 

W.W. BARNARD & CO., Chicago, III. 

BuceeitsurK to IIIKAM SIRLBY A- CO. 

Alfalfa, Grass, Clover, Vegetable, FloMier and 

Seeds of every variety. Trees and Nursery Stock. B. F 
WKLUNOTON, 426 Washington St., .San Francisco, C«L 



Successor to L. BURBANK. 


On Peach, Almond and M) robalan Roots. 



Everything in the Nursery Line. 

Oeotennial Cherries, Walnots, Chestnati, 
Shade Trees and Small Frnlts. 



Onion Sets Grass, Clover, Vegetable 
and Flower Seeds. 



Illustrated Descriptive and Priced Seed Catalogue for 
1892. the most elaborate and valuable of its kind of any 
Pacific Coast publication, mailed free to all applicants. 


815 & 817 Sansome Street, San Franoisco, 
or 65 Front Street, Portland, Or. 

100,000 EXTRA FINE 


Apple, Pear, Plum, Cherry. Peach, Apricot, 
Nectarine, Quince, Orape Vines 
and Sniail Fruita. 

500,000 FRUIT TREES. 

Orange, Lemon, Lime, Olive, Japan Persim- 
mon, and all kinds of Nut-Be:.rlnB 
Treee. Shade and Ornamental 
Trees, Shrubs, Etc. 

Ask for Prices. 

James T. Bogue, Marysvllle, Cal. 



Citrus Fruit Trees ! 

LEMONS— Eureka, Villa Franca, Listwn and Sicily. 
ORANGB— Washington Navels, Mediterranean Sweet, 

St. Michaels Blood, &o.. Mandarin and Tangeriene. 
OLIVE,S— Mission and the Foreign Varieties— Spanish 

Italian and French. 

With the largest cSllectlon of TROPICAL FRUIT 
TREES AND PALMS in the State. 
Send for Catalogue and Pries List to 


Santa Barbara, Cal. 


200,000 MUSCAT. 
200,000 MALAGA. 
50,000 SULTANA. 

Warranted true to name and first-class. LOWEST 
MARKiLT RATES. For particulars, address 


Box 165, Fresno, or 420 Callfornta Street, 
San Francisco. 




HULBERT ft FITZGERALD, Proprietors. 

Growers and Dealers in 


Salesyard, Cor. 3d and Davis Sts. 
Please send for Price Lists. 

211 Third St., Santa Rosa, Sonoma Co., Cal, 



It contains description and price of Grass, Clover and Field HEEDS, Australian Tree and Shrub 
.SEEDS. Native California Tree, shrub and Fl wer SEEDS (tbe largest assortment of Vegetable and 
Flower f^EEuS, offered in the United States), new varieties of p'orage Plants, Grasses and Clovers 
especially recommended for the Pacific Coast. Holland, Japan and Cilifornia Bulbs. Large assortment 
of Palm SEEDS, new and rare Plants, new Fruit. Oar stock of Fruit Trees consists of the best varieties 
of Prune, Plum, Apricot, Apple, Peach, Cherry, Olive, Eig and Nut Trees, Grape Vines and Small Fruits. 



Successors to THOMAS A. CO.X & CO., 

5S» e; e: i> s ]VL ei n. 

411 , 413 & 415 SaDsome St., 

San Francisco , Cal. 


YSeeds ^Plants 

Are fullv described in our beautiful book GARDENING 
ILLUSTRATED for 1S92. It contriins one huii.ired 
pages haiuisoiuely printed and illustrated with ac- 
curate pholo-eiigraviugs and colored plates. It is a 
Mirror of American Horticulture lodale and 
shows the recent attainments of this art, side by 
side with the good old plants of our fathers' 
gardens. The descriptions, plain and reasonable 
will commend themselves to real lovers of good gardening and its contents so fully 
cover all branches of this absorbing subject that we say 


fertile Garden, Lawn and Farm and represents one of the most complete, 
assortments of garden supplies in the world. For 25c. we mail with the BUOkJ 
one packet ' ' Chicago Parks" Pansy Seed or one plant new French Rose 
Star of Gold. Write for Free CATALOcnE now. men tio.n pai-er 




For Over Thirty Years 

.ive always had very pleasant dealings toeelhcr. the 
iblic and myself, and I again have the pleasure of 

Presenting to them my Annual Vegetable and 
lower Seed Catalogue. It contains .the usual 
immense variety of seed, with such new kinds added 
ash.ive proved to be real acquisitions. Raising many 
of thes^: varieties myself, on my four seed farms, 
and testing others, I am able to warrant their fresh- 
ness and purity, under such reasonable conditions as are con- 
tained in my Catalogue. Having been their original intro- 
ducer, I am headqu.irlers for ch<iice Cory Corn, Miller Melon, 
Eclipse Beet. Hubbard Squ.-ish. Deep Head. All Seasons and 
arren Cabbage, Kic.Ftc. Catalogue FREE to all. 
•I. H. eSEUURY <& HiiX, JUarbleheiid. Mass. 





Catalogue Free Z^s^^:^^':^^^. 







Pomona, Los Angreles County, Cal. 

Write and get Prices. 

Pacific H eights N ursery 

Nurserymen and Florists, Attention ! 

We have on hand and constantly arriving from Japan 
and China: 

Cam.-lllaH, Araleag, IrU Kaempferl (over 160 
varieties). Ferns, I'alniit.t^ycas Kevoluta, Zamla, 
Japan Orange, I'ersiinnion hD(1 other Frnit 
TreeH, Llllles, Nerlne Japonlna, Chrysanthe- 
ninmit. New and Kare EverKrren and De- 
clftonua Trees. New and Kare Plants, Shrnb 
and Halm Seeds. 

All plants acclimated. Send us your Business Card 
and we will quote Trade Prices for 1000, 100, 10 or single 


a32S Jackson Street, 

San Francisco, Cal. 

Paciic irsfirf. 



Fruit Trees, Olives, Grapes, 

Ornamental Trees and Plants, 

Roses, Magnolias, Palms. 


Azaleas Indica and Mollis, 

Camellias and Rhododendron. 

Send for New Price Littt. 
Baker and Lombard Streets, San Franrisoo. 



Prices and a PamDliIet oa lie Olive Mailed Free. 


John S. Calkins' Nurseries. 

Pomona, Los Ang^eles Co., Cal. 




Price List mailed free. Address 

caSada nursery, 

p. 0. Box 86 REDWOOD CITV, CAL. 





p. O. Box 382. 
Manzanillo and Nevadillo Blanco Trees, 

One and Two Years Old. 
Every tree warranted true to label and free from scale. 
All orders will be carefully packed and delivered at S. P. 
Depot, Pomona, and Santa Fe, North Pomona, without 
extra charge. 




A full selrrtion of nil Ihc lending vnrlrtles. 

A correct descriptive I Alsoa full lino of PI..\.NTS and 
and finely lllu«trnt»d tIKN A.>l KNT A l.S. Plant* 
('atllloKlle KKKI'I ' and Trees hv iiiiill. Addrew 

Village Nurseries, Hightstowit, N.J. 

Jan 2, 1891.] 

f ACIFie I^URAlo f RESS. 


geedg, Plaptg, fac. 




New Stock. 


Northern Seed Co., 

(Successors to WESTCOTT & CO.) 


Raspberry, Strawberry and Blackberry Plants. Price 
on application. L. D. BUTT, Penryn, Placer Co., Cal. 


80,000 Bartlett Pear. 

15,000 Telloir Cling and Free Peaches. 

Leading Varieties. 

Royal Apricot, New White Nectarine, French 

JAPAN PLUMS In Variety. 

D. W. LEWIS, Nurseryman, 



Is lor sale by Agents at bookstores in San Diego, River- 
side, Los Angeles, Bakersfield, Visalia, Banford, Fresno, 
Merced, Sacramento and Marysville; also, by Dewey & 
Co., 220 Market St., and the H. S. Crocker Company, 216 
Bush St., San Francisco. Prioe, Three Dollars. Senri 
x>nptal for clroulairn 







New American Grape, "The Pierce." 

Olives, Oranges, Lemons and Figs. 

New California Orange, "The Joppa." 

Shade Trees, Evergreens, Shrubs, Roses, Climbing Plants, Etc. 

Send or our New Catalogue. 

CALIFORNIA NURSERY CO., '''^i^o'crM^a^aV^ 




Largest and Most Complete Stock of Fruit, Shade and Ornamental Trees on the Pacific Coast. 

Apples, Almonds, Apricot, Pear, Prune, Plum, Peach and Cherry. 
Also Fine Stock Olives. Oranges, I.emong, Not Trees and Small Fraltg; Magnolias, 
Camellias, Palms; I.arge Stock of Rnses, Clematis, Etc , Etc. 


Catalogues Mailed Free. Address 





FOR SEASON OF 1891 AND 1898. 




Address CENTRAL NURSERY CO., Acampo or Sacramento. 


Med. Sweet, R. W. Navel, Malta Blood, P. R. St. Michael, Satsnma, 

And other new and old varieties. 

Villa Franca , Lisbon and Eureka Lemons. Shamrock Orange for Hedges. 

. ALOHA NURSERIES. Penryn. Placer Co.. California. 

Wu \A/nnn rn commission merchants 
■ III lIVJvyL^ \Xi \J\Jtt AND wholesale; DEALERS IN 


ALFALFA SBBDIH^ to 125 j street, 



I. H. THOMAS & SON. Proprietors. 



The Famous Early Imperial Peach a Specialty, 











Correspondence Solicited. Address 




Fruit and Ornamental Trees ! 

FOR SEASON 1891-92. 

We are the heaviest growers of FIG TREES AND ROOTED VINES on the Coast. 
FIG AND GRAPE CUTTINGS (including Thompson Seedless) for sale. 



E3. O. CI-iO'WEIS, 



0«-n "fc3C5 X3ell-^ex-e<a. fx-oxxx Fx-eeixxo or StoolK.toxi.. 

Special Prices on Lots of 50,000 or more. 

White Adriatic and San Pedro Figs 

A Full Line of Fruit and Ornamental Trees, Shrubs, Vines, Palms, Roses & Small Fruit* 


StoolK-toxx. - - - - - C!«,llf orxxla,. 


■ X. Xj. , Com m eyol«,l 
m -n-JO-cL HXTo FXxis TTi"ti-«,. 


^mjINTOH r»mTTINn3jfe* on Myrobolan, Peach and Almond Roots. 
.^T3X-loc>t0, 0]3.ex*x>les, Oll-^es. 'VCT'A.lxx'u.ts, "Etc 


Growers of Fruit and Ornamental Trees, Vegetable, Flower and Farm Seeds, 





112 Paces, 300 Fine Encraviii&rN, ETandsomc Colored Plntes, Full of useful and instructive 
information. One of the most reliable catalogues published. DeNcribiiiff all kiiiilN of guaranteed 
Garden, Flower and Field See<lN, Fruit and Ornamental Treen, fSinnll KruitM, t'lioice 
RoKen* Flowering Plants and Kiillm. Tliorouurlil>red Land and Water Fowls* Resistered 
PiKH* Oerinan ilaresr &:c. Went free* on apphciitlon. Address, mentioning this paper, 




[Jan. 2, 1892 

The Latest Style 









Especially aJapted to pulrerizinK " bottoms "—one man and a TRUMAN, HOOKER & CO. 

The Pacific Stpaderaud Vineyard «"nl- 
tivator. Does more work in one stroke than 
a DisR Harrow in ten. Sizes, f)'.; to 12 feet. 

small boy can operate it. 






Every Year Ihey are Improved, if Possible. 




Both Valves Can be got at in a Moment's Time 
with a Common Farm Wrench. 

They ECONOMIZE LABOR and throw a penetratlDg 
spny. Send for Circulars. 







Beat BBd Mlronsrat Kxploalvea in tbe World. 

The only Reliable and I'fliri. nt Pnw.ler (or SHiin'» and Kank Mln'llnc. l: lilrnad Contractors ami Farmera 
Mse no o*her. Am oltiera 1.>IITATK our 4«luut l*ow<ler, »o do they Juilaon, by maauCnotarlns 
an Infrrior article. 

ibta/I *!■*''-'<; <'o liaviuR liuilt I'.iack Powdfr Works, with all the latest ImproTements, at Clipper Gap, Plaser 
Conn.,, ly ■'-'ihfa '''■•i***KR MII.I.N, olter this powder and guarantee it the best. 
' o« ^ Si '9l CAPS and FUMK at l-oweat Ralea. 

THE GIANT POWUbR COMPANY, 30 California St., San Francisco. 


AO 113 


P&B Fruit Drying Paper. 





Steel Wind Mill and 
Steel Tower. 

This IVind :m 11 1 Is tlii>be3ton the market, Is Kfarert back 
three to one, and haa a direct and very l"n« pitman 
stroke. No carryintr i^t^lktJ overhead by sh. rr pitman 
like other mills. ^\ ill run '-'0 ye,irs without a drop of oil, 
conwiiuently climliini.- tt)wersaud tlltimftowernulsances 
fi.i-evcr hereifler avoided. The wheel, arms, vane and 
I !)ra<?o rods aro made entirely otste^l. 
I V<'a Lave no Cams, no Chains, no Pulleys and no CoU 
'Spring nuisannuon this lulU, Everjtniiig Issosimple 
and direct that to see It Is to buy It, e:J after trying It 
you will want all your friends to havn tu?m. 
Aeents! Come In out ol the wet ard secure an asency or the PBARt. ^pIU 
Bscape you and be placed with other persons, and as long as you Uve yon 
will ever bewail your folly In not gra-splni? at a good thing when placed 
within your reactL Now Is the acnjptod time. Will you accept? Ilsoi 

Taiuo^"' BflTflYlft WIND MILL GO., 



FiRKBAPGB, Cal. (Poso Farm), November 8, 1889. 
Mr. Jab. Portkoi'S, Fresno, Cal.— Psar Sir: In answer to yours of 6th inst., will say that I have found 
your new etile four-horse Scraper the beet all-tound Scraper I have yet tried. Respectfully yours, 

^^^^^^^^ J. W. SCUMITZ, Supt. Miller & Lux. 




To Scale Bug and all 
Insect Pests. 

Now is the time to cflectuat'y sruard your 
Fniit Trees ajtainst the visiU'ion of all 
INSECT PESTS by spraying thtm with the 

Ongerth Liquid Tree Protector, 

The only effectual remedy in the market. 
Indorsed by the University of California, 
hend for cirenlar with testimonials to 

Ongertli Miim Cofflponnil Co. 

SI2 Davia Street, 



Price $7 «n<' $1. 


For dance music save their cost in occ night. Any one 
can play them Over Sno tunes to select from. Plays 
sacred, popular songs and dance music. Also 

Terms Moderate. We also keep Accordeons, Binjos. Mando- 
lins, Violins, Strings and Sheet .Music. Circulars free. 


Near Ninetr enth Street, SAN FRANCISCO. 


The Beat. Simpleat and Cheupeat Voapline for Tank IIim>|m. 

A siiflicitnt lap of hoop renders it unoectssary t i r vet ih- hoop. It »tll lit Ihe circle of any tank, rcgiirdleaa of size. 

Made ill sl/es to tit any width of iron 
l>ricea. 81.110 li> 81. .'»0 per fair. For •.»■<■ to Hit- trade. Liberal dliieounl in tiiianliliea. 


Sead for Catalosae. 


We carry a large variety of Spray Pumps. 

Our CELEBRATED CHAMPION excels all others. 

We also have the Eureka, Gould'8 Star and 
Cllmaz Spray Punipa 

Send for Spray Pump Catalogue, mailed free. 


Sll? & 314 Market St., San Francisco. 



Every practical farmer i.s vspecialiy inloicsti d in any implement that w ill li nil t" lessen 
the amount of his labor and incrcatie tiie production of his crops and is constantly on the 
outlook for such implements. During the last few years the methods of cultivation of crops 
have be<:omc almost I'niin ly revolutionized. Tlie deep root pruning process is going out. 
Surface culture Is going to become universal. For this pur|x>se no implement equals the 
BREED WEEOER. Investigate. Send for circulars. 

Qeneral Agente, KNAPP, BURBBLL & CO., Portland. Oreson. 

Vol. XLIII.-N0. 2. 


'. Office. 223 Market St. 


A Fruit Scene in the Foothills. 

To emphasize the Rural's intereit Id the 
holdiag of the Citrna Fair next week tt 
Auburn, the " gem of the foothilla," we pab- 
liah in thia iaaue two large engravings repre- 
sentative of foothill development in the horti- 
cultural line. These views are from recent 
photographs by W. R. Nutting, and as photo- 
engravings they bear upon their face the evi- 
dence of actuality. Perhaps handsomer views 
could be had, for the foothill region is one of 
exceptional pictnreaqueness, but our selection 
was from an industrial point of view as befits 
an industrial journal. We wish (to show 
what is being done in the foothills, that others 
apon uneven lands in salkable climate may 

emulate the gratifying progress which is shown 

Upon page 25 may be found a broad view of 
a warm hillside terraced for fruit planting, 
with the trees planted and the irrigating fur- 
rows drawn. We have been fortunate in secur- 
ing a careful article descriptive of this terra- 
cing from a gentleman well known as a fruit 
grower and agricultural engineer, who himself 
Bupervieed the work. Thia view and the ac- 
companying description will be found sugges- 
tive to many of our readers. 

Upon thia page the view ia a typical one of 
foothill orchard and vineyard-growing, the 
scene in thia instance being In Placer county. 
The branches of the Digger pine thrown aorosa 
the iky, the slopes of the distant hills, the 

natural growth of timber on the uncultivated 
portions, are all characteristic of the foothills 
as nature made them. Amid such environment 
lies the improved slopes of the foothill fruit 
plviter, the rows irregularly disposed to suit 
the contour, the large and small trees of suc- 
cessive plantings, the grower's plain but com- 
fortable habitation and ontbuildings — all these 
are comprised in a glimpse of foothill develop- 
ment, such as the visitor can obtain from the 
oar windows or from the buggy seat along the 
pleasant roadways in the foothills. 

There ia something about foothill situations 
which the valley orchardist does not enjoy. 
There ia a oharaoteriatic quality in the fruit 
which men may argue about, and that we will 
not disonis. There b, however, in the foot- 

hilla a warmth of soil unknown in the valley e; 
there la a play of colors in the landscape which 
the artist cannot approach without the charge 
of exaggeration, an inspiring breadth of view, 
an exhilarating tone in tbe air — all of which 
are oharaoteriatic of the foothills, captivating 
visitors and turning their thousands to invest- 
ment and progress. 

It is not the season to see the foothills in 
their beauty. A month or more hence, when 
the fruit trees bloom and the wild flowers 
show forth their hues, and thence onward, un- 
til fruits ripen, the foothill visitor revels in 
natural loveliness. But there will be visible 
at Auburn, next week, something which will 
appeal to the industrial mind more foroibly 
{Ooneluded on page 28.) 


f ACIFie f^URAb fRESS. 

[Jan. 9, 1892 


Notes on Bee Culture. 

Editors Press:— The honey orop of Ventara 
ooanty averages 860,000 a season. 

Sweet clover is one of Utah'i beat honey 

Of the varloua Industries in Colorado this 
last season, none have made more rapid prog- 
ress than bee caltore. 

By the color and aroma of honey, an expe- 
rienced bee-keeper can tell the plant from 
which it was gathered. 

Bee culture ia one of the most faioinating 
pursuits known; added to this, it oaltivates ob. 
aervation and study, and furnishes one of the 
purest sweets knovn.—Amtrican Bee Journal, 

Mr. Parker B»rrow8 of E»gle Valley, Oregon, 
finde that bees do remarkably well there, 200 
pounds being the product of a single colony. 

According to the Nebrasla Bee-Keeper, Au- 
gust la the beat month in the year for bee- 
keepers there— more honey and more swarms 
in that month than any other. 

Fruit and bee culture should go together; 
every fruit-raiser and farmer should have a 
few stands. They aid greatly in the fertiliza- 
tion of all fruit bloom. 

In handling bees the leas mashed the better, 
the Bcent of the poison angers the othera, and 
peaceable beea are made croaa. 

G. M. Doollttle of Baroolino, N. Y., reports 
in American Bee Journal, that for the last 20 
years be has averaged $1000 per sfaion with 
his bees. He did not report the number of col- 
onies that he keeps, but I think he generally 
has between 50 and 200 colonies. 

How ia the California toyan or holly prop- 
agated? I have planted ths seeds two or three 
times, but never sucoeeeded in getting a soli- 
tary plant to grow. I have also tried trans- 
planting, but did not succeed. 

I should be pleased to learn how to make 
toyan seed germinate. 

When bees are seen carrying out almost 
fully developed brood, it is a sign that starva- 
tion ia threatening them, or that the moth 
worma are at work. Baginnera many timea 
auppoae that their bees have a dlaeaee of eome 
kind, at this wholesale carrying out of brood; 
but the above mentioned facta are the real 

Mr. W. M. Bomberger, in an eaaay read at 
the Iowa State Convention, states: "You never 
saw a lazy or atnpid person aucceed with beep. 
The bee fever may sometimes get into the 
syatem of a lazy person, bat after the first 
serious attack it leaves him in a sevenfold 
worse state. The sncoesefnl bee keeper is an 
industrious person; a meohanio, a botanist, a 
good salesman and rarely a scamp. He gets all 
these trnths from the hive. He can even get 
his religion from it." 

I once wrote and asked a Monterey Co. 
apiarist, if he considered greesewood much of a 
honey plant. He replied as follows: 

"There are two plants called greasewood; 
neither of them being honey plants. One is a 
bitter, aromatic plant, like artemesia or worm- 
wood, in odor and taste, but with finely cut 
leaves. It covers wtiole mountain sides here in 
Southern California. It ia called "old man" 
and "sage brush" but it is no more sage than a 
hog is a sheep. Indians put it on cuts to stop 
bleeding; it grows in tufts or bunches; some 
grow three or four feet high. The other kind 
of greasewood grows more like a buah; has 
wide leaves, and resembles a kind of chaparral; 
Aoth are plentiful here. I never knew bees to 
work on either, but have known them to starve 
right near it." 

Now is the time of the year for bee keepers 
to read up on bee culture; to find ont all the 
best and most profitable methods of running an 
apiary; the best hive to use, and how it is 
constructed; transferring, and how it is done; 
how to raise queen bees, and how to introduce 
them; this is very valuable, every apiarist 
should understand queen-rearing, and have his 
apiary composed of populous colonies of 
desirable races of bees, to know how to make 
and use comb foundation; he should also study 
up and read about queen-excluding honey- 
boards, proper spacing of frames, best section 
boxes and section cases, dividing and artificial 
swarming, the production of comb and extrac- 
ted honey, and many other items of vast im 
portance. 8. L. Watkins 

Grizzly Flat, Cal. 

Beehives and Honey Sections. 

Editors Press :— The Californlans don't like 
to pay 30 cents for a section of honey, but pre- 
fer it to the 15c, 253 and 50c, and would like 
that I5o made a lOo size, which is hardly pos- 
sible. The modern hives are all built for the 
1 ft. (4Jx4JxlJ) section, which is the favorite 
size in the East. This makes a amall square 
chunk of honey that the couaumer paye 
25o for in the Eaat with reluctance. The 2 R>. 
section (5^x6^x2) is a size that is not adapted 
to any hive, while a size the double of it is not 
in the market. To accommodate my local Cal- 
ifornia trade, I have made a 15o size (4gx4|xlg). 
This size gives a larger snrfaoe to the comb, 
and, with seven to the case, permits of a fol- 
lower on the dove-tailed hiTe, which the old 1| 
size did not. 

For my 25c size I have made my sections 6^ 
high 5g long by 1§ wide. Three of these go 
Into • super lengthways and seven aorosi, with 

room for follower. This size section has a larger 
surface than the old 5^x64x2 Inch 2 ft. section 
that sells for 30c, and still it can be sold for 
25o, as it is g thinner. 

The average Californian will buy 50c worth 
of honey just as quickly as he will the 1 ft. 15o 
piece of honey, and it is therefore policy to sell 
all you can in that shape. There Is no section 
on the market that holda that amount, ao I 
have had them made 6i inchea high SJ long by 
Ig wide. These aeotlons lay on the long side 
in the super — two lengthways and seven across. 
All of the sections are made to fit the improved 
dove tail hive and each case has a follower, 
and wedges to key up the sections tight. 

It has taken no small amount of calculating 
to get all the parts just right, and to any one 
that derires to make these "California sec- 
tions," I would add : Don't write to me for 
measurements, but send to the Clipper Gap 
Beehive Factory, Clipper Gap, Cal., where 
mine are made and get a sample hive complete 
at a cost but little above what the rough 
lumber would cost you. As the outside meas- 
ures of all the supers are the same, a.caae of 50c, 
25o and 153 can all be put on one hive if de- 
sired, and changed to the 15o size when the 
season is near the close, or each size can hi run 
on separate hiv*"*. E H ScnAEFFLE. 

Mountain Bloom Apiary, Murphy't Cal, 
Dee. 29, 1891. 

Hlu«T CDai^keting. 

Fruit Production and a Market. 

[C. C. TiioMi'SOS of Pasadena before Poinologlcal Society 
of Southern Calilornia.1 

How shall we market our fruit ? There ia no 
industry on the Pac'fio Coast which is lo great 
and important as the production of tree fruits, 
and the deciduous varieties seem to be the ones 
which Interest the most, as the conditions are 
such that they can be grown in nearly all lo- 
calities. Certain localities are better adapted 
to some varieties, possibly, than others; but let 
that be as it may, there is still room for vast 
amounts to be produced, and the future is going 
to demonstrate this fact, so that the question 
naturally arises: What are we going to do 
with it all? It seems to be a great question, 
but if prooerly hsodled can be worked ont to 
the satisfaction of the producers. To do this, 
it will be necessary for the growers to sell 
more directly to the conanmers. 

Aa matters cow stand, fruit goes through so 
many hands before it reaches the consumer 
that the price is so high that the consumption 
ia very much leaeened from what it ahould be; 
in fact, so high that but a few of the wealthier 
people can buy. When we travel through the 
country in the E>st, where we expect the 
largest consumption of our fruits, we find but 
a very few aa compared to the total output. 
When we look into the matter, we find that 
the course which is pursned tends to lessen the 
use of our fruits rather than increase it. We 
may commence right at home and look at the 
character of the fruit that is kept on our fruit- 
stands. Much of it, but of course not all, ia a 
class of inferior goods bought at a small price. 
Then, because it can ba bought cheap and re- 
tailed at an exorbitant price, only a few can 
buy; consequently, it lays day after day until 
it is hardly fit for uae. Oa the other hand, if 
people could get the same fruit freah at a rea. 
eonable price and in a freah condition, there 
would be a chance for the conaumption to h) 
largely increased. This application is not only 
true here, but in nearly all other places where 
our fruits are sold. 

When I went Etat, a few yeara ago, in the 
city of Portland, Maine, I tried to buy aome 
dried peachea, going to all the leading groceries 
but without success. I was told that if I 
should buy I would not do so a second time, as 
they were so bitter as to be unfit to eat — that 
they would taste aa if they had been ateeped in 
hop water. I do not know where they were in 
the habit of getting their goods, but I presume 
from some of the Eastern peach districts where 
they plant and grow the bitter kind. How- 
ever, I bought a can of peaches, and sure 
enough they were very small and bitter, and of 
such a character as our canneries would not 
buy at all. Undoubtedly they were Eastern 
packed goods. That city is not the exception, 
for there are many places where they know but 
little about the superior quality of California 
fruit. * 

Da we believe that the present production is 
sufficient to glut the United States ? If we do, 
we cannot have much courage to go forward 
and plant orchards, as we are now doing, for 
this country is only in its infancy in this as 
well as in many other things. We must go to 
work and make it a paying bnsineas. It seeilia 
to me there are many growera who put but lit- 
tle value on their fruit; growera will often aell 
at most any price ofi'ared, which at best ia poor 
policy. It has a bad inflaenoe on the market. 
Unless we are growing fruit for what there is 
in it, we had better have no more than we can 
make use of in our homes. 

The first thing to do is to value our fruits 
and then go to work to get the value out of 
them. While there are many ways to do this, 
they are all valuable to us and we had better 
recognize them. About the first thing for 
every one to do Is to fix themeelTes for drying, 
and after the fruit ia ready for market, we 

should have a well-organizjd fruit exchange. 
I see no reason why this course cannot be made 
profitable, at least no insurmountable obstacle. 
I am well aware that to handle dried fruits ao 
far from an Eistern market, takes time snd 
considerable money, and that there is quite a 
risk attending it. Therefore, those who buy 
our fruits must necessarily have a good margin 
and I know of no one who can take this risk 
better than those who produce the goods, for 
they have not the capital invested that the 
buyers have. 

Then again, the plan of shipping green fruits 
and selling at auction in Chicago, as has been 
practiced in the northern part of the State, has 
been a source of considerable profit to the 
growers and should be enoonraged here, aa I 
see no particular reason why we have not 
equally as good facilities. If we were sending 
a few carloads each week from Sonthern Cali- 
fornia points, we would soon stimulate the 
market and strengthen prices. As it is, our 
canning eatabllehments are very meagre as 
compared to even small production at the pres- 
ent time, and they are able to get sufficient 
supplies by buying only the very best. If we 
are to live and continue in the business as it is 
now, we might as well disoontinue planting 
new orchards. This, however, we cannot af- 
ford to do. We must formulate some coopera. 
tive plan whereby we can handle our own busi- 
ness — do our own canning, drying, bnying and 
selling. When such a scheme is broached, the 
first we hear is, " Oh, the producers cannot or 
will not stick together; that has been tried and 
proven a failure," Admitting this to ba ao, it 
doea not prove that it necessarily must be the 
reauU always. While in some cases the busi- 
ness undertiken has not been carried on for a 
great length of time by the promoters of the 
enterprise, yet by being taken by other parties 
it has proven a great ben-fit to those who first 
started it, by opening up the way and making 
a market for their produce. 

Cooperation on the part of the producers has 
worked a great benefit to them in many in- 
stances, and that is the greatest thing needed 
at the present time. Combine against those 
whom we supply with our productions I No; 
we don't mean thia ! While the producer ia 
combined against by every institution under 
the sun, we have no protection; we have no 
voice in the matter at all. We take what is 
given us and we are not expected to say a word. 
Why ? Because we are not expected to have 
anything more than an ordinary existence. 
The pleasures of life a producer is not expected 
toerjoy. " He ain't that kind of a fellow. 
No, he would not know what to do with it if 
he had it. He could not use it; he has no time 
for that. He must stay in the field and plow 
and cultivate from sun to aun; yes, from day- 
light until dark. That is good enough for him. 
We also combine against him; we are the fel- 
lows who can put on the style. We can enjjy 
the pleasures of life. We know how to do it.'' 
Now, friends and prodnoersv one and all, who 
is it that may enjoy life, too? It Is the pro- 
dncer, the son of toil; for from his hand comes 
everything under the sun. Combine against 
those who stand ready to take our produce or 
the production of our hands ! No; but we 
mu't study our interests 1 There must bs some 
unity of action. We must look after our own 
business. There must be some organization 
among us. Lst us have united aotion and then 
we will prosper. 

We nearly all claim to be protectionists, but 
at the same time we do but very little toward 
protecting ourselves. We meet together year 
after year and talk over things pertaining to 
our business and neglect the very important 
one of how shall we organize ourselves that we 
may market our fruits to the best advantage ? 

A Foothill Peach Tree. 

A peach tree is a very common sight in Placer 
county, but the one described in this article is 
the peaoh tree and should be classed as one of 
the seven wonders of the county. It is on the 
ranch of H. B. Gaylord, two and a quarter 
miles from Auburn. It is five years old and 
has borne four crops of fruit. In June, 1S86, 
three trees were noticed in front of the resi- 
dence, and just to see what they would do, 
were left to grow as they were. The winter 
of '86 and '87 they remained green all winter. 
In December, 1886, the largest one was taken 
to the Citrus Fair at Sacramento, not with a 
view of taking any preminm, but just to show 
what Placer county climate and soil could do. 
This tree was 2\ inches in diameter and six 
feet high. What became of it is not known. 
Of the other two, one had been budded to nee- 
tarlnea, the fruit of which took the first pre- 
mium at the District Fair in Auburn, in 1890. 
The other still remains where it first sprouted. 
It is now 25 feet high and measures 2 feet and 
3 inchea in circumference at the ground. 
Twenty-one inches from the ground four 
branches start ont, measuring respectively 
16, 15, 13 and 9 inches in circumference. The 
following is the number of boxes of peaches 
taken from the tree and the annonnt received 
therefor : 1888, 17 boxes at 75 cents per box, 
$12.75; 1889, 26 boxes at 70 cents per box, 
.^18 20; 1890, 23 boxes at |1 per box, S23; 1891. 
40 boxes at 40 cents per box, $16. Total, 106 
boxes, $69 95. The tree is a seedling from the 
Salway, but is a much finer flavored peach. 
When such trees can be raised from the seed, 
we can see no use of budding. As the name 
suggests, it is a Challenge tree, and we chal- 
lenge any one to beat it. — Auburn Sejntbliean, 

Farmers' Institutes. 

The Institute Work in Wisconsin. 

We have received a oopy of Bulletin 5, Wis- 
consin Farm Institutes, which outlines the 
meetings of 1891 in that State. It is edited by 
W. H. Morrison, the able superintendent of 
Wisconsin Institutes. In it we find much re- 
lating to the progress of the Institute effort, 
and we ahall reproduce a few paragrapha. 

At one of the meetinga, ex-Governor Hoard 
said: "Everywhere I go, every aucceaafnl man 
in farming recognizee the great value, force and 
strength of these Farmers' Institutes, which 
shall take hold of the farmers and unite them 
in an intelligent study of that which maketh 
for peace and righteousnesa and a better re- 
ward of agricultural effort. 

"Now, these things are in the line of intense 
common sense. I would not give a fig for 
any sense that is not common enough to be 
down where I live. We have watched and 
prayed and worked for these Institutes, that 
they might make the waste places of our be- 
loved State to blossom as the rose, and they 
have helped to do it. They have done a vast 
amount of good, because they have brought us 
together, and when we come together, we warm 
and cheer each other, don't we? When men 
come together and honestly, patiently and in- 
telligently think with one another concerning 
the things that interest them ao much, they 
are bound to help one another. My friends, 
the Institute work of our State is a blessed 
work if we can keep it along thia line. 

"We want to hold right steidily in the con- 
duct of the Institutes to the technical work of 
the farm. We don't want to dabble in politic, 
we don't want to mix up in religion, we don't 
want to mix up with anything on earth, but 
stick to this. Give to me a larger judgment of 
my duty as a farmer, and how to encompass 
the problems of my work, and then 1 will bleai 
the Institutes. The judgment of men is en- 
hanced and enlarged and benefited by rubbing 
together, You know the old-fashioned sayirg 
in Vermont when they go sleigh-riding and the 
boys and girls all tumble into the sleigh. ' Lay 
the brands close if yon want a good fire.' You 
need that motto here in the Institute work; we 
need it in the State. There is no man that 
needs to range up alongside of his neighbor 
more than the farmer, and may God bleaa him 
in hia efforts in that direction." 

The iDBtitutes and the University. 

Prof. W. A. Henry, In speaking of the De- 
partments of Agricultural Instruction at the 
University, said: 

"The third feature of our nniqae system ia the 
spread of agricultural knowledge throughout 
the whole community, through the medium of 
the Farmers' Institutes. The Institute is just 
as much a part of the University and the Agri- 
cultural Department as the Experiment Sta- 
tion, or the teaching of agricultural studies 
within the college walls. Every person who 
attends an Inetitnte is a student of the Uni- 
versity as much as though he had registered 
with us at Madison. The Institute system is 
based upon the idea that knowledge should be 
as free as air and water, and that our farmers 
a-e anxious and willing to avail themaelvea of 
everything that ia ueeful and will help them to 
better follow their vocation. Many yeara ago 
the farmera began coming together each winter 
for the purpose of discussing agricultural ques- 
tions and making themselves better farmers 
and better cltizsns. These gatherings were 
under the name of Grange meetings. Farmers' 
Clubs, meetings of various State organizations 
such as the State Agricultural Society, the 
State Dairymen's Association, etc. Each of 
these filled its mission and has done a great 
work, but the Institute, managed as it is from 
the University as a central point, gathers to- 
gether all the great agricultural forces of the 
State into harmony, and carries more informa- 
tion and distributes it better than was ever be- 
fore possible. 

"When first started, there were those who ex- 
pressed the opinion that, though popular for a 
time, the Farmers' Institutes would soon die 
out, and there are those within our borders to- 
day who still believe it short-lived. From the 
first I have afiSrmed the contrary, basing my 
reasons npon my knowledge of Wisconsin farm- 
ers and human nature in general, and I have 
seen no cause to change my opinion. When 
the horticulturist ceases to care for horticul- 
ture, when the horseman ceases to care for the 
horse, when the atockman'a eyes grow dull aa 
he listens to aome practical paper on the care 
and management of our domeatic animals; 
when men are ao well posted In the (growing of 
farm cropa that no better methode can be em- 
ployed and no larger yielda obtained; when the 
owner of 160 acres of good Wisconsin soil Is 
content to dcze over the winter fire and care for 
nothing outside his boundary fences, then there 
will be no demand for the Farmers' Institutes 
in Wisconsin; but until suoh a time comes, the 
Institute has its place among our educational 
factors. My only fear is that interference may 
come from those who would rather farmers 
should not gather in meetings of this kind, and 
grow intelligent in the discussion of all things 
that work for and against them; or, perhaps 
tronble may oome through the jsalonsy and en- 
mity of a few who would ruin where they can- 
not rale." 

Jan. 9, 1892 1 




Citrus Fair at Auburn. 

The California State Citrns Fair for the 
oonntiea outside of the Sixth Oongreasional 
District wlii be held at Anbarn, C»I., daring 
one week, oommencing Jan. 11, 1892. 

There will be awarded $2500 cash premiums. 
The Southern Paoifio Company will return ex- 
hibits free of charge on presentation to the 
agent at Auburn of a certificate from the Super- 
intendent of the Fair that the property has 
been on exhibition and has not changed hands. 
Wells, Fargo & Co. will also transport exhibits 
at special rates. 

Premium List— Open to Producers Only. 

Class i— County Exhibits. — First premium, 
$250; second, $150; third, $100; fourth, $50. 

Class 2— Budded Oranges. — Largest and best 
exhibit budded oranges grown by exhibitor — First 
premium, $200; second, $J00; third, $75; fourth, 
$50; fifth, $25. 

Class 3— Budded Oranges. — Best 12 budded 
oranges grown by exhibitor — First premium, $10; 
second, $9; third, $8; fourth, $7; fifth, $6; sixth, $5; 
seventh. $4; eighth, $3; ninth, $2; tenth, $1. 

Class 4 — Seedling Oranges. — Best exhibit of 
seedling oranges by producer — First premium, $ioo; 
second, $75; third, $50; fourth, $25. 

Class 5— Seedling Oranges. — Best 12 seed- 
lings shown by exhibitor — First premium, $10; sec- 
ond, $9; third, $8; fourth, $7; fifth, $6; sixth, $5; 
seventh, 54; eighth, $3; ninth, $2; tenth, $i. 

.Class 6. — Best two standard boxes budded 
oranges packed for market— First premium, $15; 
second, $10. 

Class 7. —Best two standard boxes seedling or- 
anges packed for market— First premium, $15; sec- 
ond, $10. 

Class 8 — Lemons. — Best display of lemons — 
First premium, $50; second, $30; third, $20; fourth, 

Class 9— Shaddocks and Pumalos. — Best dis- 
play of Shaddocks and Pumalos — First premium, 
fS; second, $3; third, $2. 

Class 10— Olives. — Largest and best display 
of olives — First premium, $25; second, $15; third, 

Class II— Pickled Olives. —Best display of 
pickled olives — First premium, $20; second, $10. 

Class 12-Olive Oil. — Best display of olive oil. 
First premium, $30; second. $25; third, $15; fourth, 

Class 13— Persimmons.— Best exhibit of per- 
simmons — First premium, $5; second, $3; third, $2. 

Class 14— Pomegranates. — First premium, $5; 
second, $3; third, $2. 

CLA.SS IS — Raisins. — Best display of raisins — 
First premium, $100; second, $75; third, $50; fourth, 

Class 16— Prunes. — Best display of dried 
prunes — First premium, $40; second, $25; third, $10. 

Class 17— Prunes.— Best dried prunes— First 
premium, $10; second. $5. 

Class 18 — Figs. — Best display — First premium, 
$25; second, $20; third $15; fourth, $10. 

Class 19— Dried Fruits. — Best general exhibit — 
First premium, $50; second, $30; third, $20; fourth, 

Class 20 — Preserved and Canned. — Best ex- 
hibit by other than packers — First premium, $15; 
second, $10; third, $5. 

Class 21 — Nuts. — Best general exhibit — First 
premium, $25; second, $15; third, $10. 

Class 22 — Nursery Stock. — Best exhibit 
grown by exhibitor, to include seedling and other 
stock — First premium, $25; second, $10. 

Class 23— Apples. — Best exhibit of apples by 
producer — First premium, $25; second, $20; third, 
$15; fourth, $io. 

Class 24. — Pears. — Best exhibit of pears by pro- 
ducer — First premium, $io; second, $5; third, $3; 
fourth, $2. 

Class 25. — Most artistic exhibit, $50. 

Rules and Begulations. 

1. All exhibits must be in position and 
readiness for examination by 12 o'clock noon, 
Tuesday, January 2d, and no premiums will ba 
paid on any article on exhibition unless prop- 
erly entered on the books of the General Super- 
intendent before that time, and properly placed 
in position in the place assigned them for exhl- 

2. All exhibitors must obtain a card with 
number on from entry clerk to agree with ex- 
hibit. This card must be kept in a conspic- 
uons place on or near the exhibit. 

3. No article or exhibit entered for pre- 
mium can be removed before the olose of the 
fair without permission of the Superintendent. 

4. Competitors mast be prodnoers. 

3. Free oartage in Auburn for all exhibits. 


G. W. Hancock, Director; Wm. B. Gester, 
General Saperintendent (to whom exhibits and 
correspondence should be addressed at Auburn). 
Advisory Committee— Fred C. Miles, D. W. 
Labeck, W. B. Lardner, 

Diseased Trees. 

Daring the past week or two, State in- 
spectors have seized and condemned a large 
number of diseased fruit trees, imported from 
the EiBt, aggregating in value about $5000. 
The tint of the recent seizures took place at 
Auburn, where • carload of disease-Infected 
trees arrived. They were found to be iofeot- 
ed with several diseases entirely new to Cali- 
fornia, and were condemned as a preventive 
againet the spread of the contagion. The cost 
of the trees was about S2000. 

A few days ago, 12 large oases of these East- 
ern trees arrived at Mountain Vineyard, where 
they were examined by one of the inspectors 
and found to contain the deadly ourcnlio. This 
Insect principally infeota plum, prune and apri- 

cot trees. The entire 12 oases were condemned 
and seized, after being held in quarantine for a 
short time. 

At San Jose, two carloads of trees were quar- 
antined, and they have since been condemned. 
The cost of the trees seized at Mountain Vine- 
yard and San Jose was about $3000. Several 
more seizures have also been made in the south- 
ern part of the State, 

" I have received any number of protests 
from Eastern nurserymen," said Secretary Ls- 
long of the State Board of Horticulture yester- 
day, " but I pay no attention to them. The in- 
troduction of these infected trees into Califor- 
nia would Imperil our fruit-growers' interests, 
and the county boards and inspectors are keep- 
ing a vigilant outlook for every carload that 
cornea here. The Eiatern men acknowledge 
that their trees are infected either with the 
'yellows,' a disease of the Eastern peach, or 
with the curonlio, but they claim that these 
diseases could not develop in this State, on ac- 
count of the climate. This is an error, how- 
ever, as experience has taught us, and we pro- 
pose to continue to wage war against every lot 
of infected trees brought into this State." — 

Humboldt Fruit Farms. 

Editobs Press: — A short time ago, several 
capitalists from Eureka came to Blocksburg 
and inspected the Casterlain ranch. The result 
of their trip was a joint-stook company with a 
capital of $32,000 purchased 320 acres of land, 
and operations have already begun, to convert 
this tract into an orchard. This winter the 
intention is to put out 40 acres prunes and 
five acres apples. I understand that Mr. 
Casterlain will place the balance of his ranch 
on the market, in 40 and 80 acre tracts. 

There is a movement on foot in Blooksburg 
that will be of great benefit to this section, but 
I will reserve it for my next letter. The propo- 
sition to bond the county for roads is progress- 
ing. It is evident that there is a proportion of 
our people who don't want roads, and the way 
they take to confuse the issue (but tew men 
have come out in print againet roade) is to yell 
" railroad." In case the railroad appears, will 
it not make more travel for the wagon roads ? 

For one, I am of the opiuion that it is in 
order for the obstructionists to rise and explain. 
When the time comes, they will fight a railroad 
worse than they do now good wagon roade; 
but with good wagon roads and new industries 
started, the "iron horse " will take care of 

What I will have to say may be uninterest- 
ing to your readers in a section where the peo- 
ple have traveled the road we are just getting 
ready to set out on. To those I will say, yon 
can aid as by your own experience and advice, 
and let Humboldt profit by it, and I know of 
no better channel of reaching us than through 
the pages of the Press, as it has many readers 
in this county. I refer to the converting our 
grazing landa into fruit farms. 

I will take, for example, the "Martin 
Ranch," and what I have to say will apply to 
any tract of land suitable to froit-raising. 
This tract oontiins about 500 acres, and Is at 
present leased for farming. It is well supplied 
with water by numerous springs, and, besides, 
there are two large creeks — one on either side, 
which can be brought on the land — in fact, one 
creek is at present used for irrigating. 

This place is very level for hill land, and 
slopes gently toward the south and west, and 
the soil is well adapted to fruit culture. 

One can see at a glance this farm is well 
adapted to any kind of crops, but nearly all of 
this class of land ia well watered and has the 
other qualities that will force it to the front. 
One can form a company or partnership, or they 
can form a joint stock company, as they may 

The first thing is to get a practical man that 
nnderstanda the bualneas to assume the manage- 
ment. At present, there are about 70 acres 
under cultivation, and they should plant at 
least 30 acres in fruit per year. 

Expenses must ba curtailed in every possible 
way. What I mean is, two dollars does not 
want to be expended when one could be made 
to do the work. My idea would be to lease 
the place as soon aa the company gets poases- 
aion, for, because you are uaieg 30 acres for 
fruit, it ia no reason why you should ]fit 400 or 
500 acres lie idle. And before the trees are 
planted, it is much better if the land could 
have been farmed a couple of years previously, 
so as to be in a high state of cultivation, so that 
the weeds would be destroyed, and in future it 
would take much less work to keep it in order. 

Now, it will take considerable hay and grain, 
vegetables, etc., for the teams and the families 
working planting trees. I would try to have 
the renter furnish these instead of paying cash 
rent. Every year the orchards aret'Scroaching 
on tlte grain-fields. Let it be so stated In the 
lease that an amount of land shall be broken up 
each year equal to the amount planted in fruit 

It will be easier to rent to advantage here, aa 
a flour mill will be in operation within two 
milea and the market for produce would be aa- 

In this way, you could have your land culti- 
vated ready to plant your trees and your vege- 
tables, potatoes, horse-feed, furnished you free 
of cost; so much for not allowing the outside 
land remaining idle. From the time the trees 

are planted until they bear, one could plant 
corn, beans, tomatoes, potatoes and different 
berry bushes. This should not be rented, aa 
you want to know who is working among your 
young trees. Ed. Robertson. 

Bridgeville, Cal. 

Peach Culture in the Kern '.Delta. 

A few weeks ago, we gave an interesting 
essay on the peach in the Sacramento valley, 
and we are glad now to present a view of the 
same grand fruit from the southern end of Vae 
great valley of California. We quote from the 
Bakersfield Echo as follows: 

Kern county horticulturists have not yet 
definitely settled on what general variety of 
fruit to raise for market, and are bv no means 
a unit in favor of any one kind. Even in the 
matter of peaches, our orohardlejts are not of 
one mind as to the best peach to depend on for 
a steady marketable peach. The soft peach, 
that depends on a local market (or at least 
short transportation) has its friends, who, of 
course, think it is the ne plus ultra on account 
of its tremendous size when grown on Kern 
county land (some claiming that a bushel of 
them will fill a barrel); and as it is very at- 
tractive and showy, has been propagated longer 
and more extensively than later varieties and 
crosses that have required years of careful 
training and experiment to bring them to their 
best. The limits of this article will not permit 
us to go into the details of each and every va- 
riety of the peach family, but for the general 
reader, we think it sufficient to here make men- 
tion of only the two general varieties — the soft 
peach represented by the Oraoge Cling, and the 
later and more solid shipping peach represent- 
ed by the late George Cling. With the former 
variety, nearly every orcbardist in the county 
has had same experience, and knows what our 
soil will do in perfecting that fruit. The won- 
derful size and beautiful perfection of this sort 
of peach have become such an old story with 
old residents that nowadays an Orange Cling 
weighing a pound avoirdupois is no cariosity 
whatever, and a man to carry off the palm 
must bring one to the front that can tip the 
beam at 24 ounces. It is difficult indeed for 
Eastern people who have never seen a peach 
that weighed over ten ounces to believe that a 
California peach tree could survive the birth 
and perfection of a IB-ounce peach, but our ordi- 
nary orchards perform the feat every summer, 
and never crack a smile. This fruit U very 
rich, juicy, well flavored, a rosy orange when 
ripe, and an orchard of this ripened fruit will 
rival the beauty of the famous orange orchards 
of Florida. 

These two are set out as seedlings, about 20 
feet apart each way, and the second year after 
setting out will average 650 pounds of market- 
able fruit per acre. The third year the fruit is 
much improved in quantity and quality, and 
the tree has nearly reached its prime, yielding 
about three times aa much fruit as the year 
previous. About the sixth year the treea are 
up to their speed, yielding an average of 280 
baxes (20 pounds per box) per acre, the selling 
orice of which, actually received, was $40 to 
■$45 per ton, or $125 per acre. The seventh 
year of the orchard showed 16,000 boxes on the 
original 20 acres, or 800 boxes per acre, which, 
at the prevailing market price (50 cents per 
box), yielded the owner a return of $400 per 
acre. But besides the ripe fruit shipped, the 
same orchard also furnished four tons of first 
quality dried peaches, which sold for 11 cents 
per pounH, or $880 more to the credit of 20 
acres of Kern land. 

This year (1891) the orchards fairly outdid 
themselves, one 25-acre tract producing 24,000 
boxes of first-class ripe peaches, and enough 
second quality fruit for 25 barrels of as fine 
peach brandy as a native Kentuokian could 
wish for. 

With more and better railroad faoilities, 
such as refrigerator cars and rapid transit, the 
Kern county soft peaches can be put on any of 
the markets of the country, and by their supe- 
rior excellence as a table fruit, can dictate 
terms beside any other peach on earth. 

The most perfect representative of our late 
peaches ia the Late George Cling, a variety 
maturing in September, after all the other 
varieties are dead and buried, and as a general 
thing, has the market to itself. This variety 
of the peach family has had a remarkable his- 
tory aa to its propagation and ultimate perfec- 
tion, this county finally answering all the re- 
quirements, and bringing the Late George to a 
greater degree of perfection than any other part 
of the United States, other parts of California 
not excepted. About seven years ago, a nur- 
seryman by the name of Taylor, came to Kein 
county with a new kind of peach, almost in 
despair of ever finding soil and climate, both 
adapted to his pet variety of fruit, which be 
had brought with him. One or two of Bakers- 
field's citizens took hold of the experiment, re- 
solved to give it a fair trial under the firm oon- 
vlction that Kern county could perfect any fralt 
that a sensible man ought to raise. Without a 
single hitch anywhere, these began to thrive 
from the start, and the second year produced a 
few specimens of a fruit that was destined to 
be second to none as a money producer. Sev- 
eral counties of California had previously the 
same Late George Cliug, but in every case, fail- 
ure of some sort resulted. In some oaaea " curl 
leaf " attacked the trees; in others, the fruit 
positively refused to t»,ke on a healthy ripen- 
ing color, but rather resembled a aiokly, half- 

baked pancake; in still other caiea the 
passed into a decline, followed by a t 
death. Aa a last resort, Kern county soil 
climate were tried, and the reaulta are given 

In 1885, the first of these trees were set out 
near Bakersfield on the ordinary soil (river 
wash) on prepared ^ound, 20 feet apart, and 
from the very start their growth was steady 
and rapid. The third season the fruit showed 
what the climate would do toward its proper 
ripening, and the fourth year the crop was sold 
on the ground in September for $250 an acre. 

In the table below may be seen the figurea 
ahowine: the actual results, accomplished in one 
of the Kern county orohardr, of the La'e George 
Cliug variety. We could have used the higher 
figures reached by another orchard, but we 
choose rather to strike a happy medium and be 
somewhat conservative rather than quote the 
largest results. The following figures are on a 
basis of ten acres: 

Cost of land at $75 an acre $ 750 

Preparing ground and setting out trees 400 

Firs' year's irric;atian and cultivation 200 

Second year's irrigation and cultivation... 100 

Third year's irrigation and cultivation 100 

Fourth year's Irrigation and cultivation... loo 
Cost of picking fruit 90 

Total expense $1,640 

Fruit sold on the trees at $41.65 per ton, 

60 tons $2,600 

After deducting all e-vpense J,640 

Profit on ten acres, besides paying for land $ 880 

Profit on each acre ^ 88 

In 1890, this same orchard, with the alight 
expense of cultivation and irrigation, yielded a 
cash return of .13600, or $360 an acre. In 1891, 
the same tract yielded over 96 tons of firat- 
class marketable fruit. 

Besides the market for ripe fruit in boxes, 
there still remains the conatantly growing de- 
mand for dried fruit and canned peaches. 
These two articles are rapidly coming to the 
front, and then it will make no difference to an 
orcbardist whether he ships a single box of ripe 
fruit or not, for he can either can or dry every 
peaoh raised on his trees. As an instance of 
this matter of dried peaches, one of our peach- 
growers dried 7000 pounds of peaches from a 
six-year-old orchard, which was not quite three 
per cent of the years crop, and sold the dried 
fruit at 11 cents per pound. 

Kern county will produce any fruit in the 
peach line that the American palate may de- 
maud, and it has been repeatedly proven that 
they are brought to a greater degree of per- 
fection here than elsewhere. Now the test 
question is: What is the best variety ? We 
may answer, to the best of our observation and 
experience, as the managers of a State Fair in 
Georgia did when asked why the first prize waa 
given to an exhibitor of a razor- backed hog: 
" A hog to take the cake in Georgia must be 
able to outrun a crow — that is, he must be the 
animal best adapted to the country." We 
verily believe that, for ail purposes, the Late 
George Cling is the peach best adapted to Kern 

Placer County Fruit Shipments, 

In view of the holding of the Citrus Fair in 
Placer county, it is specially interesting to note 
the following statistic!), just published in a 
pamphlet by the Placer countv Board of Trade. 
During the two seasons of 1890 and 1891, the 
following shipments of green fruits from Placer 
county were made from the several atationa 


1890— lbs. 1891— lbs. 

Newcastle 9,000,000 11,786,360 

Penryn .1,500,000 4,905,438 

Loomis 800,000 1,237,640 

Colfax 800,000 537,000 

Auburn 800,000 606,585 

Totals 12,900,000 18,973,023 

The Placer county shipments for 1890 were 
nearly one-fifth of the total fresh deciduoaa 
fruit ahipmenta of the whole State, or nearly 
one-tenth of the total fresh-fruit ahipmenta, 
both citrua and deciduous, from California dur- 
ing that period. 

l?he Placer county shipments for 1891 show 
the enormous increase of 47 per cent over those 
of 1890. 

The Bean Belt, — Ventura county claims 
the honor of being the most prolific bean-grow- 
ing section in the world. The Los Alamos 
Central says that one ranch of 2200 acres has 
produced 1030 tons of Lima beans this year. It 
took 31,000 sacks to hold the crop, and they 
will fill about 103 cars, on the average of 10 
tons to the oar. This will make eight or nine 
aolid traina of beans. But this is only from one 
ranch. The railroad company expeots to handle 
1500 carloads of beans on the Ventura divialon 
tbia year, which, at $22 per ton if shipped 
East, means $133,000 )n their cash account. 

Will Protect His Owx Brand. — It ia an- 
nounced from San Jose that J. E, Gordon has 
declined to fill an order from a big firm in 
France for $30,000 worth of dried prunea. Hia 
reaaon for refusing is that the firm wished the 
prunea ahipped in bulk, so they could be packed 
and placed on the market under a French label. 
Mr. Gordon aays he will sell no prunes in thia 
way, bat all the product disposed of by him 
must bear his own brand and show that tbegf 
came from the Santa Clara valley. 

A Lumber Combine. — Reports are again 
current of the colleotion of the largest lumber- 
ing interests and outfits of thia State and 
Southern Oregon into a combine with English 


f ACIFie ^^URAb fRESS. 

[Jam. 9, 1892 


Our OfHclal Oranse Editlon.-The Grange news 
of most general iutercat is gmn tlirough aU c<Wion, of our 
paper t.u thin page One or more page?, devoted to Grange 
interests, are given iu mir Orange e.btion, which any 6Ul>; 
.crTC can receive iu lieu of '.be regular edition WITHOCI 
EXTRA coht. by aiidreming the puMmhcrs. 

The Master's Desk. 

L W. D*TIB, W. U. 8. O. OF CALlFOaOT*. 

The Grange is a secret organization. It 
has a local, a countv, a State and a National 
organization. It is strictly a farmers fra- 
ternity. Inquire about it, study its Declara- 
tion of Purposes and its Constitution, and 
then join the nearest subordinate Grange. 
If there is none in your vicinity, send for 
documents and instructions to A. T. Dewey, 
220 Market St., San Francisco, Gal. 

It is Happy New Year, so bring out all 
your good resolutions. 

If you were asked by a young man about 
to engage in farming, what line of farming 
he should pursue, how would you answer ? 
The hop grower, the fruit grower, the wheat 
grower, the sheep raiser, the cattle man, the 
grape grower, the poultry man, the dairy 
man the swine raiser, the horseman, each 
would advise to engage in the other man's 
business, and yet none of them are quite 
willing to follow the advice given. Per- 
haps they agree with the adage, " 'Tis bet- 
ter to bear the ills we have than flee to 
those we know not of." And after all, the 
life of the farmer compares most favorably 
with that of any other vocation. He gen- 
erally enjoys good health; a good name; 
has plenty to eat; comfortable, but not styl- 
ish clothes, and a superabundance of em- 
ployment. The farmer hardly knows what 
it is to be "out of a job." There are hun- 
dreds of young men who claim to want a 
" steady job." To all such, let me recom- 
mend " a farm of your own." 

The new word is obtainable by those 
Granges square on the books. Ask and ye 
shall receive, seek and ye shall find— the 
A. W. 

Look out for oleomargarine ! A dealer in 
San Francisco has been arrested for selling 
bogus butter. 

The following question has come to me: 
" Is there anything in the Master's Instruc- 
tions, or in the Fourth Degree Ritual, or in 
the Digest, or in the Constitution and By- 
laws, or in the Declaration of Purposes, 
which is in any way or at any time to be 
held above a Fourth Degree member in 
good standing?" To which I answer: " I 
know of nothing except the A. W., and 
that is to be given under proper conditions 
and circumstances to the Fourth Degree 

Question 2. What is the meaning of 
" Week's Notice " where it occurs in Art 
8, State Grange By-laws? Answer: "It 
means just seven days." 

Question 3. What is the meaning of 
" Three black balls shall reject and one 
shall cause the application to lay over one 
week?" Answer to this is found on page 
60, paragraph 23, known as Decision 69 of 
the National Grange. To be found in Di 
gest of 1890. 

Question 4. Shall the Master announce 
the result of all ballots and other votes of 
the Grange ? Answer: Yes. 

Question. How far ought the Master of 
a subordinate Grange go in maintaining 
order in the Grange? Answer: The Mas- 
ter is required to exercise the supreme au 
thority with which he is invested in main' 
tainiug order in the Grange, and in en- 
forcing obedience to the Constitution and 
laws of the Order. He roust first know the 
laws, else he cannot enforce them. 

The season of installations I 

Hard times, these, on the poultry yard 
and larder. 

Four hundred and twenty-nine Patrons 
received the seventh degree of the Order of 
Patrons of Husbandry, at Springfield, Ohio 
at the last session ot the National Grange 
Who will say that the Grange is languish 
ing ? And who will dare say we do not 
have " Our Four Hundred " ? 

Bro. Past Master Flint makes a good hit 
when he says : " When you pay your store 
bill, insist on its being itemized to the most 
trivial article." This is correct. If our 
Worthy brother, who always hits the nail 
will allow, we would add : " When you buy, 
keep an itemized account yourself, even if 

you pay the cash, but assuredly so if you 
buy on time." Better pay as you go— that 
is Grange doctrine. 

The "Journal of Proceedings" of the 
25th annual session of the National Grange, 
held at Springfield, Ohio, is at hand. In 
a short time a copy will be in the possession 
of every subordinate Grange in California. 
It is my wish that the Lecturer will at 
once inform himself of the work ot the Na- 
tional Grange, then at each meeting of his 
subordinate Orange, read so much of the 
proceedings as will interest and instruct the 
membership. Don't be tedious ; don't be 
too anxious to read too much at one meet- 
ing, but select such points and such reports 
as will most benefit your membership. Re- 
member, the Grange is a National organ- 
ization, and in the proceedings of the Na- 
tional Grange, you find a record ot what is 
said and done for the entire organization. 
The broadest view of the fraternity is had 
from the National Grange. Try to get good 
from the thoughts recorded in this journal 
for your Grange and for yourself. 

You have read the stories of the Mound- 
Builders. If history teaches aright, and 
there are marfy evidences — mostly circum- 
stantial, it is true — that it does, they were a 
thoughtful and industrious people. There 
was much method in their labor. Nor were 
they devoid of some degree of architecture. 
That they were over-industrious is manifest 
from the great amount of work they did to 
accomplish the end they had in mind. It 
has often occurred to me that if the mem- 
bers of our Order would but put forth half 
the effort the original Mound-Builders ex- 
pended, that we would have architectural 
monuments, beautiful and strong, in the 
name of subordinate Granges, far more use- 
ful, far more honorable and far more en- 
during than were the structures of the orig- 
inal Mound-Builders. Isn't it worth our 
while as an Order, isn't it worth your time 
and labor as a member of that Order, to 
build monuments in every county and town 
in our State, that will redound to our credit 
while we live, and to the benefit of human- 
ity when we are gone? Let us, as an Or- 
der, whose entire membership are soil- 
tillers, begin the work of Grange — Mound- 

From State Lecturer. 

(J. D. HuKPiiAS, Lodi, Cal., L. S. G. of Cal.] 

Sec'y State Grange — Deab Bro.: I am 
feeling able to-day for the first time in three 
weeks to write you. For that space of time 
I have been confined to my bed with pneu- 
monia, and this is now only the third day 
I have been up or you would have heard 
of me among the Granges somewhere ere 
this. I would suggest that the subject for 
discussion at the last meeting in January 
and the first meeting in February of the 
subordinate Granges be the "Free Delivery 
of the Mails in Country Districts," and for- 
ward a petition, if favorable to it, to the 
Legislative Committee of the National 
Grange, John Trimble, Washington, D. C. 
* * Fraternally, J. D. Hoffman. 
[Many will regret to hear of the Worthy 
Lecturer's illness. We wish him speedy 
restoration to good health and strength. — 
Eds, Pbess.J 

We Should Pull Together. 

Editobs Press:— How many tillers of 
the soil realize the full meaning of the 
words, " In Union there is Strength ?" I 
am reminded of these words by talking up 
the Grange a little among my neighboring 
fruit growers and asking the question, "What 
papers do you take ?" and am surprised at 
the total indifierence manifested by so 
many, both toward the Grange and in re- 
gard to their reading matter. They seem 
to be more interested in the latest divorce 
case or murder trial, or slogging match, 
than in the problem how to further the in- 
terests and improve the condition of the 
farmer; yet one and all growl at the small 
returns for their products, curse the com- 
mission merchant and transportation com- 
panies and swear a blue streak at Congress 
and the State Legislature, but do nothing 
to better their condition. If the farmers of 
this State could only realize their power 
united and would unite and pull together, 
what couldn't they accomplish? Suppose, 
for instance, every farmer in the State was 
a Granger, and it was understood by all 
political parties that the Grangers would 
scratch the name of every candidate for a 
legislative office known to be indifierent to 
the wants and needs of the farmer. Would 
not they think the second time before 
allowing the " boss" to put Pat O'Flaherty 
on the ticket because he could control the 
French vote, or Hans Pantosky because he 
had the American vote in his vest pocket. 
Yes, they would ask themselves, and very 

seriously, if the pesky Grangers would swal- 
low Pat and Hans. Divil a bit av it. Then, 
knowing certain defeat was the doom of 
such men, they would name for the place 
plain John Black or William Brown, men 
known to be in sympathy with the farmer, 
because they know what every man should 
know, that when the farmer is doing well 
the whole country is prosperous. 

Well now, why is it this is not done ? 
Why, because the farmers do not pull to- 
gether, and if any oue suggests Grange to 
them as one of the remedies, or Farmers' 
Alliance as another, they say. "Oh, I've 
voted my regular party ticket straight all 
my life and can't go back on it now;" (with- 
out knowing why they do) and as a conse- 
quence are supporting a lot of foreign rab- 
ble that in their native land would be 
either in the poor house, or jail (where they 
properly belong) and who care and know 
less about the laws of, or about framing new 
laws for, our country, than any farmer's ten 
year old boy. 

I can't understand why any farmer of 
ordinary sense or with any feeling of 
patriotism should allow this thing to go on 
when if we would remember that in union 
there is strength, and unite by all coming 
into the Grange, and read in addition to a 
daily paper some good agricultural paper, 
and insist that good men and women be 
elected to office; Taws would then be made 
and the government conducted in the in- 
terest of the whole people, including the 
farmer; rates of transportation would be 
placed on a just basis; the railroads would 
not be having a surplus of two or three 
millions each year while the farmers were 
figuring out a loss; officers would work for 
their salaries and would themselves get the 
money for their labor, instead of the polit- 
ical boss; useless commissions would be 
abolished and the members of those retain 
ed would earn their pay and get it; taxes 
would be reasonable and we would live 
more on the principles of "live and let live. 

A Growling Gbanger 
Vacaville, Jan. 1st. 

Farmers' Alliance. 

Our Alliance Kdllioa coDtaiot, additional to this 
Itage Alliance news which su*-scribers can receive without 
EXTRA COST, l)y applying for the same. 

The Womans' Alliance. 

The National Womans' Alliance was or- 
ganized at Topeka, Kansas, Sept. 27, 1891. 
The objects of the association is to establish 
a bureau for the better education of women 
on social and political questions, and to de- 
velop a better state, mentally, morally and 
financially, with the full and unconditional 
use of the ballot. The following is their 
Declaration of Purposes: 

In view of the great social, industrial and 
financial revolution now dawning upon the 
civilized world, and the universal demand 
of all classes of our American citizens for 
equal rights and privileges on every voca 
tion of human life, we, the industrial wo- 
men of America, declare our formation of 
this organization as follows, viz.: 

1st. To study all questions relating to 
the structure of human society, in the full 
light of modern invention, discovery and 

2d. To carry out into practical life the 
precepts of the golden rule. 

3d. To recognize the full political equal 
ity of the sexes. 

4th. To aid in carrying out the principle 
of cooperation in every department of hu 
man life to its fullest extent. 

5th. To secure the utmost harmony and 
unity of action among the sisterhood, in all 
sections of our country. 

6th. To teach the principles of interna- 
tional arbitration, and, if possible, to pre 
vent war. 

7th. To discourage in every way possi 
ble the use of all alcoholic liquors as a 
beverage) or the habitual use of tobacco or 
other narcotics injurious to the human sys 

In the Valley. 

The Alliance meetings held at the differ- 
ent points during the present month 
throughout the county mainly have been 
very successful; but unfavorable weather 
interfered*with some meetings, and at the 
Monson appointment there was no place to 
hold a meeting, as the schoolhouse had 
been shut against the Alliance. At several 
points in Mussel Slough district, large and 
attentive audiences were in attendance, and 
very flattering reports are received as to the 
results of the meetings. 

At Tulare, last Saturday evening, the at- 
tendance was small, on account of the 
heavy rain, which prevented many who 
would otherwise have attended. Mr. 
Clapp, however, delivered a very able ad- 

dress, and handled the financial and other 
questions in a way that showed he knew 
what he was talking about and how to talk. 
He showed by indisputable argument that 
in the contraction of the currency, legisla- 
tion had been influenced by, and in the in- 
terest of the speculators and " financiers" of 
the nation, to the detriment of the indus- 
trial class and the legitimate business in- 
terests of the whole country. 

Jas. McClellan, our County Lecturer, 
followed Mr. Clapp with an able speech, 
which was clear, logical and to the point. 
Such plain and practical talks as this, if 
heard by the masses, would have the effect 
to put them to think for themselves, in 
which event the future is safe. — Tulare 
Valley OUizen. 

Calaveras County Alliance. 

Editors Press: — Our County Alliance 
met on January 2d at G. A. R. hall. Ow- 
ing to the fact that State Lecturer J. S. 
Gilbert was to be with us, there was an en- 
thusiastic lot of farmers gathering in Burson 
as early as eight o'clock, and by ten, the 
hour for meeting, the hall was filled with 
hayseed." The following resolutions 
adopted will tend to show how each one felt 
OQ the Alliance question, each and every 
member voting for their adoption : 
To officers and delegates of Calaveras 
County Alliance : 
We, your Committee on Resolutions, do 
beg to report as follows : 

Resolved, That we extend to Bro. Gilbert, 
State Lecturer, our sincere thanks for his 
attendance upon our Oounty Alliance, his 
advice and instructions, and wish him suc- 
cess in his work. 

Resolved, That this County Alliance do 
most heartily indorse the action of the Cali- 
fornia State People's Party Convention, 
and the platform as a whole. 

Resolved, That this County Alliance ap- 
preciate the benefits derived from the State 
Business Agency, and consider that it 
should on no account be abandoned, oven if 
funds have to be raised in some way to pay 
its expenses over and above the commission 
now charged. 

After all business was transacted the Alli- 
ance adjourned, each member more fully 
resolved to work with all his might and to 
encourage others to join with us in this 
work. A Member. 

■ Burson, January 2, 1892. 

The Campaign of Education. 

No period in the history of the country 
has witnessed such an upheaval of public 
sentiment as the great movement of the 
Farmers' Alliance. For many years the 
Patrons of Husbandry have educated a large 
class of the producers in the essential prin- 
ciples of political economy, but for some 
cause that is not necessary to mention it 
failed to stir up the foundations of the 
structure of political organizations as is 
seen at the present. Whether this move- 
ment shall continue to mold public senti- 
ment and control the policy of government is 
for it to determine. The element of strength 
up to the piesent has been the justice of its 
demands, and so long as we shall continue 
on the line of "equal rights to all, special 
favors to none," it will continue to grow 
and spread its broad principles from center 
to circumference of this mighty country. 

But will it continue in this line? Will 
the conservative element be able to control 
its movements and demands? or will it be 
side-tracked by its enemies, by being in- 
duced to leave the successful and tried 
ways, and sacrifice the vantage ground of 
just and equitable position on all the issues 
of the day? We judge the future by the 
past ; knowing that history is apt to repeat 
itself, and that nothing but eternal vigilance 
is the price of liberty. We believe in our 
country and our countrymen. We believe 
that a large majority of the members of our 
Order have the good of the masses at heart, 
and will continue to so shape its sentiments 
as to continue to receive the commendation 
of all lovers of justice. — Alliance Mint. 

The California Fabmbr is successor to 
the Farmers' Alliance and California in Los 
Angeles. Our friend and old subscriber to 
the RUBAL Press H. C. Dillon, esq., re- 
mains as president of the publishing com- 
pany, and Mr. Burton will be the editor and 
business manager, making a good strong 

The State Executive Committee will not 
meet again in San Francisco until Tuesday, 
April 12th. 

A Great Loss.— R3v. M. M. BDv»rd, D. D., 
preeident of the UDlver«ity o( Santhero C»li- 
fornia, and one of the best-known Mathodiit 
clergymen on the ooaat, died Dsoember 30th of 
a lingering illneat. 

Jak. 9, 1892] ,PACIFie R.URA1D f RESS. 


Terracing for Fruit Growing. 

Written for the Rural Press, byP.W. Butler, of Penryn. 

There Is a strip of conntry on the east and 
north of the San Joaqain and Sacramento val- 
ley*, that extends their entire length, known as 
the "thermal belt." It lies In the first foothill 
lands that rise ont of the valleys and is only a 
few miles in width. There is less froot here 
than in the valleys; and above, the cold steadi- 
ly Inoreasas nntil the sammit of the Sierras is 
reached. In this region a great variety of frait 
can be grown of snperior qaality. 

Many of the hillsides, however, are too steep 
to be planted to orchards in the ordinary man* 
ner, bnt daring the last few years some of them 
have been terraced and planted to oranges and 
early peaches with resnlts that are highly sat- 
isfactory. Both the frnits require abondant 
water, bnt the land on which the trees are 
grown mast have perfect drainage. They will 
then produce frait large in size, and in great 
qnantity, and it will ripen earlier than where 
less water can be used, as I have noticed for 
some years the finest frait and the first to 
ripen was always from trees that stood near 
water ditches on hillsides, The ground thrown 
over in terracing gives depth of loosened soil 
that makes a rapid and healthy growth of tree 
and frait, that it is thoaght fully compensates 
for the cost of the work. The terracing gives 
picturesque beauty to the country, of the high- 
est order known to practical horticulture, 
thereby creating a value beyond intrinsic 
comparison, Newcastle, with an altitude of 
1356 feet. Is In a direct line 6 miles northeast 
from Rocklin — altitude 249 feet. Loomis and 
Fenryn being between the two places, and all 
on the Hoe of the Central Paoifio Railroad, the 

land rising at the rate of over 100 feet to the 
mile. Sacramento can be seen from each of 
these towns and is distant from Rocklin 22 

A ridge of land beginning at Newcastle runs 
west some two or three miles when it curves 
toward the south for several miles, abruptly 
terminating west of Rocklin, and very near the 
town. A large portion of the land lying north 
and west of Rocklin, Loomis and Fenryn, be- 
tween the top of the ridge and the railroad, 
belongs to the individual members of the Fhc- 
er County Citrus Colony, The sides of this 
ridge are being terraced by their owners and 
planted to oranges, from plans made by me, 
and the work in part has been done nnder my 
supervision. In the spring of 1888 the work 
was begun on a spur of land projecting from 
the ridge, containing 10 acres. This lies west 
from Fenryn two and a half miles, northwest 
from Loomis equally distant, and in plain view 
from either place. Near the base of this hill, 
and at the point of central approach. Is a cot- 
tage house, neatly built of split granite, that is 
now being used as a club house, for the Colony 
Club. Beginning just below this house I built 
a zigzag avenne up the centre of the spar to the 
top, on a regular grade of twenty inches to the 
rod. This makes an easy carriage road, the 
steepness of the hill being overcome by the 
continuous curving. After the terraces were 
made I paved the gutters on the upper sides of 
the avenue, changing to the opposite side at each 
curve. Fipes were liid across the road as the 
gutter changed sides, four inch pipe being noed 
on the upper turn, increasing to eight inch pipe 
at the lower crossing, as in a rainfall the water 
is greater in quantity at the base than at the top 
of the terraces. From the highest part of this 
spur that was to be planted I began the terraces 
on each side of the avenne, the first being only 
• few rods in length, increasing with each ter- 

race nntil the base was reached. The terraces 
terminate at the side of the avenue and have a 
grade of two and a half inches to the rod for 
the running of water in irrigating. The ter- 
race step was made level with a iiank slope of 
45 degrees, varying according to the steepness 
of the hillside. The width of the terraces as 
measured on the slope, was about 25 feet on an 
average, but only from 12 to 20 feet was the 
width of the level part. Sidehill plows were 
used in making the terraces, and they were run 
bask and forth until the work was nearly done, 
when it was finished with shovels, some dirt 
having to be taken from high points to low 
places in wheelbarrows. Recent experience, 
however, has made me familiar with an imple- 
ment called a •' V" which, following the plow 
does the leveling much more cheaply. This Im- 
plement should be made especially for this 
work, which I cannot describe in this article. 
The trees were planted 18 feet apart in the 
row, and near the edge of the terrace, that they 
might stand centrally over the greatest depth 
of loosened soil. 

Orange trees in this section should be planted 
In March, that they may become well rooted 
before summer, when the heat is liable to check 
their growth if planted late. Since planting 
this orchard I have been nearly all the time in 
Southern California, and have frequently vis- 
ited the orchards of Riverside, Pomona and 
Redlands, and I find the trees on these ter- 
races are as large, as vigorous, as healthy, and 
as uniform in size, as any in the favored sec- 
tions of the south, that are of the same age and 
were of the same size when planted. 

Among the visitors to this orchard when 
first planted were some English gentlemen. 
They were so impressed with the picturesque 
beauty of the place, and the surrounding coun- 
try, that they purchased land adjoining, and 
in the spring of 1890 began to terrace and 
plant the hillside south of the terrace planted 
in 1888. Continuing last spring, they now 
have nearly one mile in length of the bill slope 
terraced and planted, and many more acres are to 
he planted In the neighborhood during the com- 
ing season. These terraces are irrigated by seT- 
eral lines of pipes laid from the top running 

down the face of the hill to the bottom. The 
distance between these lines of pipe is .S30 feet. 
The pipes are laid under the ground, with fau- 
cets attached and coming to the surface, just 
at the base of each bank. Each terrace can 
thus ba supplied with water by the opening of 
a faucet, and the trees can be irrigated for a 
distance of 330 feet, when another line of pipe 
is reached, this continuing along the entire 
length of the orchard. Near the center of this 
planted tract Is an avenue that runs diagonally 
over the face of the ridge to Clover Valley. I 
have made a paved gutter on the npper side of 
this avenne, into which runs all surplus water 
when irrigating, and all that may accumulate on 
the terraces from heavy rains. A deep furrow 
is plowed at the base of each terrace to oondnot 
this water to the gutter. 

Many Euglishmen have already loca- 
ted here, some of whom are gentlemen of 
abundant means, who have brought their fam- 
ilies, have built substantial houses, and have 
come to stay. Others have purchased land 
which they are having improved, and will come 
themselves as soon as they can arrange to leave 
their present callings. With their national 
thrift, they prefer to have their country homes 
where a good income can be derived from their 
investment, rather than have their oountry 
residences in some suburban town of San Fran- 
cisco, where no income is ever expected, as in 
the Oakland or Santa Cruz highlands that over- 
look the towns, as the foothills here overlook 
the valley and the Capital City of Sacra- 

These terraces as they He on the faoe of the 
curving ridge that enoiroles the sloping valley, 
are like "pictures hung on the wall" to 
travelers on the 0. P. R. R. as they pass through 
the towns of Fenryn, Loomis and Rocklin, and 
to the people who live in the vicinity they are 
a constant source of pleasure. When the face 
of this ridge from the Newcastle line to Rock- 
lin becomes converted into terraced orange 
orchards, as the owners purpose doing In a few 
years; and when the trees attain good size, and 
come Into bearing, they will present scenes of 
unique beauty nnequaled by anything similar 
In the conntry. 


f ACIFie f^URAb f RESS. 

[Jaw. 9, 1892 

His Work. 

(Written for the RunAt Prbss by Isabel Darlwo.] 

He had lingered long in that quiet place, 
Where the shaded light from the window came 
With caressing softness, and one warm ray 
Of the outer brilliance stole in to lay 
Close within the calmness a hint of flime, 
Like the hidden fire in the steady gaze 
That was seeking his from that pictured face. 
Though the name of the artist he never knew, 
A soft mist came over his restless eye. 

" It is grand I It is great I " he said with a sigh. 

" It is better than I can do." 

Full across the stillness an organ spoke, 
Swelling on and on in its solemn strength. 
All the earth seemed ringing as heaven rings 
With the glad, free joy that the spirit brings. 
Till the distance shrank into space at length. 
And the music quivered to silence; then 
The regret came back to his heart again. 
Through his voice again a deep sadness grew, 
As the twilight shadows a summer sky. 

" It is grand ! It is great ! " he said with a sigh. 

" It is better than I can do.'' 

Then a child with quiet and downcast look, 

And uncertain steps, fluttered softly near. 

From all beauty, from music alike shut in, 

And shut out from knowledge of human sin, 

No ambition brought him remorse or fear; 

Not a power seemed his, but the power to feel. 

Yet his mute, rebukingly sad appeal 

Drew this soul that hoped and could learn regret. 

Till it filled with tenderest pity, yet 

By the power of spirit to feel, alone, 

Could the helpful wish of his heart be known. 

As all sight and sound he translated then, 

He forgot the contests of other men. 

Till they felt the way to each other's thought. 

Till the deaf could speak, and the child had caught 

The first hint of beauty it ever knew. 

Brought within the sight of the inner eye. 

It was grand ! It was great ! He forgot to sigh 

To do better than other men do. 

A Man's Complaint. 

(Written for the Rural Press by Daumar Mariaokr.) 

I had a thousand friends, as all well knew. 
Yet my one enemy alone was true 
Unto his post, at last, when I took ill. 
With little left worth naming in my will. 

I'd caught a cold, and so I coughed and sneezed, 
And, all in all, I felt like I d been squeezed 
Through a clothes-wringer— body, purse and lands. 
And limp and helpless hung my empty hands. 

I'd shot my Touser, thinking he was mad; 
And then my old gray mare a mule colt had; 
I'd sent a rake kind greeting, and I'd sent 
My old-time friend, I'd sue him for back rent. 

Business was slack and bills came in too fast, 
And to cap all, a stealthy Arctic blast 
My orchard struck just as the fruit had set; 
Thit was the sorest part of my regret. 

My lands had been my mainstay, and ray trade 
Had in its revenue no showing made 
Compared with that o' my wide blooming fields, 
Which brought some thousands in their yearly yields. 

Then, too, my fav'rite horse. Black Ben, had found 
Strychnine somewhere, and lay dead on the ground 
One morning, when I went to have a ride, 
A little weak, but with my usual pride. 

That was too much, and hence my old-time smile 
Was put aside, so I might frown awhile, 
I stormed and raged then at my friends and foes. 
And gave an airing unto all my woes. 

My storehouse had been burnt, my cat was lost, 
And my broad lands lay blacken'd by the frost; 
My friends, too, shunned me with a studied care, 
But my old foe yet meets me everywhere. 

Woman at the World's Fair. 

The meetiDg of the Women's Press Aasoola- 
tiOD, held Id this city on Monday of last week, 
showed a larger attendance than asual. In ad- 
dition to several other papers of interest, Mrs. 
James R. Deane, of the Baard of Managers of 
the World's Fair for California, who has re> 
cently returned from Ohioago, gave a very in- 
teresting address on work done and to be done 
for and by women in oonneotion with the oom- 
ing Exposition, As this address partakes of 
an offioial character, and refers especially to 
what is expected of the women of Oalifornia in 
this connection, it will no donbt be of maoh in- 
terest to the readers of the Press, Wa give it 
in fnil: 

An Exposition that is generally known as a 
World's Fair is nsaally held by a nation with 
the primary object of exhibiting its own re- 
sonroes. Having the great advantage of hold- 
ing the Exposition within its own limits, it 
opens it with real or apparent generosity to the 
competition of the world, this advantage al- 
ways being in favor of the nation holding 
said Exposition. When I visited the Paris Ex- 
position, I was astonished at its magnificence, 
its size and its importance. On our return to 
California, we were met by reporters who 
wished to interview one of oar party on the 

feasibility of holding an Exposition in America. 
I confess I heard the proposition with misgiT- 
ings. My refleottons were that such a scheme 
woald be no trifling undertaking, bnt a gigan- 
tic and stapendons affair, and I felt we could 
not even faintly hope to in any way equal the 
grand Exposition we had visited. 

Sinoe then, I have materially changed my 
views, and, ladies, I now feel assured that our 
Exposition in 1S93 will far exceed and excel 
anything that has ever been attempted in the 
way of a World's Exposition. 

I will now state a few facts that will bear 
out my assertion by comparison. The enclosed 
grounds of the Paris Exposition were just 96 
acres in extent. Jackson Park and the Midway 
Pleasannoe ocmbined — both of which will be 
occupied and covered with bnildinge — contain 
760 acres. There were 73 acres under roof at 
the Paris Exposition, while the main buildings 
alone in Chicago will cover over llOacres. The 
total cost of the Paris Exposition was $8,500 
000; the ocst of our Exposition will be fully 
§17,000,000— jast twice the amount of that of 
Paris. That this is not overeitlmated yon can 
readily perceive, when the cost of the buildings 
alone is over §11,000,000 Now, it will not 
only be in money expended or in quantity of 
ground used that we shall excel the Paris Ex 
position, but our superiority will be seen in the 
size and beauty of the buildings themselves. 

The main building, known as the Mannfao 
turers' building, is more than one-third of a 
mile long and one-eighth of a mile wide. This 
building consists of three arches — the main or 
center arch has a span carried by single girders 
388 feet wide and rising 200 feet in the air. 
Tou could take the largest building In the 
Paris Exposition — that known as Machinery 
Hall — and place it under the center arch, and 
it would see-Ji to be lost in the space. The 
width of this Machinery Hall was 363 feet, and, 
ladies, when I entered that hail I was much 
affected by its size and expansion. Its immen 
sity seemed so profound and extensive that its 
space seemed almost illimitable. Jadge, then, 
the effect which this building of the Chicago 
Exposition will have on those who enter and 
gaze awe-stricken on its space and perfection 
of finish. 

I cannot well continue this comparison be 
cause the plan and scope of the Chicago Expo 
sltion are more extensive and greater than 
those of any other similar exhibition ever held. 
The Expoaition will also include a great Elec- 
trical building, in which which will be housed 
the Electrical exhibits of the world. There 
was no building of this kind at the Paris Ex- 
position. Then there will be another great de- 
partment that was not exhibited at Pjiris. This 
will be known as the Department of Transpor- 
tation. Under Its roof will be exhibited every 
known vehicle used for transportation of human 
beings and merchandise — steam, horse, cable, 
and electrical cars, carriage, wagon, bicycle, 
tricycle, ships of war, merchantmen, canal 
boats and pleasure boats, also balloons and air 
ships. Another extensive structure will be the 
Agricultural building, attached to which will 
be the buildings of forest and forestry products, 
• Dairy building and Brewers' building. Another 
bdildlng which Paris had not, and which our 
Exposition will furnieh, is that devoted to 
mines and mining machinery, Another 
great department, of which there were no ex- 
hibits at Paris, will be the exhibit of live itock. 
This exhibit alone covers 55 acres of ground. 
In addition to the necessary stalls for the 
animals, they purpose erecting a circular ex- 
hibition building for the daily showing of the 
animals in the center, while around, seats will 
be provided for the comfort and convenience of 
the spectators. 

The Woman's Building. 

Now another feature presents itself, one in 
which our greater interest is centered, and 
that is the "Woman's Building." The siza of 
this structure is 400x200 feet. Its architect is 
a woman. The cheering and pleasant report 
that to a young California girl, a San Francis- 
can, had been awarded the prize for the life- 
size figures that will decorate the roof of the 
Woman's building certainly will do much to 
call forth the talent in that direction, which 
we know is only awaiting the opportunity of 
development. We trust that this award will 
arouse the laudable emulation among our young 
artists, in wood-carving, painting, sculpture 
and art needlework, etc., in providing decora- 
tions for the Woman's building. 

My dear friends, yon can have but a faint 
estimate of what is expected of California by 
the older States. I believe many of them 
credit us with having something like "Alad- 
din's lamp" or other of the genii that were so 
prompt in carrying out the wishes of their 
owners or masters. While so much is expected, 
I might say dreaded, by our colleagues, it is not 
a little mortifying to know that so little is be- 
ing done. In nearly all of the Eastern and 
Central and Southern States the National Com- 
missioners and the Lady Managers are made a 
part of the State Commission. In California 
we do not yet know who are to be on the State 
Commission other than the seven gentlemen 
who now constitute that honorable body. 
Again, in States where no appropriations have 
been made by the Legislatures, the Lady Mana- 
gers have organized World's Fair Associations, 
have entered into communication with the dif- 
ferent towns in their States and have succeeded 
In aronsing an enthneiasm in woman's work 
that will be a prominent factor in the success 
of the exhibition. In States where appropria. 
tions have been made, a certain percentage has 
been devoted to the work of women, thus reo- 1 

ognizing its importance and necessity in their 
State exhibit. When we reflect that this or- 
ganization of a Board of Lady Managers is the 
first instance in the history of nations where 
women were called by the Government to take 
part in a grand undertaking such as this Colum. 
bian Exposition will be, and that our success, 
not only as exhibitors bnt as governors or di- 
rectors in our department, will be bnt another 
acknowledgment of woman's executive ability; 
that, as a competitor, woman's work ranks 
with man's work, I am certain it will prove to 
all the other nations of the world that in 
America man and woman are on an equal plane 
as to intelligence and ability. 

Another great point to be considered in con- 
nection with this World's Fair is that it has 
been an impetus in many States and will be, I 
trust, here in California for woman to enter into 
many employments that have been supposed to 
belong exclusively to men. I speak of this 
with especial regard to agricultural employ 
ments, even that of stock-raising. One of the 
most intelligent and active of the ladles on the 
B3ard of Lady Managers is the owner and 
manager of one of the finest stock yards in the 
Union. &gain another lady, one of the Chicago 
Board, is fully competent by experience to act 
as pilot in the Great Lake system, by no means 
an easy task. 

Now, dear friends, I fear I have already 
taxed your indulgent patience; bnt I must add 
my exhortation to one and all for our own 
dear State and the woman work therefrom, 
that not one in this intelligent audience could 
or can fail to interest the friends that have in- 
fluence and power to further our work; I say it 
without arrogance, that so much is expected of 
California that it is absolutely necessary that 
the women of California should be alive to the 
importance of the occasion. 

It Is Incumbent on ns, the women of San 
Francisco, to make the effort that is needed to 
make our work a success, and where San Fran 
Cisco leads, our sister cities and towns will 
readily fall into the ranks. The Woman's 
Bailding must have its quota from California 
women in the decoration, furnishiDg and finish- 
ing. The building, through the kindness of 
the Director-General and the Chief of Con- 
structfon, is now fast approaching completion, 
witboirt the necessary detail of finish, In this 
detail, the States will, I know, show much 
rivalry, and California must not be in the mi- 

At the first meeting of the Baard of Lady 
Managers, I was called upon to respond to what 
might be expected of California. I stated that 
California would be equaled by few, and ex- 
celled by none, in the exhibit of Woman's work. 
Now, dear friends, I hope you will see that 
I was not a vain boaster in making this state- 
ment. In this dear State, the garden spot of 
the world, is material sufficient and varied 
enough to make in itself a World's Fair Exhi- 
bition. I appeal to each and all of you to make 
this her especial work and arouse in all of your 
friends— woman friends — the true faculty that 
will be certain to make our work a success. If 
it be possible, the State commission will, I 
know, give a certain percentage of the State 
appropriation to be nsed for furthering this 
great department of our exhibit. That it will 
be judiciously expended is, of course, a fora- 
gone conclusion. Our neighbors of Oregon and 
Washington are doing good work, and are not 
nearly as afraid to compete with us as they were 
a few years ago. Two columns of granite go 
from Washington to the Woman's Bailding. 
Oregon sends woods for bailding as well as for 
ornament. Montana, Dakota, Wyoming, Idaho, 
Utah and Nevada all have earnest and ener- 
getic women, and while we know that none can 
excel California, if the effort be made, still, if 
nothing is undertaken, nothing will be accom- 
plished. I thank you very much for giving me 
this opportunity to address you on this subject. 
If I have wearied you, attiibute it to my zeal 
for this great work. The women of California 
have an enviable position in this Exposition, 
and you, I am certain, will be among those 
whose children will speak with pride when 
they speak of California's suocesa in the World's 
Fair in 1893. 


Mrs, Ln.sHiNciFON— Why, Henry, you've 
been drinking too much again 1 Mr. Lashing- 
ton — No'm dear, you're mishtaken. Only rea- 
son why I can't walk sh'raight ish I got new 
pair shoes tbish afternoon, an they're tight. 
I'm perf'ly shober. 

As Sheridan was entering court one day, 
carrying his books and briefs in a green bag, 
according to the custom of the time, some of 
his brother barristers thinking to play a joke 
cn him urged some boys to ask him if he had 
old clothes for sale in his green bag. "Oh, 
no I" instantly replied Sheridan, ''they are all 
new suits," 

Freddy (carefully rubbing the bloom from 
his banch of grapes)— Say Mr. Youngbee, do 
these grapes powder ? Mr. Youngbee, (/Jonee 
of Freddy's auntie)— Why, no, my boy; what 
made yon think of that ? Freddy — Cause this 
rubs off just as the pink does from auntie's 

"I THINK we shall have to try again," re- 
marked the photographer, as he critically ex- 
amined the negative; "the expression is too 
stern and forbidding." "The negative is all 
right," said the customer, picking up his hat; 
" all I wanted was a protrait to send to my 
wife's aunt. She is thinking of visiting ns this 

A Country Home in California. 

(Written for the Rural Prbss by Clara 8. Brown ] 

We all know that there are real homes, and 
homes in name only; that no amount of money 
can create a pleasant abiding place if the true 
spirit of domesticity is not there, and that the 
majority of dwellings are not so satisfying to 
their occupants as they might easily be made. 

Country people, more than residents of cities, 
need to find the pleasures of life in their homes, 
for they cannot turn to the diversions that are 
daily offered their metropolitan friends. Yet, 
as a general thing, city houses are more care- 
fully equipped with ail that makes a home 
agreeable than a farmer's dwelling is. Too 
often the building which shelters a farmer's 
family is the last thing on the place to be con- 
sidered, other than to make sure that It is rain- 
proof. This was especially so in the era from 
which California is now emerging, when im- 
mense grain fields and small, whitewashed 
shanties represented country life. 

Now Is the time of small holdings, highly cul- 
tivated, and adorned by a neat and often 
artistic cottage, which may easily be c nverted 
into an ideal home. It was my privilege to 
visit such a place not long ago, and as it shows 
what is within the boands of possibility, even 
for people of very moderate means, and is the 
home of a contributor to the Rural Press, I 
venture to attempt a description of it. 

The family came to Oalifornia ten years ago 
and bought thirteen acres of fruit land near 
what is now a good sized town. Every rod of 
it was straight way improved, and bsside the 
rude little building then on the place pepper 
trees were planted. From time to time, as 
means afforded, rooms were added, until now 
the house is a two-story building shaped like a 
Greek cross. The pepper trees are enormous, 
and beneath their shade swing two inviting 
hammocks. Roses and vines cover the porches 
and cling to the sides of the bouse. 

Near by is a large rose garden, full of choicest 
varieties. Beyond is soon to be a tennis court, 
that the indulgent father has spared the 
ground for. Peach, pear, apple, quince, wal- 
nut, orange and apricot trees, corn, pampkins, 
etc., cover the ranch, besides vegetables and 
berries, that the city housekeeper who buys 
oat of a wagon covets. You see, Ik is pleasant 
outside. Come in with me and go the rounds 
of the rooms. It is not a plastered house; the 
walls were first covered with heavy sheathing 
paper, and over that a pretty pattern has been 
laid. We will walk into the parlor first. 

Here is a cherry fireplace with redwood 
mantle made in the house by the carpenter. 
On each side of it are cupboards, wherein we 
see magazines filed away. In the niche at the 
right, shelves have been built and draped with 
felt, and they are filled with books. We see 
the best authors represented there, and some 
are this year's books. On the top shelf stands 
a great pot-pourri jar of Royal Worcester ware. 
Some of the rosea that bloomed outside are 
preserved there. On the floor is a neat ingrain 
carpet. At the windows are light drapery cur- 
tains. In one corner stands a fine organ, an- 
other is occupied by a comfortable lounge and 
cushions. Rocking chairs are there of coarse, 
for what American house is without them ? 

Peeping into the bedroom which opens from 
the parlor, we see that lt| is furnished with a 
pretty set and has all the toilet conveniences. 
The large dining-room has corner cupboards 
and a side table of home manufacture. Here 
are more books — lots of them — on shelves cov- 
ered by a cretonne oartain, A lounge gives 
the housewife a chance for rest in the intervals 
of her domestic duties. Over it is a wall-pocket 
containing newspapers and the five leading 

The sunniest corner is a literary nook, if 
I may so term it. At the pigeon-holed desk, 
in a big chair, the lady of the house writes her 
letters and prepares her articles for the press, 
for, like " Maid of All Work," she can get a 
good dinner and write a good poem or recount 
her experiences for the benefit of other women. 

In the kitchen the thoughtful farmer has 
rigged op a hose connection with the pump 
outside, which saves many a lift and keeps the 
hot water tank on the stove full all the time. 

" Mother's room " has a white-draped toilet 
table — more home work — and another shelf of 
books. It is furnished for comfort, and has, 
like all othe other bedrooms, pretty curtains, 
shams, etc. 

The space under the stairs in the front hall 
is utilized for a closet and drawers, where bed- 
ding is packed away and piece-bags and other 
Indispengables can be found when wanted. 

The front chamber belongs to the young lady 
daughter. Is her own special domain, and has 
been fitted up by her in blue and white. Odd 
pieces of furniture, yet harmonizing, were col- 
lected for this room, A common table and 
mirror is by draperies transformed into a thing 
of beauty. There is a large divan covered with 
chintz and an open stove. In one corner is a 
set of shelves for the young girls' own books 
and papers. So many knick-knacks and dainty 
belongings are scattered about the room that 
the daughters of rich parents like to visit it 
and declare that they have nothing equal to it. 
Sometimes, on a rainy day, the whole family is 
invited up here and entertained by the patter 
on the roof ai they read or sew. 

The little daughter is also the proud possess- 
or of a room to herself. Grandpa gave her the 
pretty three-quarter bedstead, and all have 
lent a hand In the adornment of the room. She 

Jan 9, 1891.J 

f ACIFie l^URAb f RESS. 

has her book-oaae, too, and takes great oate of 
it. Her dolU and playthings are here, and a 
blackboard with crayons hanging on the wall 
amusea her for many an hour, as she has a bent 
for drawing. Another room belongs to the 
yoang man of the house and is not slighted, as 
the quarters occupied by boys often are. He 
has dainty curtains and toilet draperies and all 
hie pet poasesaions are gathered here. 

An nnfinished room is used for sewing, and 
has many things neatly piled away in it. 

Do you need to be told that the members of 
this family have been taught to think and are 
well informed on the topics of the day ? It is 
one of the happiest and most intelleotnal house- 
holds that I know. There is such unity of pur- 
pose and mutual good will that the mother, 
who is quite an invalid, says she does not mind 
not being able to go into society, her own 
family is so interesting. She takes the cooking 
upon herself, not being able to do heavier work, 
and it is good to see how fully her e£FortB are 
appreciated. No compliments are so dear to 
to the honsewife's heart as those given her by 
her own family, and in this home, praise is 
freely bestowed. 

A visit to such a place confirms one's belief 
that life may be made even more enjoyable in 
the country than in the city, especially in the 
climate of California, where one may spend 
many happy and healthful honrs out of doors 
each month in the year. 

"La Marechale." 

Qen. Booth, of the Salvation Army, has 
appointed his eldest daughter to succeed him 
at his death as the supreme commander of that 
great organization. His eldest son has long 
been "Chief of Sta£F," and according to English 
ideas would have been his father's natural 
successor; but Gen, Booth has made his choice 
among his large family of children (all of whom 
are in the Army) according to ability, not 
according to sex. The General gives his 
reasons very briefly. " Women are the best 
rulers," he says. "If yon refer to the capacity 
shown on several occasions by Qaeen Victoria, 
yon will agree with me that stie acted while 
her advisers were seeking how to aot, I am 
arranging that the work of saving human souls 
may go on after my death. All title deeds will 
be transferred to my daughter's name." 

Mrs, Ratherine Lente Stevenson tells in 
Vae Union Signal A ptett^ story of this eldest 
daughter, "Li Marechale," 

" Catherine Booth has been commander of 
the forces In France and Stfitzerland ever einoe 
she went into those countries. Arthur Cllb- 
born was for years her chief of staff. To be 
associated with a woman of her mind and soul 
could mean but one thing to the man blessed 
by such comradeship; and in this instance the 
man was not only noble enongh to love eo 
great a woman, but was alto noble enough to 
win her love. So discreetly, however, was the 
courtship carried on, that the Training Home 
and all the French officers were astoniebed be- 
yond measure when the marriage was announced 

"When General Booth was approached in the 
matter, he felt a little delicacy — remnant of the 
old education — as to whether Colonel Clibborn 
would continue to serve under his own wife, 
and asked him if he would take command 
henceforth of the French forocB. 

"Colonel Clibborn drew himself up to his 
fullest height and said: 'General, I have been 
prond to serve under Catherine Booth through 
these years. Our marriage can in no way alter 
our positions. She is still La Marechale, and I 
am lier chief of staff.' 

"And on her marriage day, fearing lest her 
devoted people should miss the beloved name, 
he, at his own request, took her name while 
giving her his own. Thus they are Mr, and 
Mrs, Booth Clibborn. Commissioner Tucker, 
who afterward married Miss Emma Booth, 
followed the example of his brother-in-law," 


The Preservation of Books. — The paper on 
books which have survived for two or three 
centuries, is a very different article from the 
book paper of to-day. The paper upon which 
books were printed 300 years ago, was honestly 
made and durable. No strong chemicals were 
employed in Its preparation. Neither wood, 
pulp nor clay entered into its composition. It 
was made by hand and of honest rags, mostly 
linen; cotton was little used In those days. It was 
made to last and it has lasted, and will continue 
to last until most of the book paper of the 
present day has crumbled to pieces by reason of 
its inberent decay, induced by the strong acids, 
the fiberless wood and dusty clay used in its 
manufacture. The most of the books of to- 
day, notwithstanding their strong and in every 
way, superior binding, will hardly hold to- 
gether a century. Two hundred years hence a 
book printed daring the present century will be 
something rare Indeed. Both the printing and 
writing ink now used possess a far less endur- 
ing quality than that ifted 150 years ago. 

A Minister was recently visiting an old 
woman in his parish. On the center of the 
table in the room in which they sat was a large, 
thick, family Bible with which was bound up 
the Apocrypha. The minister happened to 
say, "That's a very big Bible you've got, Mrs. 
Brown." " An ' nae wonnor it's big, sir," was 
the reply; "it's got an apothecary in the inside 

"Do you believe in fate, Pat ? " " Sure an' 
hwat would we sthand on withont 'em ? " 

The Dog Who Did, and the Boy 
Who Didn't. 

Editors Press: — I have long been accus- 
tomed to write "pieces" for my little girl to 
recite in school. She liked so well to have 
something "bran new" for herself, something 
she was sure no other girl would have; and she 
often suggested the subject of my lines. Oace 
she said she wanted something about a dog, 

with lots of bow wow in it." Trying to 
please her, the following lines were evolved, 
and to our surprise, "took" wonderfully in 
the schoolroom. I have never had them print- 
ed, I thopght them such a " ragged rhyme;" 
but they have proved so popular, I venture to 
send them to you. Some other mother may 
like to use them. A great deal depends on the 
way the lines are recited. The dog must get 
growlier and growlier, and the boy be very 
jovial and defiant, till the last, when the cry- 
ing must be well simulated, knuckles in eyes. 

•A. C. T. 

Character Represented, i Biy, i Dng. 
Scene — A California Walniit Ranch, about ii 
P. M. , by Moonlight. 

" Bow, wow, wow I" 

Said the Dog." 
"What's up now ? " 

Said the Dog. 
"If you don't act right, 
I'll bark and I'll bite. 
" Bow, wow, wow I " 
Said the Dog. 

" Ho, ho, ho I " 

Said the Boy, 
" You don't know," 

Said the Boy. 
"I can throw stones, 

Will break your bones." 
" Ho, bo, ho ! " 
Said the Boy. 

" Gr-row 1 Bow, wow I " 

Said the Doe;. 
" I don't allow," 

Said the Dog, 
"Any meddlers here; 
So you'd better clear. 
Gr-row ! Bow, wow !'' 
Said the Dog. 

" Ho, ho, ho 1" 

Said the Boy. 
" Is that so? " 

Said the Boy. 
"Just see this nice meat. 
Come, don't you want to eat? 
Ho, ho, ho I ' 
Said the Boy. 

" Gr-r-ow, gr-ow, gr-ow I " 

Said the Dog. 
" I've made a vow," 

Said the Dog, 
" Whenever I dine, 
Tis with friends of mine. 
Gr-r ow I wow, wow I " 
Said the Dog. 

' Ho, ho, ho 1" 

Said the Boy. • 
" Let you know," 
Said the Boy. 
"There nuts I'll get. 
So don't you fret. 
Ho, ho ho I " 
Said the Boy. 

" Gr gr-row-gr-ow ! " 

Said the Dog. 
" Out of this now I " 

Said the Dog. 
" I jump and I bite; 
We have a big fight ! " 
Gr gf-r-ow-gr-ow ! " 
Said the Dog. 

" Boo-oo-oo I " 

Said the Boy. 
"Ouch! That'll do I" 

Said the Boy. 
"I'll go straight home, 
And never more roam. 
Boo-oo-oo I " 
Said the Boy. 

unruly that it isn't safe to allow him liberty. 
He was a pretty lamb, milk white and peacea- 
ble. He hasn't forgotten his master, for all he 
is so ngly an' savage with other people." 

"It pays to treat even dumb animals kindly. 
Even contrary King Hal obeys Donny because 
he loves the master who is kind to him," said 
Mr. Marks. 

In ten minutes the tree was righted and 
lighted and King Hal forgotten by every one 
save Donny. 

In his small, strong pen King Hal dismally 

He was in prison npon a glad, bright day. 

In a comfortable fold twenty peaceable, 
quiet sheep enjoyed pleasant quarters and an 
extra lick of salt. 

A little before dinner was quite ready to 
serve, Danny, with three little boys, carried to 
King Hal a biscuit. 

"I love him, poor, naughty sheep. If he 
was good he needn'c be shut up; but he doesn't 
know that he is nanghty," said Donny, weep- 
ing because King Hal must be imprisoned. — 
Ella Guernsey. 

Kitty's Bedspread. 

If you have a friend, old or young, who keeps 
some special chair or cushion or warm corner 
for a pet kitten's use, give her a little wash- 
able embroidered bedspread — or should we say 
nest-spread — with which to protect and also 
decorate the cushion, and see how pleased she 
will he and how soon kitty will learn to know 
that it is her own property. At least she will 
if she is as Intelligent as our kitty. We gave 
her a little scarlet nest-cloth about 21 inches 
square. She soon learned to know and claim 
it wherever it was. She was never allowed on 
a bed, and, after her first few attempts, had 
never offered to jump on one; but one day in 
her absence, her little scarlet cloth was acci- 
dentally mislaid — thrown on the foot of the 
white bed. Soon kitty came pattering in, tired 
and sleepy, went to her nest in the corner. 
Something was not right. She walked over it, 
turned 'round and 'round, and at last jumped 
down and considered the matter. Suddenly, 
her sleepy little eyes brightened as her glance 
rested on the bed. She gave one glad bonnd 
and there she was, curled up in a little ball 
right in the middle of her cloth, purring and 
singing, and in less than "two winks" was 
fast asleep — and who could disturb her ? Bat 
what best proved her intelligence was that she 
always claimed the cloth wherever it waf, on 
the bed or off, and never disturbed the bed un- 
less it was there, much as she loved to cuddle 
down on it. So much for a "cat story," 

A pretty spread for this purpose is made of 
blue denim, light side up, with blue hems 
turned over from the under side. At the edge 
of the hem is a row of feather stitching worked 
with scarlet zephyr, and "Only two winks for 
a cat nap" is outlined on the blue-gray center 
One of dark-red flannel worked with light-gray 
would be pretty. — Jtwd Alstead. 

An Unbidden Guest. 

Mr. Marks stood beside the beantifnl Ohrist- 
mas tree to light the tapers, when into the 
parlor came King Hal, shaking hia head an- 
grily and uttering loud — 

"Baa, baa, baa, baa." 

The little ones screamed loudly. The tree 
was overturned, 

"Donny, call King Hal. Some one has left 
the back gate open," said Mrs. Marka, 

Donny called in a faint voice, "ahee-e-e-py, 

King Hal heard the voice. He listened, 
then with a farewell "bi-a-a," rnahed through 
the open doors into the kitchen to find his 
young master that he loved. 

The quarrelsome aheep waa penned in 
small, strong pen. 

"You've spoiled my good time. I don't love 
a cross lamh," said Danny sadly, when King 
Hal "ba-a-a-d" after him an affectionate 

Mr. and Mrs. Marks were bnay straighten 
ing the limbs of the battered tree. 

"Donny," called Mrs, Marks, "did yon bar 
King Hal'a prison door tight ?" 

"Yes, mother," replied Donny. 

"I'm aorry, son, but yonr lamb haa grown ao 


Old Coats Made Useful. 

[Written for the Rural Press by Clara S. Brown.] 
Thia cold weather makea one hunt up warm 
wraps. Does any one in the family need a new 
j.acket ? And is there an old coat hanging some 
where, outgrown or shiny on the back or a lit 
tie moth-eaten ? Why, then, you've only got to 
buy a pattern and do a little cleaning and fit 
ting in order to evolve from that discarded coat 
a very respectable garment. I know, for I'm 
wearing a jacket produced in that way. It is 
of fine French diagonal, with trimmings of vel- 
vet, and really looks very nice. The coat from 
which it was made was worn so seldom that 
moths got into it and ate little holes that 
spoiled it for the ownera'a wear, but they were 
not in the smaller pieces that were cut to fit 
me. It is a job to rip up a coat, but patience 
will do it. Then the threads must be picked 
out and if the material is dirty, it should be 
washed in five cents' worth of soap b»rk, hung 
on the line without wringing and pressed while 
damp. The wrong side of the goods used in 
men's clothes is often pretty, and, if the coat is 
worn very shiny on the right side, it may he 
tamed. Procure a stylisti pattern, but not a 
fussy one, studying well what you have to do 
with before you buy it, There is such a di- 
versity of jacket! at the present time that you 
can surely find a pattern which can be cut from 
your material. 

When the wrap is done nobody in the world 
will ever recognize "that old coat." 

when very hot put in the ham. Dust witu 
pepper, add the beaten yelk of one egg, and 
serve instantly. 

Ham Croquettes. — The commonest error in 
making thia dish is failure to chop the ham 
sufficiently fine. Take equal parts of cold 
boiled ham and rice and chop and beat to- 
gether until it forms a perfectly smooth mass. 
Season highly with pepper and sage; add a raw 
egg and a few spoonfuls of cream. It should 
be as soft aa you can conveniently handle. 
Then form into small oblong rolls, duat lightly 
with flour, and fry in deep lard. 

Potatoes may be warmed over in many dainty 
ways, and housewives are too apt to restrict 
themselves to frying and stewing, aa the only 
simple and available ones. 

Potato KloBBt. — Is a German dish, very 
good and easily made, Beat a sufficient quan- 
tity of boiled potatoes to a perfectly smooth 
pulp; add salt, pepper, a generous lump of 
butter, a little minced parsley, and one well- 
beaten egg. Give the mixture a good beating, 
and then drop, a tablespoonful at a time, into 
plenty of boiling fat. Drain carefully and 
serve very hot, garnished with parsley, 

Esealloped potatoes. — Slice cold boiled pota- 
toes and place in a buttered pieplate, season- 
ing with salt and pepper. Melt three table- 
spoonfuls of butter in half a cupful of rich milk, 
sprinkle part of it over the potatoes, put them 
in a hot oven, and baste every few minutes 
until you have used all the milk. 

Potato Olives. — Are a little more elaborate, 
but repay one for the trouble of preparing. 
Pare the potatoes and cut them Into the shape 
of olives; drop into boiling, salted water, and 
cook until tender, but quite unbroken. Drain 
them carefnlly, then dip each one into beaten 
egg, and roll in a mixture composed of fine 
bread crumbs, half the quantity of grated 
cheese, a little minced parsley, and salt and 
pepper. Fry in deep fat, drain, and serve hot 
as possible. A delicious dish with which to 
serve these potato olivea is 

Blanquette of Chicken. — Out into bits the 
chicken left from yesterday's dinner. Make a 
very nice, white sauce, using plenty of butter, 
chicken stock, and, if you have it, cream; add 
also a teaspoonfulof lemon juice. Now put in 
the chicken and let it boil gently for a few 
mlnntee. Season well, add the beaten yolk of 
one egg, cook just one minute longer, and 

These dishes will be found choice enough for 
"company" teas; but what is good enough 
for company is none too good for the dally fare 
of those nearer and dearer than any visitor 
could be, — LiNA Dalton in Country Oentleman, 

Mock Oyster Soup.— Save the gibleta of 
chickens, and turkey gizzards, livers, hearts, 
necks and feet. Skin the feet, by dipping in 
boiling water, when the onteide will slip off 
readily. Put the giblets to boil in one quart of 
cold water, with one onion, and one carrot cut 
small. When very tender, take from the ket- 
tle, cut in pieces the size of a large oyster, add 
two tablespoonfnls of bntter, one cnp of sweet 
cream, salt and pepper to season. When ready 
to serve, add gradually, so that it may not cur- 
dle, one weil-heaten egg. Do not let the soup 
boil after adding the latter. Stir well, and 
serve at once. Thia soup is delicious. Water, 
from time to time, should be added to the gib- 
lets, so that there will be a quart before adding 
the oream. 

Chicken Pie, — Cut chicken in neat joints, 
wash, and stew until tender. When putting 
on to stew, add one-fourth of a pound of fat 
salt pork. When tender, take from the kettle, 
remove the bones, chop the pork, and return 
to the kettle. Add salt and pepper to season, 
stew half an hour; when cold pour into pie 
pana lined with crust; cover with perforated 
top cruet, and bake until brown, A bowl 
of gravy should be reserved to serve \^h 
chicken pie. To this add a tablespoonful of 
flour, mixed nntil smooth in a little cold water, 
one beaten egg, pepper, and a tablespoonful of 
butter. Serve very hot, a spoonful over eaoh 
piece of chicken pie. 

Scallop Turnip, — Cut yellow turnips in 
half-inch pieces, boil and drain. Place in 
an earthen baking-dish, season with dota of 
butter, salt and pepper, and cover with a thin 
layer of bread or cracker crumbs. Fill the 
dish in this manner, the last layer being 
crumbs. Over all pour a cup of sweet milk or 
cream. Bake until brown. Serve hot. 

Cabbage Salad. — Shred half of a white 
cabbage fine, dresa with two tablespoonfuls of 
melted butter, four of vinegar, salt, pepper, and 
one teaspoonfnl of made mustard. Served 
with slices of stale bread, put in the oven and 
served hot, and with cheese. 

Sundries for the Farmer's Tea, 

Those farmers' wives who do not care to see 
fried steak and boiled potatoes appear on their 
anpper tablea, know well that to provide a sub- 
stantial yet dainty evening meal ia something 
of a problem. Let me offer my sister house- 
wives a few receipts for dishes that find favor 
in the sight of my farmer after his evening 
" chores " are done. 

Those who make a practice of always having 
a ham in the house, will find it may be used to 
advantage in almost numberlesi ways. One of 
the simplest and best that I know of is — 

Creamed Ham. — Cut cold boiled ham into 
very thin slices. Put a teaspoonfnl of bntter 
and half a capful of cream over the fire, and 

The Homan Breath will not remove monn- 
tains, but it haa power anffioient to raise ob- 
jects which have considerable weight. It will 
not scatter a regiment of soldiers, nor uproot 
trees aa the fablea sometimes tell us with pic- 
torial illustrations. Yet it contains a surprls- 
ng amount of leverage, which is evidenced by 
the lend report which a paper bag filled with 
the breath will produce when smashed between 
the hands. The following experiment demon- 
strates the elementary power of the human 
breath still more forcibly : Take a large bag 
of good, heavy paper, lay it on the table and 
cover the closed end of it with several books — 
ia Webster Unabridged and a family Bible, fcr 
Instance — then blow into the bag, filling or in- 
flating it with air, and you will loon aee that 
it will overthrow the books, i, e,, remove a 
amall monntain. 



[Jah. 9, 1892 

OffUi€, 220 Market St., N. E. eor. Front St., S. F. 
tr Take the Slevator, No. It Front St. *» 

Our Subscription Rates. 

OOR Annual Suhscription Kate is Three Dollars 
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fl?B monttis. Trial subscriptions for three months, paid In 
advance, each 60 cents. All agents and clerlia are retiulred 
to adhere to these terms. No new names entered on the list 
without payment In advance. Our premium offerings are 
subject to these terms. 

Advertlalns Bates. 

IWrek. 1 Month. 3 MofUht. ITear. 

Per Line (agate) ? .25 S .50 8 1.20 8 4.C0 

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LarKs advertisements at favorable rates. Special or read- 
ing notices, legal advertisements, notices appearing in 
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•pecial rates. Four insertions are rated in a month. 


1. T. ORWKT. W. B. BWBR. 8. H. BTKONa. 

Our laUsl forms g o to prras Wednesday tvtning 
KeglBtered at 8. F. Post OlBce as second-claea mall matter. 


Saturday, January 9, 1892. 


EDITORIALS. —A Fruit Scene In the Foothills; The 
Week; Annouocement; The Barley Outlook; Miscellan- 
eoug, 28. 

ILLUSTRATIONS. — A Representative Footliill 
Scene— Warm Slopes Covered with Productive Trees 
and Vines, 21- Terracing tor Fruit Growing— An In- 
tere'ting Phase In the Development of the Foothill 
Region, 25. Terracina Hotel, Kcdiands, Cal., 34. 

THE APIARY.— Notes on Bee Culture; Beehives and 
Honey Se tions, 22. 

FRUIT MAKiiliriNQ.— Fruit Production and a 
Marliet, V'2. 

FARMERS' INSTITUTES.— The Institute Work 

in vv isc risin, 22. 
HORTICULTURE.— A Foothill Peach Tree, 22. 

Citrus Fair at Auburn; Diseased Trees; Humboldt 

Fruit Farms; Peach Culture in the Kern Delta; Placer 

County Fruit Shipments, 23 

Desk; FrDm State Lecturer; We Should Pull Together, 


FARMERS' ALLIANCE.— The Womans' Alliance; 
lo tile Valley; Cilaveras County Alliance; The Camp- 
aign of Kducation, 24. 

THE HOME ClftCLE.-His Work; A Man's Com- 
plaint; Woman at the World's Fair; CbaS; A Ciuotry 
Home in California, 26. " La Marechale;" The Preser- 
vatioo of Books, 2'7. 

ami thi- Hot Who Didn't; An Unbidden Guest; Kitty's 
BeiL-ipreail,' 27. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY.-Old Coats Made UMfiil; 
Suniiries for the Fanner s Tea; Various Kecipcs, 27 

QUERIES AND RtiPLIES— Fruit on Hardpan 
Soil; Ci nient Artesian Piping; Killing .•>tuni|)8, 28. 

THt!i IRttlOATIONIST.— Saving Water; FloriJa 
Converted; The Bear ^'alUy Dam; How to Build a 
Dam; Progress in Arizona; Iirlgation in Washington, 
29. Pumping Water; A Novel Recommendation; 
Work in the Districts, 30. 

BNTOMOLOGIUAIj Aphis -Proof Apple Trees. 

Our Oiit to Australia, 30. 

ME 1 EOROLOGICAl,.— Pacific Coast Weather for 
December, 30. 

Counties f'f California, 32. 

POULTRY YARD — Capons in California, 38. 

GOOD HEALTH.— A " Home " for Cancer Patients, 

THE VINEYARD. -The Queen Isabella Grape, 37. 
THE FIELD. -Farmers, Plant Alfalfa, 37. 
MISCELLANEOUS. — Redlands, San Bernardino 

County; Lectures at the Stanford University, 34. 

Transplanting Old Orange Trees; A Plan to Improve 

the Sacramento, 37. 
MARKiST REPORTS — Market Review; Market 

Information; Domestic Froduce; Dried Fruits; Fruits 

and Vegetables; Live Stock, 40. 

Bnsiness Announcements. 


Vehicles— California Wagon & Carriage Co. 

Spading Harrows— H C. Shaw Plow Works. 

Spray Pumps, Plows, Etc.— Allison, Neff & Co. 

Plows— Oliver chilltd Plow Works. 

Spiral Riveted Pipe— The Geo. F. Eberhard Co. 

Sdile of Brood Marcs- Klillp & Co. 

Seeds— Sevin Vincent & Co. 

Prune Tree-, Figs, Et; — P. W. Tr»at, Davlsvllle. 

Harrows — Keystone Mfj;. Co., Sterling, lU. 

Spraying Machinery — R. S. Chapman. 

Thoroughbred Jacks — L. U. Shlppee, Stockton. 

Imported StJllions— Theo. Skillman, Petaluma 

Proposals for Tunnel— Edward M. Boggs, Banning. 

Trees, Vines. Etc.— EUwanger & Barry, Rochester, N. Y. 

Ear-Marking Label— C. H. Dina, West Lebanon, N. H. 

Hop and Vineyard Wire— California Wire Works. 

Pecan Tree*- Mrs. J. Hutchinson, Fillmore. 

Pecan Trees— Texas Pecan i Seed Co., P'ort Worth, Texas. 

Agricultural Implements— John Caine, Stockton. 

iWSee Advertising Columns. 

The Week. 

We have had an oooasional day or two wbloh 
Beemed to promiie that the normal bad floored 
the ezoeptional, and that warmth with alter- 
nating auDghlDe and rainfall, the nsnal traits 
of a California winter, had regained eway. We 
have had too mnch frost, and will market 
fewer orangea. We are also waiting for better 
growth of grass and for the earlier wild flowers. 
It is true that rain enongh has fallen in moat 
plaoea to admit of field work, and perhaps that 
will do for a time. If rains were followed by 

warmth Instead of chill, all woald feel better, 
and they are waiting for it. 

Congress Is actively at work, and many meas- 
ures of Interest to this ooast are being intro- 
daoed. We expect to find room for oatlinea of 
this work in onr next iasne. This week, 
thonght tarns naturally to the great winter 
event in the npper half of the Skate — the Cit- 
ras Fair at Anborn, to which allasions are 
made in other oolamns. Everything indicates 
the fall saccess of the Fair, and a gala time In 
the rich region which will give it shelter. 


Go the first day of the new year the proprie- 
torahip of the Pacific Rurai. Press was trans- 
ferred from the firm of Dswey & Co, to an in- 
corporated company, which haa aaaamed the 
title of the Dewey Pablishing Cs. In the firm 
by which the paper was established in 1871, 
and by which it has since been pablished con> 
tlnnonsly, Mr. A. T, Dawey and Mr. W. B. 
Ecrer were equal partners. In the incorporated 
company, each of these gentlemen holds a one- 
third interest, and the other third is held by 
Mr. Alfred Holman, who, as general manager, 
assumes the active administration of the bnal* 
nees. By way of introducing Mr. Holman to 
the patrons of the Rural, it may be aaid that 
he comes from the editorship and general man- 
agement of the chief newspaper of Washing- 
ton — the Post-Intelligeneer of Seattle — and that 
prior to his connection with that journal, he 
was for many years with the Portland Ore- 

The patrons of the paper should know that 
the Incorporation has no other purpose than 
mere business convenience. There will be no 
revolution in the character of the paper, though 
It is hoped very shortly to add to it some 
features that will commend themselves to the 
public. Of the designed improvements, it is 
perhaps as well not to make promises, bat it 
is hoped that the efficiency of the paper will 
be increased and that it will continue to re- 
ceive from the public the favor which has at- 
tended Its coarse during the twenty one years 
of its existence. 

The firm of Dewey & Co., Pjktent Agents, 
composed of A. T. Dswey, W. B, Ewer and 
Geo. H. Strong, is not Included In the incor- 
poration and will continue to be conducted as 
heretofore under the name of Dewey & Co., 
Patent Agents. 

Dessert Prunes. — The finest processed 
pmues uf California production which we have 
seen np to this time are those of which Felix 
Oillet of Nevada City has sent us a sample. In 
fact, we never saw better from anywhere. 
They are of good size, handsome appearance, 
tender in skin and substance, and of most de- 
licious flavor. They are peerless, so far as our 
knowledge goes, for eating out of hand as a 
dessert prune, and we should think that very 
large quantities of such prunes could be sold at 
remunerative prices, if handsomely packed and 
wisely marketed. While It Is undoubtedly 
true that the great bulk of the Cilifornia prune 
crop should be the aun-drled stewing prune for 
which the State has already achieved great 
fame, there la opportunity for the production 
alao of deasert pranea to meet a dlfifsr- 
ent demand; and because the fruit growers 
have often declared so strongly in favor of the 
aun-drled as againat the prooeaaed prune, it 
does not at all mean that those who can suc- 
ceed in the latter product should be discour- 
aged from proceeding in that direction. We 
are glad to see such splendid frait of this kind 
from Mr. Olllet. 

The Eastern Editors. — An unusually large 
and representative excursion of Etstern press 
people will visit California next week. The 
party is expected to reach Auburn Jan. 13 sh 
for breakfast, anil San Francisco the evening of 
the same day. On Jan, 14th the association 
will begin its meetings in this city. It is ex- 
pected to spend about a week in the State, visit- 
ing Los Angeles and southern points on the 
homeward journey. A cordial welcome will be 
tendered them everywhere. 

The Barley Outlook. 

Editors Press :— In your issue of Dec. 9th you 
give under grain reports a statement of amount of 
barley received from Washington and Oregon from 
July I to Dec. 6th. Can you give me the amount 
of barley received from the north from Dec. i, 1890, 
to June 1,1891, a statement I should very much 
like to get ? There does not seem to be a likelihood 
of receiving any such quantity this year as last from 
that source. Last year the consumption of barley 
from December to June was nearly 1,300,000 ctls. , 
in addition to the amount received from the north, 
and at high figures; and wheat being cheap, a large 
quantity of that cereal was used as a feed grain. 
This year, with wheat and corn high and scarce, 
with a prospect of larger exports of barley, with 
abundance of ships, lower freights and a scarcity of 
wheat, with large overland planting and renewed 
activity in railroad building in the new year, with 
close selection of brewing grades on account of the 
tariff on foreign barley, with diminished receipts 
from the north and no other feed grain as a substi- 
tute, the amount on hand does not seem excessive 
and prices ought to improve before long. With a 
carry over of 1,004,457 ctls. in June, 1890, the price 
a month or two Jlater in midharvest was higher than 
to-day's prices, and at a time when corn and wheat 
were cheap. With seven months' consumption and 
exports to come out of present stock before new 
grain is received in quantity, and with no other feed 
grain to cheapen the prjpe of barley, it is difficult to 
see why prices remain so low in comparison with 
last year at same time. 

We have had less than an inch of rain for the sea- 
son and drying winds have absorbed it all, so that 
no grass or volunteer has started. Should dry 
weather continue through the winter, most of the 
stock in the southern part of the State would be 
needed at home. — C. E. Hoar, San Fernando, 
Los Angela Co., Cal. 

The receipts of barley from up north (Ore- 
gon and Washington) aggregated in 1890, 
52,717 centals, and in 1891, 213,442 centals. 
It is Quite generally claimed that the receipts 
from up north will coatinue light throughout 
this season. 

In examining the condition and influences 
on the market, it is well to compare the out 
ward shipments for the past three years, which 
were in centals as follows: 


Greit Britain 352,962 

New York 295,424 

Hawaiian Islands 138, 53 

Australia 30.934 

Elsewhere ■. 14,570 

South America 

Cape Verde Islands 

Canary Islands 

1890. 1891. 

44,811 274,0»j 

90,536 16«,5B7 

165,56^ 172.8 2 


23,765 6,936 




Totals 8S2,SI3 3.39.174 S?7,390 

Our corresponaent'e argument to titOT ot an 
advance in barley prices seems well established 
and agrees quite closely with statements made 
in onr Annual Review, a year ago this month. 
Such a view seems also to be held by many, 
and the disposition to put in barley seems quite 
general, especially at this time at the South, 
where barley sowing Is done earlier than at the 

The Transcontinentals. 

The modern " Aaoscontlnentals " bid fair to 
ba as greatly deprecated as the old " conti- 
nentals " are adored, It ia rumored now that 
there are signs of schism in the transconti- 
nental association of railroads which may shake 
the ill-starred combine to its foundations. The 
Northern Pacific objects to dlffarential plums 
which the association puts in the Canadian 
Pacific pudding, and if the N. P. kicks forcibly 
enongh, it may knock over the association. 
The Oallfornia Traffic Association looks with 
oomplaoent interest upon this quarrel of the 
members of the combine, which prevents com- 
petition In overland freighting, and Is more apt 
to pour turpentine than oil apon the wounds of 
the contestants. Joy to competition, misery 
to oomblnation — these things hold the keys to 
the prosperity of Paoitio Caast producers. 

This ."transcontinental association" haa a 
most aggravating way of dealing with applica- 
tions from our producers for more decent over- 
land rates. This dispatch is a case in point: 

Chicago, January 5. — A meeting of the trans- 
continental roads was held to-day to consider a 
proposition to reduce the rate on oranges from Cali- 
fornia points. The recent frosts in Southern Cali- 
fornia so damaged the orange crop that shippers 
united in requesting the railroads to reduce the rate 
from the present basis of $1.25 to 90 cents per hun- 
dred pounds. One road objected to the reduction, 
and the request could not be granted, although all 
the other lines were willing to do so. 

This is an old trick. So long as there is one 
kicker no fair proposition can go through. All 
the members of the aasoolatton have to do is to 
talk sweetly and elevate the anticipations of 
the petitioners, but be sure that one small 
fellow will object and declare he won't play. 
If they take turns at the single blackball, they 
can all talk sweetly on all propositions nearly 
all the time. In this way the public ia hood- 
winked and imposed upon, and after having its 
opposition silenced by sweet words, finds at 
iMt that it gains nothing after all. It la time 

aome " differentiala " or other kind of internal 
atrife knocked the thing to pieces. It ia ap- 
parently impregnable from the outside— as 
things now are, 

A Fruit Scene in the Foothills. 

{Continued from page SI.) 
than the natural beauties, and that is the un- 
rivaled variety and excellence of the foothill 
prodactions. By attending such a fair, one 
can gain comprehensive and comparative knowl> 
edge, which could hardly be otherwise obtained 
so well, even by long and patient journeylnga. 
The varioua prominent regiona of Placer will 
participate, as will other foothill counties up 
and down the Sierra line. Valley and coast of 
the upper half of the State will alao be repre- 
sented. We trust that the people may show 
appreciation of the important event by a large 
attendance. Auburn is a very hospitable 
town. It has the advantage of large hotel 
power, which will insure comfortable accom- 
modations. Let there be a grand assembly to 
participate in a splendid event. 

Fradulknt Fruit Failures — It is report 
ed that often swindlers start In just bsfore the 
holidays, fit up and stock fruit atands, and 
obtain considerable fruit on time from the 
wholesalers, sell out what they can, sell out 
the stand for what they can get and disappear, 
or as the phrase goes, "skip out." When the 
collector for the wholesaler goes around he 
finds a new proprietor who knows noth 
ing of him or his bill This year three 
cases are mentioned. They bought in 
the aggregate $2500 worth of fruit and the 
sellers obtain liOthing, One merchant takes 
rather a philosophical view of the matter, for 
he said to a Chronicle reporter: "These are 
premeditated tricks and generally occur at this 
time of the year, after large quantities of fruit, 
etc., have been bought for the holidays. 
There seems to be no law in these matters to 
protect the merchants, who have to pocket 
their losses while the fradnleot fruit dealer 
gets away with the boodle.'' 

Fruit on Hardpan Soils. 

Editors Pres.s: — What does experience prove 
about the use ol land containing hardpan for plant- 
ing orchards, providing the soil above the hardpan 
is good enough to give the young trees a good 
start? Is there any danger of damage to trees or 
crop when the trees grow older? II so, what 
remedy should be applied? — E. S. Willikes Mac- 
Donalo, Afi/os. 

This is a subject which has been quite fully 
discussed in our columns In past ttmes. Ex- 
perience proves that trees in such situations 
grow well for a certain time, and then often 
fall. The chief dangers are two: First, the 
danger of trees being overturned by high winds, 
if they have to extend their roots above a layer 
of hardpan, which is quite near the surface; 
second, the danger of drouth from the drying 
out of this thin surface layer of soil which the 
roots occupy, because being precluded from 
downward extension. 

The remedy is breaking through the hard- 
pan, providing the hardpan is thin and is un- 
derlaid by a stratum of pervious soil. This 
breaking up of hardpan is generally done with 
dynamite, a cartridge being exploded in a hole 
in the excavation made for each tree. It is 
also done on a small scale by boring through 
the hardpan with a post-hole augur or other- 
wise, hat the powder-blasting is best and 

Be sure that your situation has hardpan un- 
derlaid by gravel, or at least a loose stratum. 
If you have a shallow soil underlaid by hard- 
pan and tight olay below It, don't plant fruit at 
all. Our book on " California Fruits," In the 
chapter on " Preparing Land for Orchard and 
Vineyard," discusses this question fully. — Eds, 

Cement Artesian Piping. 

Editors : — I have seen something in 
your piper of a new (to me) process of putting 
down wells, using cement instead of pipe. As I 
wish to have a well bored soon, I would be glad to 
obtain some information on the subject — whether 
the method can be used in sandy soil, whether it 
makes as good a well as where pipe is used, and 
what the cost ? We have to go about 175 feet to 
get water. If some of your correspondents will 
give the desired information, they will greatly 
obi ge.— W. L. Johnson, Rochester, San Bernar- 
dino Co. 

If any readers have experimental knowledge 
on this subject, we should like to have it for 

Killing Stumps. 
Editors Press: — I would like to inquire through 
the Rural Press if there is any certain process, by 
apphing substances to the stumps of blue gums, 
that will surely kill the roots the first year. — T. N. 

We know of none. Prescriptions which we 
have tried have failed, I! any reader can 
speak from actual experience, we shall be glad 
to listen and try it for ouraelvea. 

Jan. 9, m2.\ 

f ACIFie f^URAlo PRESS. 

[TIhe XrR'Qationist. 

Under this headintr the Rural Press will publish the 
latest and most accurate iufuimation upon the profrrefs 
of irrigation entsrprise on the Pacific coast. Contribu- 
tions upon the subject ate earnestly requested, in order 
that the public mav he kept fullr informed. 

Saving Water. 

Oae of the greatest objections arged against 
the organization of irrigation districts in some 
localities is the aisertion that all the available 
aonroes of supply have been appropriated or 
utilized and that there is no water left that oan 
he availed of for the irrigation of neiv areae. 
No greater mistake was ever made. It is entire- 
ly within bounds to say that of the flow of all 
the streams ased for irrigation in the entire State 
not more than one-tenth of the aggregate finds 
its way npon the soil for the benefit of growing 
orops. In at least tlx months of the year no 
use whatever is made of the water, and daring 
that period, whi'^h incladea the winter and 
early spring, the flow of these streams ia from 
ten to a handred fold greater than in the season 
when irrigation is praoticed. All this water 
rons to waste, and the capacity of a given 
stream for irrigating, is measured entirely by 
the minimum flow of the dryest season. Rsa 
sonlng npon this basis and without regard to 
the Immense amount of water running to waete 
during the winter, there is some foundation for 
the assertion that there is no further available 

Bat going a little farther and taking up 
up the consideration of the possibility and fea 
sibility of preserving a portion or all of the 
wasted water for use in the dry season, a field 
for enterprise is found that Is practically an 
limited. The storage reservoir is the solution 
of the difficulty, and until enough of these have 
been constructed to conserve the entire winter 
flow of all the streams and supply all the lands 
that require irrigation it is idle to claim that 
all the sources of supply have been monopo 

Many who have not Investigated the subject 
appear to believe that the construction of res 
ervoirs involves • vast expenditure, and that 
water cannot be obtained in that manner ex 
oept at an outlay that cannot be borne by ordi 
nary farming lands. It seems to be generally 
believed that a reservoir must be something 
Immense, involving large expenditure and a 
great amount of labor. Few have so far been 
undertaken in thin State except on some such 
scale as the Bear Valley or Sweetwater enter- 
prises. But it is a mistake to suppose that 
small reservoirs cannot be economically and 
readily constructed for the supply of small as 
well as large areas. In Colorado much more 
appears to have been done in this line than in 
this State, and what may be called Individual 
reservoirs for the storage of winter water are 
being built all over that State. The cost of 
■ucb structures need not be large. Thus, one is 
mentioned in a Colorado paper that haa a sim- 
ple earthen bank by which a reservoir covering 
ten aores of land to a depth of 10 to 16 fnet was 
oonstruoted at a cost of only $2000. The 
amount of water stored is sufficient, it is calcu- 
lated, to supply 500 aores of laod, or an average 
of only $4 an acre. 

Another rpRervoir for irrigation on a large 
Bcale covers 800 aores and the entire cost wa* 
$20,000, while water euoogh for 30.000 acres is 
stored. This Is a cost of less than 70 cents an 
acre; yet the water is derived from a stream 
that was supposed to have been entirely appro- 
priated, A portion only of what had hitherto 
ran to waste was thus sav^d at a small outlay 
and the large amount of 30,030 acres brought 
under cultivation. 

These instances afford a hint of what miy 
easily be done in California. There is no lack 
of reservoir sites in all the irrigated regions, 
nor is there any lack of water now going to 
waste that oan be stored for future use. It is 
only a question of enterprise and time until all 
these sources chall be fully utilized. 

Florida Converted. 

That the gospel of irrigabion is spreading is 
shown by the amount of space devoted to the 
subject by agricultural journals all over the 
ooantry. Scarcely a number of this class of 
periodicals can be perused without finding 
therein more or leas extended reference to the 
desirability of irrigation and to the results ac- 
oompliehed by this gr at aid to agriculture. 
The orange growers of Florida are falling into 
line with others who have for years prided 
themselves upon their immunity from the ne- 
cessity of irrigating, but are now awakening to 
the fact that what was onoe regarded by many 
as an onerous burden is in reality the greatest 
boon. " Of late years," says a writer In the 
Florida AgrieuUurUl, "owing to the drouths of 
1889 and 1890, people all over the State have 
been turning their attention quite generally to 
the subject of irrigation. We have always 
prided ourselves in measuring biceps wi^h our 
rival, California, 'that if our soil wan a trifle light 
and did require a little fertilizer' our yearly 
outlay for manures was far below her inevita- 
ble irrigation tax. Bat though we need not 
mortify ourselves by admitting irrigation or 
fertilization as absolutely indispensable to us, we 
have believed that with artesian wells or sur. 
face water ponds and pumping engines an eco- 
nomical irrigating plant serves as a oertain in- 
surance policy to the owner of a valuable bear- 
ing grove which he may never h^ve need of for 
yeaii but which he oan hardly afford to think 

of being without. While water oan be most 
econrmioally di<itribnted in ditches so far as it 
will flow, distributing itself evenly and auto- 
matically with a minimum of evaporation, 
water-tight conduits are indespensable for con- 
veying it any considerable distance from the 
source. One favorite method here with flow 
ing wells. Is to lay pipes the same size as the 
wells with hydrants 100 feet or so apsrt on all 
the elevations, knolls and ridges. A stream 
flowing along the summit of a low sand ridee 
will Bubirrlgate in most soils from 20 to 30 
feet on either side and with clay subaoll very 
much farther." 

The writer then describes a machine invented 
in that State by which cement pipes are made 
and laid in the ground at a single operation, 
and which .'fter "setting" will withstand a 
pressure of 20 pounds to the equare inch, and 
in time one of 60 pounds. This pipe la much 
more durable than iron and when once laid it 
is claimed will last practically forever. 

It is gratifying to find the example that has 
been set by California thus followed, and we 
gladly welcome Florida to the racks of the irri- 
gators. It is especially gratifying to note that 
they have seized at the outset, th<< most ad- 
vanced ideas upon the subject, and by the use 
of pipes and hydrants are prepareii to take 
every advantage of the economical use of water 
in the same manner that has been evolved in 
this St?t». 

Tlie Bear Valley Dam. 

Another of the periodical and entirely un- 
o-illed-for attacks has been made upon the Bear 
Valley dam, and the charge has been published 
broadcast by telegraph that there was such im- 
minent danger of a repetition of the Johnstown 
disaster that the authorities had been appealed 
to to protect the people living in the section 
alleged *:o be pxposed to danger, says the Oali 
fornia IrrigcUionist, To read the harrowing 
dispatches sent out by evidently subsidized 
correspondents, one would be justified in sup 
posing that the dam was in a crumbling con. 
dition, already tottering to its ruin and threat- 
ening destruction to life and property. 

The writer, happily, is personally familiar 
with all the facts in the case. He has visited 
the dam in company with expert engineers, has 
lived in the section supplied with water by It, 
has known its history intimately ever since 
Frank Brown made his first trip into the moun 
tains to investigate the feasibility of its con- 
struction, and has not a cent's worth of inter 
rst one way or the other. All the interest the 
IrrigaiioniU has in the matter is the common 
Interest of love of fair play srnd hatred of under 
hand and lying methods. Hence we assume to 
speak from an entirely unprejudiced stand- 

There are a few well-known facts about this 
matter which we propose to give all the em- 
ph.'isis possib'n. 

The Bear Valley dam has stood for seven 
years, most of the time with the fall volume of 
water behind it. It has been exposed to storm, 
ice and wind, and even earthquake, but it 
stands to-day just as firm as whan the last stone 
was laid, and just as it will stcind till the orack 
of doom. 

Those who inspired the lying dispatch re- 
ferred to in the foregoing, lay great stress 
upon the demand that the waete-weir be so 
arranged that falling or floating timber may 
readily through it, At least one of the 
men who Inspired the attack knows of his own 
personal knowledge that in the channel, or 
oeck of the lake ab^ve the dam, there are now 
and always have been, booms stretching from 
shore to shore, made of timbers securely fas- 
tened together, and attached to either bank, 
which mak'i it absolutely impossible for any 
floating object, tree, or anything else to ap- 
proach the dam nearer than eeventl hundred 
yards.' They know, too, that a sufficient num- 
ber of men is kept at the dam, day and night, 
and always have been, to handle any floating 
objects that might injure the dam and to guard 
against any " spontaneous " explosions or other 
' accidents " that might bring about the flood 
that would unquestionably not be unwelcome to 
some. Everything of this sort is well guarded 

Bat above all, and affording ample security 
to those timid souls whose fears have been 
played upon by designing persons, is the fact, 
the absolute fact, that If the :am were to give 
way, little or no danger could be caused in the 
valley of the Santa Ana or anywhere else. In 
the first place, a narrow, steep and tortuous 
ctnyon extends for 18 miles below the dam. 
Were the water in the lake unrestrained, it 
could not pass down that canyon, met at every 
turn, as it would be, by obstacles and obstrac- 
tions, in volume sufficient to cause damage 
when the open plain was reached. Just at the 
mouth of the canyon, and as soon as the 
mountains are Itft, the rIver-bod or wash 
spreads out to a width of 1^ or 2 miles, with 
high banks and a saudy bed. When the water 
turned loose from the dam reaches this place, 
it would spread out over these miles of sand, 
and could not by any possibility be more than 
three or four feot deep, while the banks on 
either side are 15 to 40 feet high. How maoh 
damage could result ? 

Bat it is idle to say more, and it would be 
unnecessary to say anything at all, were it not 
that the dispatches sent out are oertain to mis- 
lead those who are not well posted — that, in 
fact, being their apparent object. The people 
who are most familiar with the Bear valley 
dam are the ones who feel the greatest aeourity 

in living below it, and they will corroborate 
every word we have said. 

In the name of all that is decent and honest 
these attacks upon an enterprise that has done 
more for Southern California than any other 
one influenoe, ought to be suppressed, and it 
the duty of every honest newspaper to lend its 
aid in putting an end to aspersions that are as 
unfounded as thoy are contemptible. 

How to Bnild a Dam. 

The chief cause of failure in dams of all kind 
is the faulty construction cf the foundation 
says the Denver Fitld and Farm, Just as 
house will fall by reason of a weak foundation 
which may be crushed under the weight of the 
walls, so a dam gives way by the gradual loos 
ening of the foundation, caused by the flow 
water through leaks, Earth dams above three 
feet high are sure to be washed away at some 
time, if they do not sink gradually by the cer 
tain percolation of water through the bottom 
The weight of a bulk of water three times as 
large as a rock will move the rock bodily, as if 
it were wood, and the difference of specific gray 
ity is overcome by the height of the water over 
the heavier obstacle. A very small torrent 
will roll large bowlders along its coarse with 
ease, and this enormous force of water must al 
ways be provided for in all hydraulic work 
Dams should be made of timber or stone. For 
a safe and simple form of timber dam, the foun 
dation should be rock or hardpan of gravel, and 
the mudsills on the lower tier should be bedded 
in broken rook, pounded down firmly with a 
15 pound sledge. The sills are saddled, and 
the cross-ties laid npon them are notched to 
rest upon the saddles, and two-inch pins should 
be put through both of the Incrs. Where the 
foundation is shelving rock, 1^-inch iron pins 
should be put down into the rock at least a 
foot, to prevent sliding. But the sliding force 
is almost neutralized in this form of dam by 
the weight of water, which lies upon the sheet' 
ing. The tiers of timber are built up and sad' 
died, and notched. A plaok sheeting is put 
down to the solid foundation above the first 
iill, end is spiked with eight-penny spikes 
firmly. The sheeting is filled to the founda 
tion as close as possible, and hydraulic cement 
concrete is bedded in front of it, to make a 
tight joint, No leaks will ever trouble a dam 
founded Id this way. The rafters should be 
strong enough to bear any weight of water 
which the stream may carry doubled. If the 
highest flood known is five or ten feet above 
the usual level, it is easy to estimate the 
strength of the rafter required, and then 
double the number of them, putting them no 
more than two feet apart, if the sheeting is 
of one-inch board doubled. If any error is 
made, it is the cheapest to err upon the safe 
side, as the cost of more material will be 
much less than that of a new dam, and perhaps 
mill that may go with it. An apron 
shonld be put in front of the dam, to 
receive the oveiflow; this throws the weight 
of the water on the face of the dam, and bal- 
ances so much of the pressure on the upper 
sides. An earth dam may be made safe by 
sheet piling driven to rock or hardpan or clay, 
in the center of the excavation. Adam shonld 
never be built on surface soil, but the center 
should be placed on solid ground. As the earth 
is put In, it should be well packed by driving 
oxen or horses back and forth, or by ramming 
it well. This prevents settlement when the 
water is let in above it. The ends of an earth dam 
should be protected with shent piling at least 
two feet higher than the overflow at the center, 
and the overflow should pa°8 over solid plank 
flooring, spiked to timbers well bedded down 
on the top and both sides of the dam. This 
will prevent washing of the top. A masonry 
dam should ba bailt on a foundation of con- 
crete, laid on solid rock, over piles driven close 
together, and both sides protected by sheet 
piling. The piles should be left to protrude 
into the concrete foundation. Except for 
water works, there shonld be no outlet in the 
bottom of the dam; but the work should be of 
the most solid character. A waste ohannel for 
overflow should be made on the top large 
enough to carry off any possible flood, and the 
ends of the dam should be carried up with 
solid masonry as high as may ever be needed to 
prevent cutting out of the ends by the flood. 
A large dam shonld be constructed regardless 
of expense to secure safety in every direction, 
and the small details of construction are very 
often the most important parts of the work. 
Any person who might, under any circum- 
stances, build a masonry dam in hollow shell 
form, and fill it with dirt, or leave earth banks 
on either side of the dam, should be confined 
in an asylum for Imbecility. No doubt, con- 
sidering the vast importance of secnring un- 
questionable safety to the unsuspecting public 
whose lives may be endangered, all persons 
practicing as hydraulic engineers should be 
licensed only after exhaustive examination by 
competent men. If a veterinary surgeon or a 
physician — who could scarcely kill a hundred 
persons by the mistakes of a lifetime — must be 
properly licensed before he oan practice, how 
much more should an engineer be, npon whnse 
mistakes thousands of lives may impend ? Ev- 
ery sensible man is convinced that a dam, like 
any other engineering work, must be built 
in accordance with thn prinoipleti of con- 
struction. It is easy to figure exactly the force 
which a dam may ever be nailed upon to resist, 
and manage the oonstruotion in saoh a way as 
to provide an excess of strength and perman- 
ence, and we give it herewith. 

Progress in Arizona. 

Arizona has been facetiously referred to for 
years as the "land of );he cactus an<3 horned 
toad," but if the present ratio of Irrigation 
progress is maintained, some other phrase will 
have to be selected to do justice to the situa- 
tion. Canal enterprises are under way in 
many places, and thousands of acres of arid 
land are being reclaimed, having lain fallow 
since their original cultivators perished thou- 
sands of years ago. 

At Gila Bend the Citrus canal has been fin- 
ished and water was turned into it a week ago. 
The first day the water ran down 15 miles to a 
depth of 30 inches, and this without any dam 
in the river, says a local paper. The heading 
of the canal is in solid ro^k, and the canal 
passes through a tunnel 15 feet long, at the 
mouth of which the headgate is set. Owing to 
'his and a solid cement wall below, the highest 
flood cannot affect the canal. The canal is 
eight feet wide on the bottom, with two feet 
fall to the mile. There are 6000 aores of the 
finest fruit land in Arizona reclaimed by the 
completion of this magnificent waterway. Most 
of the land is owned by members of the com- 
pany who will plant the larger part of it to 
citrus fruits at once — in fact, they have men 
and teams at work now clearing and plowing 
the land. 

Articles of incorporation of the Rio Verde 
Canal Company have been recorded at Pbcenix. 
The company is the one that is havir^y the 
route surveyed to take a canal out of the Verd<?, 
to Irrigate a large body of land north of Phoe* 
nix. Th" authorized capital stock of the com- 
pany is $3,000,000, divHsd into 30,000 shares 
of the par value of $100 each, of which 
8000 shares is treasury stock, and will be 
ssued only upon the affirmative concurring 
vote of at least two-thirds of the stock. The 
government of the corporation will be vested 
in a board of nine directors. The incorporators 
are: Frank L. Stgtsrn, Martin Ring, Chas. F. 
Biker. William H. J. Pearce, M. J. Galpin 
Ohas. P. Silloway and Ohas. A. Bioknell. The 
principal place of bu'^iness of the company will 
be at tbe city of Phoenix. 

The Yuma pumping and Irrigation Oo. have 
kept a considerable force of men and teams 
at work for the past two months in clearing and 
preparing their extensive tracts of land for the 
next year's crop, says the Times. It is under- 
stood that; 40 acres have been put in garden 
order and will be devoted wholly to vegetables, 
while several hundred acres are ready for the 
planting of trees and vines, already ordered. 
Pumping was suspended about two weeks ago, 
but is again to be resumed at once and kept up 
until the soil is put In proper condition for 
planting. It is reported that the company 
propose to add a number of new pumps to their 
plant, thereby Increasing their facilities for 
ffectual service. 
Among the homestead locators on the Algo- 
dones grant, several have commenced subitan. 
tial improvements, Edwin Mayes and R. S. 
Hatch have purchased a large-sized centrifugal 
pump in partnership for their ranches, and ex- 
pect to have it in position w'thln a month and 
be ready to Irrigate at least 30 or 40 acres for 
next season's crop. Mr. Mayes has ordered an 
architect to draught plans for a neat and sub- 
stantial brick residence. 

One of the most important canal enterprises 
now being undertaken in Arizona is that pro- 
posed by the Santa Cruz Water Storege Com- 
pany with headquarters at Tucson, The pro- 
moters of the enterprise are principally English 
capitalistf , and it therefore has the advantage 
of ample fiaanoial resources, and is certain to 
be carried forward successfully. When the 
canal is completed, it will cover m'xny thousand 
acres in Southern Arizona, and afford employ- 
mpnt and homes for a populous and wealthy 

Irrigation in Washington. 

As a rule, we of the Pacific coast are ac- 
customed to regard the states to the north of 
California as favored with such an abundant 
rainfall that there is no necessity for a reeort 
to irrigation in those sections. Inileed, the 
popular idea of the rainfall of Oregon and Wash- 
gton, is that if anything, it is a little super- 
bundant. But this idea would appear to ba 
erroneous, since extensive irrigation enterpricea 
are now under way in both the States named. 
The most recent enterprise proposed is that of 
some Portland capitalists, who propose to 
divert water from the Walla Walla river for 
the irrigation of an extensive body of arid mesa 
nds near the town of Wallula, in Eastern 
Waahlngton. These parties have filed a olaim 
on 1000 cubic feet of water per seoond in the 
river mentioned and prrpone also to construct a 
masonry diverting dam 35 feet high. It is said 
they intend to commence operations at once and 
get the w>ter on the land as soon as possible. 
In the Yakima valley a novel question has 
arisen in relation to oertain extensive irrigation 
enterprisep now under way. There Is in that val- 
ley a large Indian reservation through whiob flow 
streams whose waters have been used by white 
settlers outside ''ie reservation for many years 
for irrigation. Recently an enterprise wr a put: 
on foot for the reclamation of some 70,000 
acres of arid land, but this has aroused the 
determined opposition of the Indian agent, 
and he has made complaint to the officials at 
Washington. The grounds of this complaint 
are novel. It appears that an old treaty gave 
the Indians the right to fish in the streams 
bordering on the reaervation, and the agent 



[Jan 9, 1892 

olalms to believe that if any more water ia 
diverted for irrigation the fishing privilage 
will become worthleet. The water of two 
Btreama are lavolved; those of the Yakima river 
itself and those of the Ahtanum, a tributary of 
that stream. Along the latter »re many white 
settlers who have used Its water for years for 
Irrigation without molestation, and it appears 
have been the means of putting thousands of 
dollars into the pockets of the reservation In- 
dians in the shape of wages for labor perfor- 
med on the irrigated farms. 

Snoh eminent predecessors of the present In- 
dian agent, as Father Wilbur and General 
Milroy, says the Portland Oregonian, in discuss- 
ing this novel phase of Irrigation failed to see 
any danger to the Indians' rights in this use of 
the creek water for irrigation, and the princi- 
ple Is the same as that involved in the divert- 
ing of a part of the Yakima river for the pur- 
pose of irrigating some 70,000 acres. In the 
opinion of the present agent, the settlers along 
the Ahtanum have no rights to the waters of 
that stream, and he says he has instructions to 
prosecute all who violate the treaty obligations; 
but while the appropriations of the water for 
Irrigation purposes have practically left the 
main stream of the Ahtanum dry during the 
Irrigation season, he recognizes that to en- 
force the strict letter of the treaty In this re- 
spect would ruin the farmers along the creek, 
and he has in oonsequenoe taken no action. 
In his opinion, the proper solution of the ques- 
tion would be the making of another treaty 
and the purchase by the Government of the 
water franchise from the Indians. As to the 
waters of the Yakima, and the appropriation by 
the irrigation company, the agent considers 
the question still more serious. He has sent 
plans of the dam and canal to the Cimmia- 
aioner, and as he is of the opinion that the 
oanal would carry ofiF practically all the water 
in the river, he has recommended that the com- 
pany be restricted in this respect. From the 
tone of the local paper it is evident that the 
people, whose hopes are centered upon the 
great irrigation work In progress, do not be- 
lieve the fishing rights and privileges of the In- 
dians are in any such danger at assumed by 
their agent. It is possible that some of them 
Buspeot him of too great zeal, since they have 
never before been soared at the taking of water 
for irrigating, It has been going on for years, 
and now and then a fish, which perhaps the 
Creator and the ladlan bureau Intended for a 
aiwash dinner, has actually turned his nose In- 
to the farmers' ditch, and gone flapping along 
the corn rows until caught and fried by the 
thrifty honsewlfe. If the Indians are en- 
titled to all the water of all the streams that 
border their reservations, ip order that they 
may not be deprived of a single fish that might 
be sustained In full banks itnd caught from the 
slwash aide of the river, then the enterprise of 
the white man in his neck of the woods should 
be pulled off at onoe. It la a question of much 
more than looal Importance, and should not be 
hastily settled by an ex parte construction of 
the old treaty. Common sense would lead one 
to think that no treaty was ever intended to 
interfere with the white man's plowing on one 
side of a stream, while the Indian fished on 
the other. The white man's side of the river 
has been Idle and unproductive too long al- 

It seems acarcely possible that there can be 
but one conclusion to this matter. It is not to 
be believed that the privilege of catching fiih 
in a stream will prevent the utilization of its 
water for irrigation; to do so wonld violate 
every economic prinoiple and would be an in- 
jastioe to the white settlers of the Yakima val- 
ley that wonld not be tolerated. 

Pumping Water. 

W, S. Green, the Colusa connty apostle of 
irrigation, publishes a statement over his signa- 
ture that water can be furnished the Sacra- 
mento river lands cheaper than almost any- 
where in the State by means of large pumpa on 
on a barge. It will jaetify a pump that will 
throw 75,000 gallons a minute. 15,000 gallons 
oan be thrown over the levee for 10 cents, and 
20,000 can be thrown into such sloughs as Syca- 
more and Oheney for 10 cents, and thrown fast 
enough to prevent waste. Land a mile or more 
back oan be watered cheaply. With snch a 
plant on the river, land will be worth $20 an 
acre more money. Mr. Green is consnlting 
with farmers who desire to Irrigate with the 
view of setting operations on foot for putting 
in one or more pumping plants. It may be 
added that this is no experimental Idea, but 
has been suocestfully tested In many places in 
the arid region. 

A Novel Recommendation. 

The Graad Jury of Sin Bsrnardino county, 
in ita report filed a abort time aince, made a 
recommendation upon the aubjeot of irrigation 
atorage reservoirs which has the merit of nov- 
elty, whatever may be said of the legality of 
the action proposed. The recommendation is 
as followa: "A matter of great importance to 
thla county, demanding immediate attention, ia 
our storage-reservoir system. We therefore 
recommend that the Board of Supervisors pais 
an ordinance to the effect that the plan and 
apecificatloDS for all dams now in course of oon- 
struotioD, or that may hereafter be constrncted, 
in Ban Bdrnardino county, for the impounding 
of water in a quantity sufficient to be a menace 
to life and property, (hall be submitted to the 

Board of Supervisors, who shall obtain for 
such plans and specifications the approval of 
one or more competent engineers. 

Work in the Districts. 

Next Wednesday the election will be held 
for the organization of the Glendora district, 
in Lob Angeles county. The people interested 
seem practically unanimous and little oppusi 
tlon is expeoted. 

Engineers J. D, Browne and assistants are at 
work again on the line of the Kern and Tulare 
district canal. They started in at the point of 
diversion from the river, and are making a very 
oareful survey, says the Bakertfield Echo. 
Measurements are made every few feet and the 
data obtained from which the exact amount of 
earth to be moved oan be estimated. Their 
progress was necessarily slow now, for they are 
working in the roughest country encountered 
along the whole route. When a few miles 
more are passed.the open plains will be reached 
and then they can get along much more rapid- 
ly. One of the directors informed an Echo re- 
porter, a few days ago, that the prospect for 
a sale of the district bonds was improving. 
Several Eastern Institutions are considering the 
matter, and if the survey now being made 
shows conclusively that the oanal oan be bnilt 
for the amount of the bonds, a sale ia likely to 
follow In the near futnft. The direotora reat 
easy on this contingency, feeling certain that 
their estimate of the cost was properly made. 
Bat should their expectations of a sale fail to 
materialize, they have other prospects. Con- 
struction companies have already offered to do 
the work and take the bonds for pay. Such an 
arrangement would amount to the same as a 
sale of the bonds, except that it would, to some 
extent, shut off competition for the work. But 
when the new estimate of cost Is made and 
these builders have made their bid. It can easily 
be told whether their figures are too high. 

The director referred to says that instead of 
being discouraged, they feel very sanguine that 
the work will soon be nnder headway. The 
confidence in these secnritiea la all the while 
growing atronger, and no great length of time 
oan elapse bafore there is a demand for them. 

A visit to Ferris reveals the fact that that 
colony ia In a orosperous condition. Water 
from the Bear Valley system ia flowing on the 
tract, says the San Barnardioo Timti-Index. 
Within the last three months, 25 new houses 
have been built, and within the last year and a 
half, the population has doubled. The Santa 
Fe Is building a fine new depot at an expense 
of S5000. Plans have been completed for two 
or three new brick blocks. The contracts have 
been let for laying steel distributing pipe lines 
to carry water upon the entire district at a 'cost 
of $50,000. Within the last 30 days the land 
sales have footed up to upward of $250,000. A 
vast amount of land is being sown to barley 
and wheat and preparations are being made for 
extensive orchard planting this spring. Land 
is now being sold with water right in the Irri 
gatlon district at from $40 to $100 per acre. 

The Irrigation districts already formed in 
San Diego county cover 150,000 acrea of land 
aaya the Esoondido Times. Allowing 40 acres 
to the family that would accommcfate 25,000 
famlliea, and estimating an average of four to a 
family, it means a population of 100,000, inde 
pendent of towns. But it has been demon- 
strated that a family can make a living on ten 
acres, with water; hence the territory men 
tloned ia capable of supporting a population of 
400,000. Apply this to the Esoondido valley, 
we wonld have fully 5000 population outside of 
the town, which would contain fully as many 
more, owing to its commanding position con- 
cerning a large outside tribatary country. 

It is believed that the Oakdalu oanal oan be 
completed to a few miles west of Oakdale for 
$15,000, including dam and everything, says 
the Oikdale Leader. One firm in Oakdale has 
offered to advance $5000, and one or two other 
men living in the town have agreed to advance 
a proportionate share. Now, will those farmers 
who fought the district do as much ? One man 
said on the street the other day that be had 
$1000 invested in the Oakdale canal, and he 
would rather lose It all than to see a district 
organized. If that be the case, the work last 
Monday resulted in a gain of several thousand 
dollars to the farmers, and It looks as If they 
could afford to render financial assistance to 
this great enterprise. Fifteen thousand dollars 
ia required; probably $60CO can be ralaed in 
Oakdale. Will the farmers who represent 8000 
acres of land raise the remaining $9000 ? Let 
us see if they will work as actively In the in- 
terest of the Oakdale canal, as they did against 
the district proposition. 

The Dinnba Dispatch says: In disbursing the 
district moneys, it is a aonrce of baalness satis- 
faction to know that nearly every dollar la 
apent In the diatrict. It does not go to China 
or Italy, but is laiJ out right here in the dis- 
trict, where the money Is raised. Since the 
formation of the district in Augnst, 1S8S, $52,' 
673 have been expended, viz.: Labor, $15,000; 
supplies, $2763; boarding the men, $1459; hay 
and grain, $5510; lumber, $3254; advertising 
and printing, $2057; law, $5533; per diem of 
directors and committee expenses, $3235; rffije 
supplies, $307; sundries, safe, office furniture, 
$3010; salaries, $7508; surveying, $2206; re- 
cording, abstracts, etc., $883. 

The Alta district has bought a section of 
canal already built and needed by the district, 
paying for the same in bonds at par. 


Aphis-Prool Apple Trees. 

Readers of the Rural have been often re- 
minded of the Australian method of circum- 
venting woolly aphis by growing trees on re- 
sistant stocks. Some of the stocks nsed In 
Anstralla have been brought to this State, bat, 
ao far aa we know, no one haa yet adopted the 
Australian method on a commercial scale. The 
following interesting allusion to the aubjeot we 
find in the Adelaide Garden and Field for No- 
vember, for which we are Indebted to Mr. W. 
0. Grasley of Adelaide. It is from an essay on 
the apple by Mr. W. Kelly, Chairman of the 
Branch Council of the Bureau of Agriculture of 
that colony: 

In this district several varieties of fruit- 
bearing trees can be grown to perfection, and 
perhaps none more so than the apple. Unfor- 
tunately an Insect known aa the woolly aphis 
Infests It, and has ita home here. That insect 
penetrates to the roots, and, lodging there, 
sucks the life sap of the tree. In its safe re- 
treat, that Insect defied the skill of the orchard- 
1st in his efforts to eradicate It, and the caltl- 
vation of the apple has suffered In consequence. 
It has, however, been discovered that there are 
two varieties of apples — the Winter Majetin 
and Northern Spy — which are blight proof. 
The insect will not touch these treea, and the 
knowledge of that fact enables the growers to 
cope somewhat successfully with that pest. 

This Is a matter of first Importance to per- 
sons who intend to oultivate the apple, for un- 
less the stocks are blight-proof, growers cannot 
expeot to succeed. Raspectable nurserymen 
and other practical growers now graft every 
variety of apple on blight-proof stocks. It 
was thought by some that by gathering the 
fruit of the Winter Majetin and Northern Spy 
when fully ripe, and sowing the seed, they 
wonld obtiln blight-proof plants. The result, 
however, proved disappointing, inasmuch aa a 
large proportion of the seedlings were not proof 
against blight. It could not be expected that 
they would, for seedling plants partake more 
or less of the character of their parents. If 
the blight proof trees were grown in the or- 
chard with other varieties of the apple, the 
pollen of one plant would be wafted by the 
wind or carried by bees or birds to the stigma 
of another. The seedlings would poasesa some 
of the constitutional qualities of both male and 
female plants, and in consequence of cross 
fertilization, could not possess blight-proof 

Root-grafting Is the only effeotnal way of 
getting over the difficulty. That Is done by 
grafting scions of the Winter Majetin or North- 
ern Spy on portions of the root of the same 
trees. The roots are out up into short pieces, 
taking care that each has a few small fibers. 
The grafted roots are planted In the nureery, 
and the following aeaaon are again grafted, but 
this time with scions of the variety of apple In- 
tended to form the tree — [and at least six 
inches above the surface of the soil. — Sec] By 
this method of double grafting, not only the 
roots, but a portion of the stock are rendered 
blight proof. The following season the yonng 
trees are fit for planting where intended to re- 

There are many methods of grafting, but the 
principle ia the same in all. With roots and 
young stocks split-grafting Is the simplest and 
best, and is generally adcpted. The joining Is 
made by cutting and carefully fitting the bark 
of the graft to the bark of the stock. Between 
the hark and aapwood of treea there is always 
a layer of cellular tissue, which is called cam- 
bium, and It is In this layer that grafting and 
budding are generally effected. In fact, it Is 
essential that the oamblnm layer of both stock 
and graft be placed In contact, and when that 
Is done, the vital force of the oamblum cells 
soon effects a union of the two. To prevent 
disarrangement, a tie of soft texture U bound 
round the graft to keep the lips of the wound 
together, and then soil is placed around and 
above the tie to exclude air and light. 

of that order, which is distinguished for these 
qualities. When this larva arrived, after ita 
long fast, it was given a codlin moth larva, 
which it at once attacked with considerable 
fury and devoured, althongh it was nearly as 
large as itself, and as soon aa it recovered from 
its gorged condition, it attacked and killed aev- 
eral more, evidently taking a pleaaure in so do- 
ing. The insect was kept in ooofioement for 
some months, during which It destroye'd oon- 
aiderable numbers of codlln moth larvae, and 
also fed freely upon the woolly apple aphis; but 
It did not appear willing to tear open the oo- 
ooons of the moth larvx to get at their onatenta. 

Dreading the severity of the New Zealand 
winter for the insects conveyed from so warm a 
country as Oallfornia, Mr. Wight sent a few of 
them to Mr. French of Melbonrne to be ac- 
climatizad there, considering also that the un- 
avoidable dangers of the hemispheric change 
would ba better avoided in the Australian cli- 
mate; and being obliged to leave home for a 
considerable time, he was compelled to turn 
those remaining out, to take their chance la a 
sheltered situation In the orchard, and nothing 
more has ever been seen of them, although It is 
not improbable that they may yet ba in exist- 
ence, and Increasing. The larva of Raphidla is 
admirably formed to prev on that of the codlln 
moth. Its body is very fltt, and It runs very 
quickly both forward and backward. It haa a 
large and very flit head, fitted with a formid- 
able pair of nippers, with which it seizes Its 
prey, and the whole Insect could not be better 
formed for the purpose of creeping under the 
scales of bark, and into those crevices where 
the moth larvte secrete themselves when about 
to pupate. Of course it Is Impossible, with ao 
little experience of one specimen, to say whether 
it would attack and devour the same prey upon 
which it lived la captivity if It had been at 
liberty, and had a choice of victims, and it cer- 
tainly seemed willing to feed upon the aphides 
that were placed with it; but Mr. Koebele, 
who haa watched Its habits closely in Califor- 
nia, says that it is by far the most useful insect 
among the many which attack the moth, and, 
in fact, the only very effectual one, and the 
propriety of its Introduction wherever the cod- 
lln moth li, cannot be doubted. 

Our Gift to Australia. 

It has previously been noted in the Rcbal 
that Prof. Riley arranged some months ago to 
send to the colonies something in exchange for 
the Vedalia cardinali$, the Australian insect 
which has proved of such Incalcnlable value in 
this State. The following Interesting notes we 
take from the Adelaide Garden and Field for 

An attempt haa been made to Introduce from 
California the Riphldia (very useful predatory 
insects) Into New Zealand, to act against the 
codlln moth, a pest which Is causing severe 
loss in m ny districts of the colony. Mr. 
Koebele was kind enongh to transmit 25 boxes 
of Rtphldia to Mr. R. Allen Wight of Auckland 
to experiment with. They were all In the pupa 
stage, except one larva, whioh arrived alive 
and well; and although the results were not ao 
good aa might have been wished, the fact of the 
usefulness of Rapbidis against the codlln moth 
was fully and satisfactorily proved. The Ra- 
phidla Is an Insect of the order Neuroptera, 
and It is one of the most aotive and voraoioaa 

Cli ETEOf^OlsOGISAls. 

Pacific Coast Weather for December. 

The weather of the month commenced with a 
disturbance central, over British Colombia, 
the storm trongh extending southward throagh 
Nevada Into southeastern California, and with 
rain general as far south as the lower San Joa- 
quin valley. Clearing weather prevailed on 
the 21, but on the 3d a storm approached the 
upper California coast that moved northeast- 
ward, and gave general precipitation to the en- 
tire slope. Including Southern California. 

On the 4th, a high pressure area advanced 
over California and Oregon, and gave low tem- 
peratures to the Interior for several days, froata 
occurring at San Franclaoo, Sioramento and 
Needles, on the 5ih, at San Francisco, San 
Diego and Los Angeles on the 6th, and at San 
Francisco and San Diego on the 7th. 

On the evening of the 6th a disturbance was 
apparent on the upper coast that Intensified as 
It moved eastward, resulting in raint and high 
winds from Northern California, Nevada, and 
Utah northward by the evening of the 8tb. 
Clearing conditions prevailed on the 9th, and 
generally fair weather on the 10th and 11th; 
but on the latter date there was a fall in the 
air pressure over Southern California and a ris- 
ing air pressure over the Interior of the alope, 
with a depreaslon manifesting itself on the 
upper coast and forcing the high area south- 
ward, whioh uoniiltlons resulted In violent 
north winds over Southern Nevada and ex- 
treme Eastern and Southern California on the 
11th and 12th; the disturbance to the north 
passed eaetwaid over the upper country and 
gave light ralna as far south as Northern Cali- 
fornia, on the 13th. 

On f-e evening of the 15th a storm approached 
the npper coast and by the 16th the rain area 
had spread southward over northern California. 
On the 18th a disturbanoe came in toward 
Washington and by the evening of the 19th 
there was a storm trongh extending along the 
entire slope and general rains and snow falling 
in all sections. The evening of the 20th saw a 
disturbance central over Washington, and 
again on the 22ad, both storms giving 'rains or 
snowa aa far sontbward as extreme northern 
California, and the latter storm diverging 
southward gave scattering rains in the southern 
portion of northern California on 23rd and 
snows to Nevada and Utah. The coldest day, 
from eastern Washington and Oregon aonth- 
ward, was on the 25th when the temperatnre 
fell below zero in eastern Oregon and Nevada, 
and below the freezing point in nearly all por- 
tions of California except on the immediate 
coast. By the evening of the 25th a distur- 
bance in the north attracted southerly winds 
giving warmer weather, and thla storm proved 
to be the most severe of the season, the rednoed 
air pressure at Port Angeles falling to 29.10 
inches by 3 F. M. of 26 }h, causing general pre- 
cipitation to fall in all portions of the slope by 
the evening of the 27th, and giving high winds 
to all bat the lower California stations, the 
wind reaching a maximum velocity of 33 miles 
per hoar at Fort Oanby, Wash. 

The 28th saw another storm entering the 
npper oonntry, with precipitation aa far aonth 

Jan. 9, 1892 J 

f ACIFie t^URAb f RE8S. 

as Southern California, and the development of 
a decided Btorm In Nevada, witli high winds 
over the Interior. The month oloaed with a 
disturbance on the upper coaet and precipita- 
tion general north of Central California, There 
were therefore a total of 11 storms that ad- 
vanced from the ocean and aflfeoted the weather 
of the Pacific States, not including the branch 
storms that developed from troughs extending 
southward into the Interior. 

The month can be classed as havmg been de- 
cidedly stormy and extreme in Its conditions. 
The rains of the month were as follows : 
Olympia, 13 6; Portland, 11.4; Roseburg, 12.0; 
Spokane, 3.0; Walla Walla, 1.8; Biker City. 
4 0- Red Bluff, 3 8; Sacramento, 3.3; Sin Fran- 
clBc'c, 5.6; Fresno. 4.0; Keeler. 0.3; Los An- 
treles 2 0; San Diego. 13; Carson City, 5 6; 
Winnemnoca, 1.7; Helena, 0.4; Salt Lake, 2 2; 
Tucson, 0.2; and Yuma, no rain. This is a 
defioiency of 1.4 Inches in the Sacramento val- 
ley and from 0.9 to 1.5 In Southern Cillfornia, 
but an excess of 1.7 at Fresno and 0.5 at San 
Francisco, compared to the December fall. In 
ihe western portions of Washington and Or- 
egon there was a general excess of from over 
three to nearly six inches. There were five 
Inches of snow on the ground at the close of 
the month at Spokane, 15 inches at Baker 
City, one inch at Red Bluff, from 4 to 36 Inches 
In the mountains north of Red Bluff, from 43 
to 108 inches on the summit of the Sierras In 
Eastern California, six inches at Carson City, 
four at Winnemuooa, and three at Salt Lake 

City. . ^ 

The month was from three to six degrees 
warmer than usual in the eastern portions of 
Washington and Oregon, and In western Mon- 
tana, and nearly the normal in the western 
portions of Washington and Oregon. In Cali- 
fornia. Nevada. Arizona and Utah the mean 
temperature was from four to six degrees be- 
low the normal, being four degrees below 
throughout California, except on the coast 
where It was from one to two degrees below, 
and from four to six degrees below in the In- 
terior. Robert E. Keeham, 

Chief of Division. 

Palo Alto Stook Farm. 


Choice Brood Mares! 

DIUM, BENEFIT, CONTRACTOR and other noted stallions. These mares are stinted 
to Palo Alto, 2:081; Electricity, 2:171; Azmoor, 2:20i; Whips, 2:274; Amigo, 2:16i; 
Alban, 2:24; Mac Benton. Benefit. Good Gift, etc , sons of Electioneer, Gen'l Benton, Etc. 



At 10 O'clock, on WEDNESDAY, fEB. 24, 1892. 

' Oatalogues Ready JANUARY 6tb. Will be sent upon application. 

Ig.ITiTiIJE*' cf3 OO., ^-ULCtloxxoez-s, 

Plowing by Night.— A plan has been adopt- 
ed by the (armers of Colusa county to gain 
time by plowing at night, as a means of aocel. 
erating fall plowing. The plan Is to use a 
steam plow which can be run day and night 
over the level farms Bt the rate of eight miles 
an hour. It has a traction engine, and tears 
up the ground In strips 21 feet wide, doing its 
work much more evenly and thoroughly than 
the old horse plows. The same appliances are 
used for combined harvesters and thrashers in 
the proper season. The engine is equipped 
with locomotive headlights for night work, and 
they throw a light Id the path in front of the 
machine. Additional lights throw their rays 
on the plows, which are placed In a row 
obliquely from the direction of progress, 
enabling the machine to turn sharp corners. 
Ordinarily, an engineer, a fireman and a man 
to look after the plow can operate this labor- 
saving device, which plows about 160 acres a 
day, running continuously, at a coBt of 12J 
cents per acre, including wear and tear of ma- 
chinery. Team-plowing oould not be carried 
on for less than 75 cents an acre. The ability 
to work at night enables a farmer to rush his 
work when he is pressed for time. The main 
objection to running at night is the dlifioulty 
encountered in having two diflferent crews to 
run the machine, one by day and the other by 
night. If anything goes wrong during the 
day, the night engineer usually falls heir to the 
dlflSoulty, which the other frequently neglects 
and makes no effort to repair the damage. 


The butter-tnaker whoee butter at this season is equal 
in color and flavor to that of June is the one who gets 
the best prices. 

The color can be gained easily by using Wells, Klch- 
ardson & Co.'s Improved Butter Color, and as looks make 
a great d'fterence in the way butter tastes to the con- 
sumer, the flavor will be all right if this color is used. 
Butter-makers should remember that no other make 
equals W., R. & Co.'s color in strength, natural shade, 
and freedom from taste and odor. Butter buyers and 
commissinn merchants recommend their patrons to use 
it, as they know It is always the same strength and 
shade, thus making butter in which it is used uniform in 
color the year round. If you are using a weak or in- 
ferior color, why not change to the best? 

Complimentary Samples, 

Persons receiving this paper marked arc re- 
quested to examine its contents, terms of sub- 
soription, and give it their own patronage, and 
as far as practicable aid in circulating the 
journal, and making its value more widely 
known to others, and extending its influence in 
the cause It faithfully serves. Snbscriptlon, 
paid in advance, 5 mo", $1; 10 mos., $2; 15 
mOB., $3. Extra copies mailed for 10 cents, 
If ordered soon enough. If already a inb- 
■orlbar, please show the paper to other*. 

A University Chair of Labor. — The first 
chair of labor ever instituted in £arope was de- 
creed by the Paris Municipal Council, lai-t 
July. Henry BaviUe has been named as pro- 

Unitarian Literature 

Sent free by the Channing Auxiliary of the First 
Unitarian Church, cor. Geary and Franklin Sts., San 
Francisco. Address Mrs. B. F. Giddings as above. 





Cbeap, Durable and Efi'ective. 

Pickets colored red by boiling in a chemical paint to 
preserve the wood. We make it 2 ft., 2i ft., i ft. and H 
It. high. Send for circulars and price list to 


14 & 16 Fremont St San Francisco. 





Beat and StroBsent Exploslven In the World. 

CTTJIDSOIsr :po"wideii,. 

The only Reliable and Efficient Powder for Stninr* and Bank Blastlne. Railroad Contractors and Farmers 
use no other. As others IMITATE onr Olant Powder, so do they Jadson, by mannractarlny 
an Inferior article. 

The Giant Powder Co. having built Black Powder Worlts, with all the latest improvements, st Clipper Gap, Placer 
County, known as THE CI4IPPER MIl.IiS, offer tliis powder aod guarantee it the best. 

CAPS and FUSE at liowest Rates. 

THE GIANT POWDER COMPANY, 30 California St., San Francisco. 

St. Albans Tread Horse -Powers! 

The above cut shows a section of the Judson 2-ft. 
Rabbit-Proof Fence. By stretching barbed wires on the 
posts above it, it will turn any stock whatever. 


Min ' ' 


Before Buying a Sewing Machine. 
It is the leader in practical progress. Send for price lie) 
J. W. EVANS. 29 Post St., S. F. 



The German Savings and Loan Society, 

626 Oalifornla Street. 

a dividend his been declared at the rate of five and 
four-tenths (5 4-10) per cent per annum on Terra De- 
posits, and four and one-half (4j) per cent per annum on 
Ordinary Deposits, payable on and after SATURDAY, 
January 2, 1892. 

GEORGE TOURNY, Secretary. 


Especially adapted for 

Driving Cream Separators, 

Guaranteed to produce 


To wear longer, run evener, and give better 
satisfaction than any other make. 

The only Horse-Power that we sell with our 
De Laval separators and guarantee the whole 
outfit to give entire satisfaction. 

There are nearly one hundred of these 

Horse Power Cream-Separator Outfits 

In this State to-day and all doing well. 
Send for Catalogue. 

G. G. WICKSON & CO.. 3 & 5 Front St., San Francisco. 

346N. Main St., Los Angeles. 141 Front St., Portland. 



Fly-Wheel Walking Beam for Pamplng I.arge Qa ntltles <if Water 
Send for Catalogue and Price List. 


Beaie Street, S. F. 

S You ought to see it. It is a new oue of the famous "PLANET JR. "machines, — 
5 which no well-regulated farmer ever tries to get along without. There are other S 
S novelties described in our 1892 general catalogue, now ready. Write for it. S 

= s. L. ALLEN & CO., 1107 Market St., Philadelphia, Pa. = 



[Jan. P, 1892 




Nprsbry Shipments. — Biggi Arqut: Oae 
baa ooiy lu call at mo aepot nowadsyd to note 
the importance of the nnrsery bnalnesD in this 
section . Almost a oontlnaal string of wagons 
loaded with stook have been loading oars since 
Dao. 24th, and thousands of trees are being 
shippba ri)^ht along. We took occasion to ex- 
amine a carload of Jane bads, and we found 
every tree perfect in shape and not a poor root 
among them. One carload jast shipped con- 
tained about 20,000 Jane buas. The nursery- 
men will make big returns this year. 

Splendid Oranoes. — Biggs Argxu: While 
at tUo residence ul A. M. fitts Saturaay after- 
noon, oar attention was called to the splendid 
crop of oranges now hanging on the trees in the 
dooryard, There are 19 trees in all, a number 
of them budded trees and jast beginning to 
bear. These trees were well laden with large 
fruit, but the trees that attracted special atten- 
tion were five or six large seedlings, whose 
branches were simply overloaded. In fact, we 
noticed that several limbs were broken from 
the excessive weight. On one tree, we judged 
that there must have been at least 1000 large 
oranges, and Mrs. Pitts informed us that sev- 
eral hundred bad been picked from the same 
tree. We have seen no Urger or more thrifty 
trees anywhere in California, nor have we tasted 
finer flavored oranges elsewhere than those 
grown by Mr. Pitts. Ths land surrounding 
Biggs will grow splendid oranges, and, a few 
years hence, will show hundreds of acres in 
orange trees. 

Contra OoBt». 

Farm Notes from the River Islands.— 
Tyler inlana Cjr, Auiiocu Ledger: Cjntraclor 
J. D. Wightman and his gang are busy at Voor- 
mao camp building the dairy-house and barns 
for a large butter-making company that has 
leased a tract of 200U acres from H, V.iorman 
on Tyler Island, which lies between Bouldin 
Island and Andrews Island. Oa the north and 
west it is bouuded by G-torglona slongb, on the 
east by Saodgrasa slough, and on the south by 
the North Mokelumne river. The Island is vir- 
gin soil, never having been considered large 
enough to pay for reclaiming till taken hold of 
by its present owner, who is a San Francisco 
millionaire. Around the borders of the island 
is a strip of land about three chains wide that 
appsars as though it wjs formed by the washing 
in and lodging of sliokens. It abounds in trees 
of various varieties and a heavy undergrowth 
of blackberries. In summertime here can be 
foand thouBands of tons of wild berries. This 
strip is the higher part of the island, and by 
far the firmest, as the rest is old regulation 
peat, and grown up to toles of such height that 
a horseman is easily lost, and a man on foot 
can only get out by good luck. These are to be 
burned as soon as the rains have wet the peat 
soil snflfioient to insure against its also being 

Thorough Cultivation. — Martinez OazHle: 
Alhambra valley tias a State reputation for 
prodaotiveness, but it is not oaly its rich soil 
and the warm thermal belt in which it Is sit- 
uated that causes such a generous yield, hut 
btoiuse these great advantages are supplemen- 
ted by a system of cultivation so thorough that 
all the moisture and nutrition in the ground 
goes directly to the support of the plant. 
The Alhambra orchards and vineyards, now 
under the charge of Mr. John Mnir, afford a 
splendid example of what intelligent cultiva- 
tion can accomplish. Four or five times dar- 
ing the season the ground is thoroughly culti- 
vated until it becomes as fine and friable as 
possible. No moisture is lost by evaporation 
and the crops proclaim the generous attention 
they receive. Toe fruit and grapes are not 
only very superior in siz? and quality, bat the 
yield is enormons. This season there has been 
shipped from the vineyards including those 
packed, 560 tons of grapes, all bringing the 
highest market prices. 0! course many other 
vlneyardista also understaad and practice 
thorough cultivation, but we mention this in 
stance because we have the figures to illustrate 
so f ally the profits resulting from the system. 

Laroe Hogs, — Sasanvllle Mail: S. G. Alex- 
anaer uf Autelope Valley butchered ten bogs 
lately, the combined weight of which was 1670 
pounds, or an average of 167 pounds eaon. 
They were Poland China stock and less than 
eight months old, and there ought to be money 
in raising them, 

Los ADKelea. 
Walnut Statistics. — Djwney Champion: 
Througa the oourcesy of tbeir secretary, Mr. 
J. A. Montgomery, we are enabled to give the 
names of members of the Lo* Nietos and 
Ranohito Walnut-Growers' Asiooiation, num- 
ber of sacks of walnuts each had, the weight, 
and also amount of money each received for 
the same, Their aggregate receipts were as 
follows: Walnuts, sacks, 6619, 702 649 pouuds 
$58 020. 

Xebb Planting.— Progress; Sath Richards 
will add 4U00 more orange trees to his mam 
moth orcbard at N >rtb Pomona. George 
Raorer will plant 2000 lemon trees on the 
Sycamore tract, northeast of Pomona, H. 
Mosgrove of Los Angeles has given orders to 
begin preparations for planting 2200 orange 
trees on bis land in the soatheastern part of 
Pomona, E, T. Fenton, recently from Ann 

Arbor, Mich., is about to plant six acres to 
White Adriatic figs. John D. Cison has al- 
ready bought 1000 lemon trees for planting. 
S. N. Androus will do much more orange plant- 
ing next spring. It is thought that over 25 
aores of olives will be planted here in March. 
J. E. Packard will do a lot more planting 
uf lemon and orange trees this aeason. J. A. 
Packard will set out about 1800 more orange 
trees at his Lordsburg ranch. John Woy has 
contractad for 14,000 trees (mostly citrus) from 
J. A. Driffill, to be planted for Crawford Bros., 
east of Pjmona. T. D. HoUaday is going to 
plant 25 acres to oranges, walnuts and deoidu- 
ons fruits, for a friend. 

Profit in Lemons. — Pomona Progress: 
Daarte ti.>s a 15-year-old lemon tree tbat has 
yielded 24 boxes of lemons since Jtnuary, 1891, 
and each box sold at an average price of $2.10. 
A few ha\e brought $3 70 a box. The total 
canb earned by the tree in one year is pat at 
$57. Lemon culture never bad such consid- 
eration in horticultural journals as now. 
There is no question that the lemon will prove 
to be one of the best paying trees we 
have. The new methods of curing them are 
bringing California lemons up to the standard 
of the imported article, and the growers begin 
to understand the art of making lemons mar- 
ketable. The fruit oomes along at all seasons 
of the year, and people who are fortunate 
enough to possess a lemon orohard have realized 
that they have a bonanza. 


A Large Area to fie. Reclaimed. — Los 
BinoB Enttrprise: Tne prospects of the Suneet 
Irrigation District seem favorable. A survey 
has been commenced, and an assessment has 
been made on the stook. This canal will open 
to cultivation over 400,000 acres of produotive 
land, which is at present worthless, except for 
sheep-grazing, on account of having no water. 
This canal will irrigate one of the largest dis- 
tricts in the state, and the capital stook will be 


San Benito Colt Stakes. — Silloas City 
Index: Tbe San Benito Agricultural Associa- 
tion has made arrangements for trotting colt 
stakes, open to Monterey and >S>n Benito coun- 
ties, as follows: Two-year old stakes, for foals 
of 1891; trotting, twain three; to be decided 
in 1893. Eatranoe, $.50; 810 upon nomination, 
$10 July 1, 1892, $10 July 1, 1893, $20 thirty 
uays prior to race; added money, $100. Three-, 
year-old stakes; trotting, three In five; to be 
decided in 1S92. Entrance, $50; $10 apon 
nomination, $15 July I, 1892, and .S25 thirty 
days prior to race; added money, $I0U. The 
third payment of $100 is due Jjinnaiy 1, 1892. 
on the futurity stitkes for foals of 1890. All 
stakei divided into four moneys, and entries 
close January 15. 1892. 


Cold Weather and Fruit. — Sinta Ana 
Blade, Die. 30: A visit has been made to the 
various lemon and orange orchards in the vi- 
cinity of this city and Tustin and Orange. 
This vtlley for the past three or four days has 
been visited by an unprecedented cold snap of 
weather, and it was to ascertain whether any 
great amount of injary has been sustained, that 
inquiries were made. From all sources it was 
generally stated that although at two o'clock 
last Saturday morning the thermometer showed 
26 degrees above zero, yet there was hope that 
toe green fruit and young trees might pass tbe 
ordeal unscathed. As in the case where the 
ground is wet, or where water has been allowed 
to stand around tbe trees, no damage has been 
sastained in such places. The water takes up 
the ice and thus protects the tree and fruit. 

Active Plowing. — Lincoln Cor. Newcastle 
News: Firmera are having a good season for. 
plowing and seeding. A large acreage will be 
sown in western Placer. 


Hop Notes. — Newi: Growers are beginning 
to prepare lOr the coming season. Those using 
temporary poles are hauling them from the 
field, and tbe yards generally are being cleared 
of old vines. Many fields will this year be pro 
vided with a permanent system of trelliaing, 
cedar poles and wire or twine being used. 
This, together with the many improvements 
already planned for new kilns, drying rooms 
and necessary conveniences, is indicative of the 
prosperous condition of the hop farmers and 
the faith they have in tbe future of the in- 
dostry. In three or four weeks tbe active work 
in the yards will commence, and there will be 
00 cessation until 1892 bops are in the bale. 
Jaouary will be taken advantage of by growers 
in making the necessary additions, improve- 
ments and changes in their buildings. 

San Bernardino. 
Preventing Damage by Frost — Redlands 
Facts: Tne Southern Oali/ornian of Fallbrook, 
San D .ego Co. describes a method in vogue in that 
section to prevent damage by frost in vineyards 
and orchards when the weather seems to be 
threatening. The plan commonly adopted is 
the construction of heaps of brushwood, say of 
prunings and surplus vine cuttings, at certain 
intervals around or within the vineyard area. 
To Increase the density of the smoke, pieces of 
turf, green weeds and tar are added, when 
available, and by this meani too, the consump- 
tion of brushwood is eoonomizad. The object 
is to disseminate the smoke as thoroughly as 
possible through the orohard or vineyard, and 
it is thought that its effect is both to prevent 
frost from setting and to save the vegetation 

from damage by too sudden contact with the 
sun's rays after the freeze. 

Our Bio Freeze. — Rsdlands Citrograph, 
Jan. 2: The past two weeks have averaged 
about the oddest ever experienced in this sec- 
tion. The lowest thermometrioal measure- 
ment was on Sitnrday morning last. Reports 
were promptly received here of temperatures 
ranging from 19 to 26 degrees from the differ- 
ent orange-gruwing localities. Rsdlands re- 
ports from 23 to 26 degrees, the lowest being 
on the low ground next the river, as was to be 
expected. Riverside reports the lowest, 19 de- 
grees as the coldeDt and 26 degrees for the 
highrat. The damage done tu the growing crop 
will not be very heavy — not nearly so much as 
was at first feared, The crop will not be re- 
duced more than 20 per cent, and it is hoped 
that this estimate Is too high. * * * The 
losses in nursery stock are more serious, 
There are many places in R3dlands and High- 
lands where the nursery stjck escaped all in- 
jary; others lost heavily, some nurserymen 
placing their loss at a very high percentage. 
As is usual, the frost ran in belts or waves, 
with no apparent reasons to be deduced. This 
big freezs, as it will long be called, emphasizjs 
the fact that there are even in Southern Cili- 
fornia, many places where orange-growing is 
hazardous and should be indulged in with cau- 
tion. It also marks places that possess pecul- 
iar advantages by reason of exemption from 
killing frosts. Take it all in all, this spell of 
cold weather lends force to the fact that 
orange-growing Is a marked success in this 
great valley. Wa have jast passed through the 
heaviest freeze that has visited this section 
since white man's occupancy. No bearing trees 
have been killed. Vary few have been frost- 
bitten enough to set them back, even. The 
young trees are slightly injured, and some 
seedbed stook is killed, The damage to the 
ripening crop is not so great as was done by the 
winds, and we will yet ship almost as big a orop 
as that of last year. Tbe orange grower oan 
take courage and go forward. Frost belts have 
again been defined, and they oan be avoided. 
The situation is full of hope, and we look to 
see orange-planting in suitable localities go for- 
ward with renewed and increased vigor. The 
lesson of the frost will be heeded. 

Santa Barbara. 

Benefits of Deep Plowing. — Santa Maria 
Timet: Our land is not new any more. It is 
entirely subdued. It will not fire vegetation 
as it used to do. It needs stirring up to bring 
a good orop. We have very rich land here but 
it is jast like it is everywhere else on earth; 
continued cropping without putting anything 
back wears it out. It might really be well to 
put on a little manure but still, the sign is hard- 
ly right to talk on that subject, and as we have 
only used from two to four inches of too soil, 
jast break it up good and deep and it will pro- 
duce just as well or better than ever before. 
Oar farmers are cot all 50 years behind the 
tiaies, and those who are not, are making a 
success of their calling. Our beangrowers ap- 
preciate deep plowing. These who have gone 
into summer crops and diversified farming 
have crawled out of the old ruts and it paya 
just as well to plow for wheat as for any other 
orop. There is one vital point which oar bean- 
growers aod other advocates of deep plowing 
have learned, and that is that deep plowing 
should be done early in tbe season, aod as thti 
summer advances, they caltivate shallower and 
shallower, thus attracting and holding the 
moisture olose to the surface late in the season. 
Now that we have had n good rain and farming 
will commence in earnest, we would suggest to 
put the plows down, you cannot go too deep. 
It will make more wheat, more oorn, more and 
better grain of every kind. It will make more 
beans, more fruit, more money. It will bring 
you more satistaotion, comfort and happiness 
than you will get out of a whole lifetime of the 
old style so-called "Ctlifornia scratching," 
Santa Oiara. 
Vineyard Notes — Cipertiuo Cor. S. J. 
Mercury: Klward Ls Qiesne is digging his 
vineyard ap, he having pianted the ground oc- 
cupied by the vines to prunes. This is only one 
of many inetinces where vines are being dug 
out to give place to fruit trees. Among those 
who have become disgusted with the prevail- 
ing low prices for grapes and wine, I might 
mention John Stilling, who has planted olives 
among his vines; both Ed and Will Stilling, 
who have planted theirs to fruit; J. W. 
Stewart; the parties who purchased the Spad- 
diag place, and several others. Taking tuese 
faots into consideration, that while the acreage 
has not been increased by 100 aores In the past 
three or four years several hundred acres hav.-i 
been uprooted, the wioe ptoduot of this county 
will be materially reduced, and though C. J. 
Wetmore says this county has 4,000,000 gillous 
of wine this year the writer wouid like tu lay a 
wager with him that the cellars do not contain 
3 000,000 gallons of wine of this year's crop. 
So if his estimate of other oonnties is as reli- 
able, why the sooner the ofiice he fills is abol- 
ished the better. Again he puts this year'it 
vintage at 14.600,000 gallons, while two well 
known growers of this county who traveled 
through the wine-prodacing counties plaoed it 
at about 4 000,000 gallons lest. If this de- 
crease continues, which from present appear- 
ance it must for several years before it can re 
cover even if an impetus was given to this in- 
dustry in tbe near future, as it would necesei- 
tate some four years before the vines would 
give any return, it seems pretty evident that 
some of those palatial wine cellars of S»n Fran- 

cisco will remain idle for the necessary wine 
to fill them, or else be turned to some other 
purpose, perhaps to the manufacture of bogus 
wine, and this is one thing that the Viticnlt> 
ural Commiasion should try to prevent, 


Pruning in Order.— Rockville Cor. Dixon 
Tribune: Pruning is now In full awing, and 
the orcnards present a winter appearance. The 
weather has been very propitious for pruning 
operations so far, and as a sequence, work Is in 
advance of previous years, lu'iications angar 
well for a good crop next year, and, according 
to reports, a higher figure will be realized for 
fruit next season, 


Cherry Culture.— Petaluma Cor. S. F. Gall: 
Henry W, Himmel, who has a fine ranoh on 
the Garden Valley road, about seven miles 
northwest of Petaluma, has turned his attention 
quite extensively to cultivation of the cherry, 
recognizing the superior quality of his locality 
for the growth of this frUit. He says: "Act- 
ing upon this thought, three years ago I set out 
20 aores of the Royal Ana or white cherry. 
Laat year I planted 20 acres more, and thia 
year I calculate to put out about 600 trees. 
Wbat'I consider as phenomenal is there are no 
'short or 'half crops. Of course the yield 
some years will be larger than others, but 
every year produces well." Mr. Hammel oon- 
tenda that the cherry oan be successfully culti- 
vated in but few localities, and his particolar 
section forms one of tbe prominent few. 


A Thrifty Tree.— Yuba City Farmer: An 
orange tree in the yard of J. K. P. Elwell in 
Yaba City has a full yield of large ripe oranges 
of this season's orop, and hanging among them 
are a number of oranges of the previous year 
in a good attte of preservation. Oa the same 
tree ia a lemon branch in full hearing, with ripe 
fruit and also beautiful blossoms. The tree 
presents a very striking appearance. 


Orchard Items,- Hanlord Sentinel: Many 
corporations in which outside cspiial has taken 
stock have been formed, among which we may 
mention the Binnar Vineyard Co., wbioh has 
320 acres of vineyard; the Grangeville Orchard 
aod Vineyard Co., of 160 acres; the Sunset 
Vineyard C)., of 200 acres; the Gordon Vine- 
yard Co., of 240 acres; the Del Monte Vineyard 
Co., of 171 acres; the Armona Orchard and 
Vineyard Co., 32U acres, and others, in all of 
which Ban Francisco capital ia interested. 
There have been many large tracts of fine land 
set to fruit during the year, some of them in 
half-section pieces, bat still the small tracts 
planted are of such a number as to popularize 
the small holding idea. The plowing up of 
land heretofore devoted to pasturage and 
meadow has made bay and feed scarce, hence 
hay has been given a good market, and the al- 
falfa meadow has been made a source of profit 
for hay this year far in excess of any previoas 
period, one average alfalfa field yielding $26 
per acre net for hay and still a good pasture 
for the winter left. Many farmers who have 
planted young vineyards last winter have 
raised an abundant orop of corn between the 
rows. Others have planted beans and other 
crops, and in this manner the land has been 
made to pay the expenses of the first year to 
vines. 'The yield of the raisin vines this season 
was most abundant, old vines well cultivated 
yielding 90 to 100 pounds of green fruit to the 
vine, equal to 30 pounds of cured raisins. 

Mineral Fruit Kino Co, — Visalia Delta: 
It was staled in last week's Delia that the 660- 
aore ranch owned by Richaro Chatten, has been 
sold to a syndicate ot San Jose fruitgrowers, 
headed by Geo. A, Fleming, The purchasers 
of the ranch have organized the Mineral King 
Fruit Co., and have filed articles of incorpora- 
tion in the County Clerk's cfiBce. The objects 
of the corporation are to oo a general irnit 
business. Two hundred acres of the ranch will 
be planted to fruit trees this winter. 

Tobacco Growing, — Visalia Timen: George 
Birkenbauer says growing tobaooo in California 
is an entirely different matter from what it ia 
in the Etitern States. An experienced tobacco 
grower in Pennsylvania would have many 
things to anlearn before he could make a sno- 
oess in California, Tbe seed can be secured at 
the Agricultural D;pirtmeot at Washington. 
About COOO plants should be put out on an acre 
ot grouud. Tbe seed should be sown in a hot 
bed aboat the first of February, and if the 
plants are large enough, should be transplanted 
in May. As to whether be thinks tobacco can 
be snccessfully grown in the Talare valley, Mr. 
Birkenbauer says he Is strong enough in tbe 
faith to put out 20 aores this year. He has or- 
ders for a large number of plants, that will be 
planted out by other people. 

A Large Orchard. — Visalia Times: Rich- 
ard Chatten closed the sale of his ranoh, four 
miles east of town, consisting of 660 aores, to 
George A. Fleming, Charles Fleming, W, L, 
Woodrow, T. Wood, T. W. Hobson, T. 8. 
Whipple, E. B. Lewis and C. K, Fleming. All 
these are prominent business men of Sin Jose. 
They will begin at once and plant 200 acres to 
fruit this spring, mostly prunes. What is 
known as the Jacobs fruit ranch, now owned 
by the Fleming Fruit Company of Chicago, ad- 
j }ins the Chatten property, jast purchased, on 
(he ea^t, and contains 440 acres. This ranoh 
has 60 acres of six year-old trees, consisting of 
peaches, apricots and pears, with a few acres of 
assorted varieties. There is also growing in 
the nnrsery on the raooh, olives, figs, navel 

Jan. 9, 1892.] 

f ACIFfO I^URAId press. 


oranges, 39 kinds of apples, 24 kinds of pears, 
etc., making 150 different kinds of frait, be- 
sides the finest collectioo of roses of the great- 
est variety. The old orchard on this ranch, 
planted by James Houston some 25 years ago, 
has been neglected for some years until re- 
cently. It is now bearing well, thai dispelling 
the idea that the orchards in this country are 
short lived. The Broder ranch, purchased 
about a year ago by George A. Fleming and 
others, contains 240 acres, and is already in 
fruit. The three ranches contain a total of 
1340 acres, and will all be in fruit at an early 
day. The companies contemplate extensive 
improvements, in drying houses, fruit-packing 
houses, and probably a cannery. These will be 
constructed as rapidly as needed. In -a con- 
versation with George A. Fleming, he stated 
that they intend planting a great variety of 
peaches, so as to have fruit ripening at all 
times of the fruit season. He says trees here 
make as great a growth in three years as they 
do in five years in any other place he has seen. 
"In selecting soil for fruit purposes, tree soil 
is the best. S)il which produces the oak will 
produce any other, tree. Plant anything that 
goes Eist, and yon get the same freight rates 
as San Jose or Los Angeles, Southern Oali- 
fornia is shipping large quantities of vegetables 
East, for which the freight is very low. Cab- 
bages, cauliflowers, asparagus, lettuce, onions, 
radishes, etc., would be a good paying winter 
crop here for shipment East." 

Selma Apples. — Enterprise: Litely we had 
occasion to mention the fine specimens of Red 
Warrior apples grown by Prof. Sanders and the 
remarkable growth of wood from a March bud 
of the same variety of tree. On Deo. 30th, A, 
C. Eberbard, who lives one mile east of Selma, 
sola a wagonload of as fine apples as oan be 
grown anywhere to A. F. Brown, The fruit is 
of large size, without a blemish of any kind 
and entirely free from that enemy to apple and 
pear culture in many localities, the codlin moth. 
Last month Mr, LaOrange brought a load of 
tine pearmains to town from his place north of 
Helms. The fruit was of superior excellence. 
Mr. Bariean has raised as fine apples on his 
place near town as are to be had anywhere, no 
matter where grown. These are noticeable in 
stances among many that conld be cited to 
prove that apples of fine quality can be growa 
here, and corrects the general impression that 
the climate of the valley is too tropical for best 
results in the growth of this fruit. The excel- 
lence of the fruit noted is no doubt largely due 
to the elevation of the valley and the abund- 
ance of water. 

Good Yield of Corn — Hanford Sentinel: 
S. F. Diardoif broughc In specimen ears of corn 
raised on his "alkali salt grass sod " which he 
broke up and planted to raisin grapes last win- 
ter. The stand of vines is nearly perfect, and 
at the last cultivation last summer, he planted 
corn between the grape rows. The ears he 
brought in averaged 19 rows on each cob and 
50 kernels to the row, making 950 kernels to 
tbe ear. Two ears had over lOOO kernels on, or 
an increase from the planting of ten hundred 
fold. There ia no doubt but industrious appli- 
cation to or>rn raiding in Lucerne would develop 
one of the best corn-producing sections in the 
United States. 


Manipulation of Walnots. — iFVee Preat: 
A mcil known walnut grower of this conoty 
was talking about walnuts the other day and 
went on to tell how the market was worked to 
the grower's detriment. "At the sale of the 
Lot NeitoE walnuts this fall," said he, "two 
buyers were in the field from Los Angeles. 
Oae of them represented a houde which usually 
tries to get in on every product, and the other 
was a young man representing most of bis own 
capital. The young man outbid the other on a 
forty oar-load lot, by a fraction of a cent a 
pound, and he was given the walnnts. The 
other man, in order to teach those groTvers a 
leaeon, went home and sent word East and to 
those in the business, not to buy walnuts as 
there was a big stock and prices would fall 
down. As a result the purchaser of the nuts 
could not dispose of his buy, and as he was 
unable to make the proper advance the Los 
Nait'is growers are still in poeesslun of their 
crop. OF course this is not a usual case, but it 
goes to show bow onptino'^led some oommis- 
bion men can get." 

Crop Stati.stics. — Vantnra Free Prest: The 
following is the amonncof grain raised in Ven- 
tura during the year 1891: Beans, 1800 oar- 
loads; barley, 450,000 cds.; wheat, 50,000 ctls.; 
corn, 30,000 ctls.; potatoes, 300 carloads; wal- 
nuts, all varieties, 10 carloads; apricots, dried, 
40 carloads; prunes, dried, 6 carloads. 


Want.s Coyotes Exterminated. — Wood- 
land Democrat: At the annual meeting of the 
Y jIo Co. Wool-Growers Association at Eiparta, 
on December the 26th, G. W. Scott made some 
very interesting remarks. He pointed out tbe 
good the Association had accomplished, and 
predicted that tbe 280 coyotes which it has 
been instrumental in slaying, if left unmoles- 
ted, would by this time have increaxed to 
one thousand. He said if they were not wholly 
ezt-<rminater), they would destroy chickens, 
turkeys, geese and hogs as well. He pointed 
ont that sheep-raising is becoming a paying 
Industry, and every year the percentage of 
lambs saved is growing larger. In conclusion, 
Mr, Scott urged the members to stand by tbe 
AiRooiation until the work of exterminating 
the coyotes is completed. 

Capons in California 

EDITOR.S Press:— I should think the finest 
capuna in vhe world conld be raised in Califor- 
nia, From what I learn of the climate, I 
should judge that in a large portion of the 
State, ouickens can be hatched successfully un- 
der hens most any month in the year. If this 
is so, it Is especially desirable, as one could 
then have capons maturing at all months in the 
year, and thus ba in a position to supply mar- 
kets continually, which is not done now. At 
present, capons are only to be found in markets 
during the late winter and early spring months, 
but there is a demand for them the year around 
which should be supplied. 

From the. fact of my having sent so many 
caponlzing instruments to California, I should 
judge tbe work was receiving considerable at- 
tention there, and that the practice was gradu- 
ally being adopted. One man writes me from 
there that he caponized 500 cockerels last year 
with perfect success, and sold them at very 
profitable prices in San Francisco. 

In performing the work, it is almost impossi- 
ble to prevent having more or less slips; per 
haps one bird in 10 or 15 would be about the 
way they would run. While the slips are not 
quite 10 valuable as the capons, and do not 
grow to quite so large a siz9, yet their size and 
value far exceeds that of tbe common chicken, 
and they find a quick sale. Capons in the cli 
mate of New Eagland require from 10 to 12 
months from date of hatoh to develop their 
full weight and reach their best condition, but 
with the climate that is to be found in Califor 
nia, I should think that they would grow more 
rapidly, especially during the winter months, 
and be in condition for market by tbe time 
they were eight months old. It is the cold 
and damp weather that we have Eist that re 
tards the growth of all our poultry, and this 
element does not exist in many parts of Ck'i 
fornia. To those people who have never prac 
ticed caponlzing, I would say that the opera- 
tion is of the molt simple nature, and, with 
the proper tools, can be performed by a boy ten 
years old. Of course it is like everything else, 
the morp one does the faster he oan do it, 
but so far as requiring any experience to 
do the work, it is entirely unneoepsary, as 
the tools now mada do it perfectly and only 
need to be guided, California certainly offers 
exceptionally fine opportunities to raise mag- 
nificent capons, and every one who keeps poul- 
try there should caponlze their birds, whether 
they intend them for market or home oonsamp- 
tion. George Q. Dow. 

North Eppinq. N. FT. 

i» I ^ 3sr o s. 


Tone, Toncb, Workmanship and Dnrability, 

liALTLMORE, 22 a. id 24 Eusi B»ltiiiiore Street. 
New York, 148 Fifth Ave. Washington, 817 Market Space. 

Oldest Music House. 




3« O'Farrell Mt.. N. F. 


A.l.Bancrorr diCo. 

303 Sutter St.,S.F. 

BusU & Gerts I'lanos 

Parlor Orpriius 
Installnieuts Rentals 



uia St., corner Webb, branch, 1700 Market St., cor. 
Polk. For the half year ending with December 31, 1891, 
a dividend has been declared at the rate of five and four- 
tenths (5 410) per cent per annum on term deposi s, and 
tour and one-naif (4j) per cent per ainura on ordina-y 
deposits, free of taxes, payable on and after SATURDAY, 
January 2, 1892. LOVELL WHITE, Cashier. 


The regular Annual Meeting of the Stockholders of 
the Grangers' Bank of California, for the election of 
Directors for the ensuing year, will take place at the 
office of the Bank, in the City of San Francisco, State of 
California, on Tuesday, the 12th day of January, 1892, 
at one o'clock, P. M. 

For Grangers' Bank of California, 

San Francisco, Dec. 14, 1891. Cashier and Manager. 

Practical Horticulturist of California 
experience can have steady employ- 
ment on one of the largest fruit 
farms in San Diego Count} , consist- 
ing of Oranges, Lemons, Olives, 
Apricots and Grapes. Only competent, wide-awake 
parties need apply. Address, with references, E. M. 
FRANK, 216 California Street, San Francisco, or F. F. 
ADAMS, Fallbrook, Cal. 




farm, by a married man with five years experience 
in growing and picking raisins. Wife can take charge 
of packing department, being a first-class packer. Pref< r 
taking position January 1, 1892, but can oome at any 
time desired. Best of reference given as to capacity, 
honesty, etc. For particulars, address C. N., Box A 
this office. 


or tS p«r dos. dellvared. I. F. WHITE ft 80N, Pemooa, Oal. 

This Refers 
To An Article 

Of acknowledged superiority in any capacity and under all 
conditions. The plow is a very important article on the 
farm, and those who select wisely will accept none but the 
Oliver Chilled Plow, as it has neither peer nor competitor 



Plows have reached a larger sale, have proved more popular and given 
better satisfaction than any other plows on the face of the globe. 





60 cents on the dollar, 
assorted (3 black), 65 cents dozsn 

Stock-takins la^t week has turned up a good many bar- 
giirs where we have too much goods of kind, or too little 
to keep it on the regular li^t, or out of style and reduced to 
close them out. 

Our stock must be kjpt all 0. K., at whatever sacrifice. 
1891 goO'le and overetn k must give wav to new stock. 

Over 100,000 Blood's, Turney's, Warren's, or Baylis' best 
sewing needits at 2i cents a paper, 40 for $1.00, all s zee ex- 
cept 6; also i to 8, 1 to 5, 5 to 10, and 3 to 9 mixed darners or 
yarn needles at same price. 

Lar^e or small coat, drc«e or other buttons, real value is 
from 15 cents to #1,00 per dozen, go now at 2i, 5, 10 per 
dozen, or 25 to 35 per gross, assorted to suit. Mostly black, 
laie styles, but we have over 2000 gross an i shall let them go 
at any price. 

h'WISS embroidery, 2, 2J, 3, 3J lnch edging, beautiful and 
costly, has sold at 25 to 50. now 12^ cents, and nairow ones at 
5 cent.*. Fincy iinon spia'^h rs (8ami»li-8) and other linens i*t 
But'on-hole twist, assortel (3 black), 25 in a b x a', 37 cents. Sewing siU, KO yard spools, 

Ladies' handkerchiefs, several 100 dozen at one-half price, fine goods. 

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by freight. Add for postage. Ask for complete list, Address 




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Is the Largest Illustrated and Leading Agricul- 
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3 mos. or 82.40 a year (till further notice). DEWEY A 
CO., Publlahcrs, 230 Uarket Street, Sao FranclMO. 



[Jan. 9, 1892 


Redlands, San Bernardino Co 

We give herewith a view of one of the pret- 
tiest hotels in Southern CiUforni*. Its loca- 
tion for salnbrity and view is not exceeded by 
any other hotel or private residence in all the 
State. The view therefore is more extensive, 
more plctureeqae and grander than we have 
ever seen from any other locality. It is fin- 
ished and furnished after the best taste of 
modern art and etyle, and has recently been 
put in complete order and is now, we believe, 
open for visitors and permanent boarders. This 
hotel is most beaatifnlly located, just out of 
the business center ot Redlands, with which it 
is connected by a street railroad. There is no 
need of ascending to the roof to get a view; 
but, standing upon the balcony, which it will 
bi seen from the finely executed view we give 
of the hotel, the observer may look westward 
20 or 30 miles and see before him the most 
beautiful valley In Cilifornia, gently falling 
away to the west, with a fringe of grand old 
mountains snow-covered a part of the year, and 
shutting In the valley from the north, while 
the Boutborn edge Is bordered with irregular, 
broken hills, beautiful in contour, throughout 
the same extent. The valley itself Is beauti- 
fully studded here and there with pretty little 
cities and villages, surrounded with grove after 
grove of orange trees, which are just now 
changing their deep green to a beautiful golden 
color, and contrasting strangely with the enow- 
oovered mountains on the right. Turning now 
to the north and east, the observer beholds Old 
San Bernardino and its companion giant, "Old 
Bildy," both at this time covered with their 
winter mantle of snow, and rising far above all 
snrronnding heights. We know of no other 
place on the broad continent where a view can 
be obtained so mixed with grandeur and beauty, 
or capable of so thrilling the soul with such 
pleasant delights of semitropical scenery and 
mountain grandenr. The panorama Is one 
which it Is worth a journey acroae the conti- 
nent to behold and rent the eyes opon for even 
the briefest period. 

The Town of Redlands 
Is located at the foot of a range of mountains, 
apon an extensive mesa, reaching ont into a 
gradually descending plain, which extends to 
the basin of the Santa Ana river. Its elevation 
and surroundings are such as to render it much 
more free from irost than perhaps any other lo- 
cality In the State . Probably no other town 
In the sonthern portion of the State can show 
an equal amonnt of prosperity. It is, perhaps, 
the only cne which has never gone back from 
the boom times of three or fonr years ago. 
Like all others of the orange-growing locali- 
ties In Southern Ctlifornia, it felt the boom 
and profited by it. But when the boom came 
to an end in other localities, Redlands kept 
right along with its steady legitimate growth 
and improvements, and has continued to do so 
until the present day. There are several rea- 
sons for this result. First, it has the best, 
largest and most nnobjectiouable water fa- 
cilities in the State, It derives its water from 

The Bear Valley Reservoir, 

Which is fed directly from the snow upon the 
mountains by which it is surrounded. Before 
the daoD was built, the site of the reservoir and 
its feeders were pract'c%lly dry in the summer. 
Henos no riparian rigbts were either Invaded 
or threatened. On the contrary, all the water, 
which is stored up in that reservoir during 
the winter, is gradually drawn off in the 
summer, and by its seepag'; from the many 
thousands of acres which it serves to irrigate, 
its helps keep np a fuller supply of water in 
the rivers below it, and is therefore a blessing 
even to those who are not directly benefited 
by it. Were the water with which the Bear 
valley reservoir is filled not restrained and 
held at that point for convenient nse, nearly 
every gallon would find its way to the sea in 
the early summer, before irrigation becomes 
necessary and thus be lost for all utility. This 
reservoir is, we believe, the largest artificial 
irrigator on the continent. 

A Senseleea Excitement 

Appears to be studiously kept np for some rea- 
son or other, nobody knows why. In regard to 
the safety of this dam, and appeals are period- 
ically made against the danger to be appre- 
hended from its breaking away, The writer is 
personally familiar with the locality, and with 
all the particulars connected with the con- 
struction of the dam. Fie has also conversed 
freely not only with Mr. F, £. Brown, under 
whose direction It was constructed, but also 
with other engineers who have visited it, and 
who are familiar with all its details. The dam 
has now stood tirmly for seven years, with 
nearly a full volume of water behind it, It has 
also been exposed to storm, ice and even earth- 
qaake, wichout manifesting the least sign of 
weakness; and to prevent any poseib'lity of ac- 
cident, competent men are kept day and night 
within a few feet of it, ready and fully prepared 
to guard againet any possible danger from float- 
ing objsots which might injure It, and to re- 
duce its vo ume of water promptly, should 
there appear to be any necessity for so doing. 
These parties are also in telegraphic communica- 
tion with all the settlements below, the nearest 
of which is some 25 miles or more distant. 
This distance, the extremely rocky nature and 
sinuosity of the natural channel it would have 
to take, with all the other precantlons con- 
■tantly attended to, onght to pnt a stop to 
■noh nnneoessary attacks and efforts to keep 

people in dread of what is really an imposeible 
occnrrence. This body of water Is the bottom 
fact which has made it possible to convert Red- 
lands and most of the country around it from a 
brown and cheerless desert to one of the most 
beautiful and fertile spots in all California. But 
to return to the town for which this notice is 
more especially Intended, and which, also is 
far ont of the way any body of water could 
possibly take from the sonroe indicated, we 
may remark that 

The Growth of Redlands Has Been Really 

And it has been accomplished without any, 
or at least but very little, of the noise and 
bluster that has been required to build np most 
other towns In Cilifornia. Not only Redlands 
itself, but the country and neighboring towns 
aroond it, have been built np by the steady 
energy, determination, pneh, Influence and 
money of a few of Its leading citizen". 0' 
course even such energy and enterprise wonld 
have failed had not the location, soil and water 
employed been utilized as chief factors in the 
enterprise. Never has Rsdlands realized greater 
improvements or made more rapid strides in 
everything which combines to make a town or 
city than it has during the past six months of 
comparative rest in most localities in the State. 
Daring the past summer, 14 brick blocks have 
been built there, containing 28 large rooms for 
stoie^i; In addition to which, no less than 138 
residences have been built, ranging in value 
from five to twenty thousand dollars each. 
The total value of these improvements has been 
set down at from $175,000 to $500,000. And 
■till, with all this activity in building, we have 
a letter before ne from a friend who desires to 
locate in R'sdlands, who assures us that he 
has thus far been unable to find a house into 
which he can move his belongings. Toe aver- 
age of new land improved keeps equal pace 
with the improvements above noted. During 
the past year of 1891, no lass than 1300 acres 
have been set out with orange trees. The year 
before, 1200 were improved, and the year pre- 
vious to that, 1889, numbered 1300 trees. The 
total acreage improved up to the present time 
is set down as 45,000 acres 1 These figures have 
been communicated to us by a private and reli- 
able correspondent bnt a few days since. 

Schools, Oburchea, Hotels and Other Pub- 
lic and Semlpubllc Buildings 
Keep equal paoo with all mention of prog- 
ress. Ttiree banks have already been estab- 
lished and note a good rnn of business. The 
two papers published in Redlands — The Citro- 
graph and The Facta, will not suffer in ap- 
pearance or in management with any similar 
papers in the State. The Orange Belt, for cir- 
culation at AUesandro, is also published in Red- 
lands, but, we presume, will soon make a move 
to Its own proper locality. That place, as well 
as R3dlands, and which was founded chitfly by 
Redlands people, appears to be growing too 
fast for the carpenters and builders to keep 
up. The town is also 

Well Supplied With Railways. 
Both the Southern Pacific and the Santa Fe 
roads have for some time been .-nnning several 
trains Into or through tha town every day. The 
place is, of course, ooncected with the ontside 
world by telegraph by both the Western Union 
and the Postal telegraph lines. A telephone 
company also supplies the city with excellent 
local service. There is a large number of im- 
portant business corporations which make Red- 
lands their headquarters, We have hitherto 
neglected to say that R dlands is and has been, 
for over a year, an Incorporated city. A list of 
various branchts of business carried on in the 
city, which lies before us, numbers 181, The 
population of the city numbers 50OO, with an 
expectancy of double that number inside of 
five years from this date. The city contains 
many beantifnl and costly realdenoes, and more 

of that class are constantly being built. Mnch 
attention is paid to beautifying the oity with 
shade and ornamental trees, both along the 
streets and abont the dwellings. The people 
who oonstitnte this beautiful and phenomenal 
oity are of the mont defirable class, and no 
town of its size In this or any other State can 
boast of better society. Although we have 
more than filled the space which can properly 
be allotted to this notice, the subject is very 
far from being exhausted. 


A "Home" for Cancer Patients. 

In view of the alarming increase in this city 
of the dreadful malady known as cancer, and 
the want of adequate facilities for the proper 
oare and protection of those who come here for 
treatment, several of our philanthropic citi- 
zens, many ladles among them, have for some 
time been looking about for a place and also for 
means for the establishment of a "Home," 
where those thus afflicted might find shelter and 
proper home comforts, while under treatment 
for cure, or while suffering the tortures which 
are inseparable from the more advanced condi- 
tion of this malady, nnder whioh no treatment 
can save, but merely ameliorate sufferings 
which can end only in death. Such a home is 
especially needed In this city, which is the 
natural and most convenient resort for treat- 
ment of those on this coast who are afflicted 
with this malady. 

Those interested In this humane work have 
finally met with the fullest success at the 
hands and through the favor of a most worthy 
and active association of benevolent ladles 
known as the "King's Daughters." This as- 
sociation has recently been placed In possession 
of the building owned by the oity and occupied 
by the Old People's Home np to the time that, 
through the benevolence of Mrs. Charles 
Crccker. that aesociatlon came into possession 
of their new quartera on Pine street. 

The " King's Daughters " have refitted and 
refurnished this building, and made of it a 
most homelike and comfortable dwelling place 
for invalids, for which purpose the city allowed 
them the use of the premises. 

Ou looking around for inmates for their new 
Home, their inquiries naturally led them to 
consider the condition and needs of the large 
and increasing number of those nnfortunates 
who are afflicted with the generally supposed 
incurable malady of cancer. Pursuing their 
inquiry in this direction, they soon became 
acquainted with the faot that that class of In- 
valids were greatly In need of just such a place, 
as they had to offer. They moreover were 
made well cognizant of a further faot of which 
they only previously had dim knowledge — that 
cancer patients were being successfully treated 
in this city, and restored to health without the 
use of either plaster or the knife, or any other 
treatment which entailed (ain or suffering be- 
yond that whioh was inherent in the malady 

After full inqniry and consultation, it was 
determined to devote a portion of their rooms 
to patients undergoing snob treatment, and to 
Install the practitioner, Mrs, C, A. Cook of 224 
Post street, who Is the discoverer and dis- 
penser of that benign treatment, in charge of 
such patients. 

Within one week after the rooms were ready, 
five patients, each with a nice cosy room, were 
enjoying the accommodations offered, and the 
treatment, all of whom are now doing well, 
with every prospect of an early and complete 
cure. SsTeral other rooms will soon be occu- 
pied by the same class of invalids. 

It Is One of the Most Remarkable Facts 
Connected with medical practice, that, of all 
other maladies, this one alone ia regarded by 

the profession as absolutely incurable. Such 
an opinion has been held by them so long that 
it has become chronic, and seems to be an in- 
born idea with the profession, and quite as In- 
eradicable from the minds of a majority of 
physicians as is the malady itself from the 
bodies of their patients by their mode of treat- 

If the work so well begun by the good "King's 
Diinghters " should result in eradicating this 
nonprogressive and false idea from the minds 
of onr conservators of health, they will have 
accomplished a work which will entitle them 
to a monument higher and more beantifnl than 
any such structure ever yet erected; for it will 
any such structure ever yet erected; for It will 
lead to^he saving of more lives from terrible 
deaths than have been sacrificed by all the 
great military heroes in whose memory the 
chief of all the great monuments of earth have 
been erected. 

The "King's Daughters" oonstitntes one of 
the leading benevolent associations in the 
country, andisdoing an immense amount of good. 
They number over 1000 in this State and fnlly 
30,000 in the Union, They have State and 
National organizations, by which the work of 
eaoh sockty is known to all the others. Through 
this'organizttioD, the work o<' this tcciety will 
in time be made known throughout the Union, 
and the good news, which will soon be made 
evident in tbis city, that cancer is curable, will 
in time reach the stricken victims everywhere 
and lead to a movement which will eventually 
place the San Francisco treatment within the 
easy reach of every city and town in the Union 
— and the world as well. 

Yes, tbe Remedy Is a Secret One, 
And so was Koch's; yet the " regulars " from 
all over the world rushed to Berlin to get the 
secret remedy, learn Its mode of application, 
and take it to their homes for trial. No matter 
If it was a failure. The principle Involved was 
all the same. A medical man of high standing 
was the discoverer. In tbe present case the 
discoverer io a woman of humble practice. 
But what of the secrecy. All that Is asked for 
is a medical investlKation to prove either that 
the remedy is what is claimed for it or that it 
is a swindle. The doctor invites tbe test. If no 
competent medical authority in tbis city will 
take up the glove, Is it not fair to suppose that 
they dare not do so ? If they dare not do it, 
can any but a sinister motive'be the hindrance 7 
If the laonlty refuse to investigate, tbe work 
which has now begun will soon speak for itself 
and settle the matter to the satisfaction of all 
reasonable persons. 

But, further, with regard to the secrecy of 
the remedy, our healer may lack science, nay, 
she may be even selfish, if yon please, holding 
the knowledge of a remedy for private gain, 
nhen the scientific professional would give the 
same to the world. Such things are a minor 
consideration and should have no weight what- 
ever when the lives of thousands are at stake. 
The fact", which are within the reach of every 
one, are that scores of cancer sufferers in this 
city are constantly receiving permanent relief 
by purely constitutional treatment, without 
the use of the knife or oaustics. The most of 
these cases have baeu pronounced unmistakable 
cancer by leading physicians and surgeons, 
and many have snbmltted tj previous surgical 
operations, without any beneficial result. This 
assertion Is made with due regard to Its 
import, and proof wi l bs preaented to any one 
Interested, by tbe writer, whoeo initials are 
well known in this oity. With these facts in 
view, which are well known to hundreds of onr 
citizens, it would seem that the theories and 
antiquated ethics of the doctors are entirely un- 
worthy of consideration. W, B. E, 

Lectures at the Stanford University. 

Professor John Henry Comstock will give a 
special course of Instrnotlon, by means of 
lectures and labara*^ory work, in tbe study of 
inaecta at the Uaiversity, beginning January 
4, 1892, and contlnning three months. 

This oonrse will be free and open to any per- 
son interested in the subject who will do tbe 
work required, whether a member ot the 
University or not. 

In addition to this general course, the week 
beginning February 15tb will ba devoted to a 
series of popular lectures on the insects in- 
jurious to fruit in California, and to other 
matters important to the fruit growers of tbe 

At the same time a series of lectures on frnit- 
growine will be given by Mr. Emory E. Smith 
of San Francieoo, Secretary of tbe State Floral 
Society and a Director of the State Horti- 
cultural Society. 

All persons interested are cordially invited 
to be present at these lectures. 

David S. Jobdan, 

Palo Alto, Oal. President. 

Insurance, — Brown, Oraig ft Co.'s Agency, 
including five companies, ranks first among the 
general agencies in Pacific Coast premiums — a 
rank whioh this enterprising firm has held dur- 
ing the last two years. The premium income 
of the agency for 1889 was $463,632, and for 
1890 $506,707. The business of the agency 
was only $122,624 ten years ago. The average 
loss ratio has been low. Brown, Craig ft Co. 
are at 508 California St., S. F. 

LoNG-LivED Fish. — Hundreds of fish are itill 
alive In tbe royal squarinm In St, Petrr^bnrg, 
which were placed there from 100 to 160 years 

Jan. 9, 1892.] 


Our Agents, 

Qua FRniTDS o*n do much Id aid of onr paper and the 
eaase of practical knowledge and science, by assisting 
Agents In their labors of canvassing, by lending their In- 
flnenoe and enconraglng favors. We Intend to send noni 
but worthy men. 

,1. C. HOAQ— Sail Francisco. 

R. G Bailey— San Francisco. 

Gko. Wilson— Sacramento Co. 

J. H Grossman- Perrio, Cal. 

OHArNCKT A. Davton— San Lucas, CaL 

Q. R. Gill— Cambria, Cal. 

A. DUNLAP— H' liister, Cal 

J. T. ACSTIN— Tulare C'nuiity. 

Wm. T. Healu— v,loverdale, CaJ. 

Samokl B. C'LiiT — Crest n, Cal. 

W. W. Mabon— Nevada. 

Don't Fail to Write. 

Should this paper be received by any subscriber who 
doee not want It, or beyond the time he intends to pay 
for it, let him not fail to write us direct to stop it. A 
postal card (costing one cent only) will suffice. We will 
not knowingly Bend the paper to any oae who does not 
wish it, but if it is continued, through the failure of the 
■ubscriber to notify us to discontinue it, or some irre- 

Sjonsible party requested to stop it, we shall positively 
emand payment for the time it is sent. Look oahefully 




market rate of interest on approved secvirity in Farm- 
ing Lands. A. SCHULLER, Room 8, 420 Cali- 
fornia St., San Francisco. 



real estate below market rates. HOWE, BAND 
MANN & CO. California St.. F 

Dewey & Co.'s Scientific Presj 
Patent Agency. 


preaentB many and important advantages as t 
Home Agency over all others, by reason of lon^ 
establishment, great experience, thorough sys- 
tem, intimate acquaintance with the subjects of 
inventions in our own community, and oui 
most extensive law and reference library, con 
tatning ofiBcial American and foreign reports, 
files of scientific and mechanical publications 
etc. AH worthy inventions patented through 
our Agency will have the benefit of an illustra 
tion or a description in the Miniiig and Scien 
riFic pRES.s.' We transact every branch of 
Patent business, and obtain Patents in all coun- 
tries which grant protection to inventors. Th( 
Large majority of U. S. and Foreign PatentE 
issued to inventors on the Pacific Coast have 
been obtained through our Agency. We can 
give the best and most reliable advice as to the 
patentability of new inventions. Our prices 
are as low as any first-class agencies in the 
Eastern States, while our advantages for Pacific 
Coast inventors are far superior. Advice and 
Oircnlars free. 

DEWEY & CO., Patent Agents, 
220 Market St., Elevator, 12 Front St., S. F 
Telephone No. 658. 

fc. T. DBWEY. 


oAisy w,.r.oN 
Write ns for prices and full particulars. Address 



fective Vision, Inflammation and all Diseases of the 
Eye Cured bv Dr. La Grange's New Treatment, which 
can be aoplled by the patient without any inconven- 
ience. Sent to all parts of the world. Price $10 and 820 
Testimonials to be had only from DB. LA GRANGE, 
1482 Geary ,St., San Francisco, CaL 

Private Hospital for Care and Treatment of Mental and Nervous Diseases. 

Has been in exiRtence for over 10 years and is favorably known as the model institution of the Pacific Coast. 
For terms and other particulars, apply to the Proprietor and Superintendent, 

X3H. .A.1S.A. '~^f . A l=» TPg- , StoclX-toxx. X. 
REFERENCES: Dr. L. C. Lane, Dr. W. H. Mays (late Superintendent of State Asylum at Stockton), Dr. Robert 
A. A. McLean, Dr. I S. Titus, Dr. R. H. Plummer, San Francisco; Dr. E. H. Woolsey, Surifeon S. P. Co. and Oak- 
land Hospital; Dr. W. S. Thome, San Jose; Dr. O. A. ShurtleS (late Superintendent State Insane Asylum), Napa. 





Every Year they are Improved, if Possible. 




Both Valves Can be got at in a Moment's Time 
with a Common Farm Wrench. 

They ECONOMIZE LABOR and throw a penetrating 
spray. Send for Circulars. 





To Scale Bug and all 
Insect Pests. 

Now is the time to eCfectually jruard your 
Fruit Trees against the visitation of all 
INSECT PESTS by spraying them with the 

Ongerth Liquid Tree Protector, 

The only effectual remedy in the market. 
Indorsed by the University of California. 
Send for circular with testimonials to 

Ongertli Graftins Cofflponni Co. 

Davis Street, 



Spraying Machinery. 


The Chapman Climax No. 1, represented by the accompanying illustration, is the 
cheapest complete and reliable Orchard Spraying Pump Apparatus manuf ctured 

Equipped complete, ready for use, with hose, short-hand extension and our latest 
improved spray nozzle. 

We refer to more than 1000 California orchards where our machinery is in sati - 
factoiy operation. In many instances single fruit growers have in use from five to 
fifteen Chapman outfits. 

We manufacture several sizes and styles. Write for illustrated des.riptive cata 
logue and price list. 

R. 8. CHAPMAN. Office & Works, 1 4 & 1 6 Fremont St., S. F., Cal. 


We carry a large variety of Spray Pumps. 

Our CELEBRATED CHAMPION excels all others. 

We also have the Eureka, Gould's Star and 
Climax Spray Pumps. 

Send for Spray Pump Catalogue, mailed free. 


31*.? & 314 Market f^t . San Francisco. Cal. 

Whitewashing Machines STree Cleansers. 

Complete Ontflta at prices from 93 to $50. 

The Pumps are all BRASS, with BRASS AND RUBBER VALVES. 

For Orchardists, Florists, Stockmen, Poultry Raisers 


Pump sent complete as in out for $14. Send for Illustrated Catalogue. 




VIoTvay Fruit and Leaf Blight of Apples, Pears. OherrieB, 
(irape and Potato R^it, Plum Onrculia prevented bj' uHinn; 
mi all injnrionsiTiBectB to Frriits mailed free. T.iirarc Mtopk of Fruit Trees, Vines, 
and Uerry i'lanU at Uottoiu i-riuu*. AUOroiM W iU. f>TAlll>, Uulnoy • Ul*« 



121 Post St., San Francisco, Cal. 


gineerintr, Surveying, Architecture, Drawing, Assaying 
and Navigation, GRAPHICS, Drawing and Mathemat- 
ics for the trades. Send for circulars. Day and evening. 

DEWEY & CO. {^=^°E^4^^f:iV^on\^ l PATENT AGENTS, 

School of Practical, Civil, IMechanical, 
Electrical and Mining Engineerirg, 

Surveying, Architecture, Drawing and Assaying, 
Open All Year. 
A. VAN DEK NAILLlfiN, President. 
Assaying of Ores, $26; Bullion and Chlorination Assay , 
B; Blowpipe Assay, SIO. Full course of assaying, 160. 
ESTABLISHED 1864 IS" Send for circular. 

Bowens Academy, 

University Ave., Berkeiey. 

For Boys and Young Men. 

Special university preparation, depending not on time, 

but on progress in studies. 
T. S. BOWENS, M. A Head Magtar. 




Ladles admitted Into all Departments. 
Address: T. A. ROBINSON. H. A.. President. 



24 POST ST , S. F. 

College instructs In Shorthand, Typewriting, Book- 
keeping, Telegraphy, Penmanship, Drawing, all the 
English branches, and everything pertaining to business 
for six full months. We have sixteen teachers, and give 
Individual instruction to all our pupils. Our school hag 
its graduates in every part of the State. 
Sbnd for Circular. 

E. P. HEALD, President. 

C. 8. HALETY. Secretarv. 


Ditson 's 


Music Books, 

latest Series! Jnst Issued! 

Ne Plus Ultra Piano Collection. 

160 pages Brilliant buf> easy pieces. 

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160 paire-*. Latest and best song". 

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Each song has a linging chorus. 

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Every style of dance music; not difficult. 
All these bookH are large sheet innslc size. 



Ml LI I our r LlLO Uining, DilMng, Pumlt. 

■ ■ I_ I I WindASteamMach'y. Encyclopedia 2So. 

■ ■ " "The American Well Works, Aurora. III. 

II-,3S.CANAt.ST. CHICAGO.ILL. I g^„„„^ ^ 
Elm Strkkt. DALLAS. TEXAS. ' 

Hoatewives, Attention ! 

Two new first-class Sewing Machines for sale 
cheap. Will be sent direct from warerooms if de- 
sired. Address, H. F. D., Box 2517, San Fran- 
Cisco, Cal, 



[Jan. 9 1892 



2 TO 25 FEET 





Unrivalled for WATER WORKS, HYDRAULIC MINING, IRRIGATION, Etc., as has been Proved by Fourteen Years Practical Experience. 

Pacific Coast OflQ.ce, 23 Davis Street, San Francisco. 

PMtory: QreeDooint, L I. 
New York Offlce: 28 Clifl Street. 






For Water Supply, Mining, irrigating Purposes, Stock 
Ranclies, Etc. 

Made In Lengthg Dealred from 16 to 80 feet. 

The Cut Bhowg a Section of Three Jointa 


In the manufacture of this P)p*^, we use only a high grade of aDoealed 
Charcoal Iron of great tensile titren^th. 

The weight or tbicl'nees of metal used, Is graded according to service 
required, and preseure to which the Pipe will be subjected. 

FOR AI.!. UNDERGROUND PURPOSES, we immerse the Pipe 
in a hath contalninir a Bpe'ial mixture of A8PHAI.TUM, PITCH and 
PKTKOLBUM. at a T«inpera*ar« of 300* Parenheit. It thus 
re(ei\e« a thnrouiih coating, both inside and outside, rendering It impervious 
lo the alkalies of the earth, rust, etc., and Is practically indeatnictible. 

Sharpies Improved 


ill y other Bepantor. 

It 1^ r-'t iUiii.i u iiC'i h\ .,11 i i/u mission bouses. 

Heirler k Johnson, Wm. Uatton and J. Warreo Outtoo 
have adopted It In preferenci* tn all rivals. 

I now have cu hand the small-sized Sharpies Improvsd 
Separator and the Kussian Steam Separator, De Lavala, good as new, for sale cheap. 

A. J. VAN DRAKE, Pacific (Joast Agent, 

203 Fremont St.. San Pranclsoo, Cal. 


Uftnufacturers of 

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130 Beale Street, 


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in I Ninth Street, SACRAMENTO, Cal. Catalogues Free. 



BREED'S UNIVERSAL WEEDER'iy pruclK'al f.'irmor is especially iuten st. d in anv implement that will t<>nfl to lessen 
tne ainount (if his labor aiui the proiiuctioii of hi.s erops and Is con-siatitlv on the 
outlook for such iniplement.s. DurinK the lust few years the methods of cultivation <if <Tops 
riave lieeome almost entirely revolutionlz. rl. The deep root jiruninpr proeess is ■.'oing out. 

li'.'"!.!'* t-'""!'-' lo hecome universal. Kor this purpose uo implement ecjuals the 
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AMI I RIWARV TRorBLSS CURED. No I hargr unless cure 
istff. cted C<in8Ult:.tio 1 Iroc. Cal or ad ross for ptm- 
phlet DR8. PORTERFIELD ft LOSET, 8S8 Huket St., 
San Francisco, Cal. 

Jan 9, T892 j 

fACtFie F^URAIo f RESS. 

The Queen Isabella Grape. 

Editors Press:— Referring to the »TtioIe on 
this grape In tbe Usae of year paper of the 2d 
lost., I would beg to make a few remarks. 

That the Pierce Grape is a sport of the Isa- 
bella there can be no doabt, and when yon 
state that " yon believe some parties went 
so far as to claim other origin for the 
variety than that described," you are not mis- 
taken, for I have done so Aiyself, but I can 
prove that I am entitled to such a claim. 

In 1878 I moved on to the vineyard "Fonte- 
nay Vineyard, " where I have resided ever since. 
Shortly after taking posBession, a friend of 
mine, living at tbe time in Santa Clara, called 
my attention to the famous Isabella grape as 
grown by Mr. Pierce. I suggested that he 
procure me some oattings, bnt being met with 
the remark that Mr. Pierce would dispose of 
none, the matter dropped. 

The following year, while my men were pick- 
ing ordinary Isabellas for market, I noticed 
some extra fine ones. I immediately hunted up 
the matter and found the vine. It was trained 
on a trellis some three feet from the ground, 
and branched ofiF at about 18 Inches, the cane 
on one side bearing the ordinary Isabella, while 
tbe other bore the fancy ones. The vine at the 
time was at least 10 or 12 years old. I sent a 
box of my grapes to my friend, who pronounced 
them fully equal to Mr, Pierce's. I also took 
a sample buoch to Mr. C. A. Wetmore, at the 
time Chief Vitloultural Offioer, who suggested 
that I should oall them the Queen Isabella, the 
name which they have borne ever since, 

I have tried reproduction by cuttings and by 
grafts, as have also many of my friends and 
neighbors to whom I gave cuttings, and in 
every case have we succeeded in reproducing 
the Qaeen. A year or two later, I dis- 
covered no less than three other vines, each 
one of which had a " sport " prcdnoing the 
same Qaeen Isabella. There can be no ques- 
tion aoout their being "sporte," for in each 
case they branch o£F some distance (at least one 
foot) from the ground. 

Mr. Albert Montpelller, manager of the 
Grangers' Bank, can testify to this fact, for, 
several years ago, while paying me a visit, I 
showed him the original vine, loaded at the 
time with the finest fruit. He was so struck 
with the sight that he asked me for some cut- 
tings; and in order that there should be no mis< 
take, he took from his pocket a new oambric 
handkerchief, and tearing it into strips, he 
marked the cane which bore the fancy or 
"Qaeen Isabella," He also took a bunch of 
these grapes, which he had photographed and 
lithographed, and then preserved it in alcohol, 
and he no doubt has it to this day, 

I do not pretend that the "Pierce" grape 
did not originate with Mr. Pierce, bnt I do 
claim that it also originated with me; and I see 
no necessity for giving the identical grape more 
than one name, and the one in question being 
beyond a doubt an Isabella, '* Qaeen Isabella " 
or Isabella Begia seems to me tue more appro- 

My grapes have been selling In the Sin Fran- 
cisco market for several years at from 7^ to 15 
cents per pound, when other varieties were 
selling at from 1 to 3 cents. 

Henby Mel. 

Olenwood, Santa Cruz Co. 

[We are pleased to have this statement from 
so well known a vine grower. It shows the 
existence of another Isabella sport, and there 
may be, of course, an indefinite number of such 
sports. The State Horticultural Society has 
shown some disposition to look into this mat- 
ter, and we trust it will do so during the next 
ripening season. 

As we understand Mr, Mel's positlGii, he 
does claim that his grape is identical with Mr. 
Pierce's, not that the question of origin is at 
all involved; that both are independent sports 
from Isabella and are like each other. Now, 
are there others? — Eds. Press.] 

A Plan to Improve the Sacramento. 

Sacramento, Jan. 5.— Before the Board of 
Superviaurs to-day, a letter from John Do- 
herty, a civil engineer of Otkkland, was read. In 
which it was stated that the building of the 
levee past Washiogton, on the Yolo aide of the 
river, will cause this city to be flooded. Do- 
herty lived here ten years and says he knows 
what he is talking about. The writer observes 
that tbe Supervisors should oall the attention 
of farmers and miners to the fact that, until 
the Sacramento river is made navigable, they 
have no basis on which to found an argument. 
The river being nearly level, with only a fall 
of six feet between Sacramento and San Fran- 
oisoo, no locks would be required, and no levees 
shonld be built close to the banks of the river. 
It should be cleaned out to an even grade and 
the material spread on the low ground. Sacra- 
mento would then become a mart of oommerce 
and would enter on a career of prosperity. A 
few ships In the Sacramento would start new 
life, and San Francisco would be the greatest 
produce market on the coast. The letter con- 
tinues to the effect that the Boards of Super- 
visors of the counties having interest in the 
navigation of the river should take whatever 
steps are necessary to secure the appropriation 
neoessary to Improve it. 

Farmers, Plant Alfalfa! 

Editors Press: — We read every few days 
tbe great yield and profit of growing alfalfa, 
yet how few farmers have enough for chiokens 
and pigs to feed on. Why this Is, Is one of the 
puzzling questions that I cannot satisfactorily 
answer. It grows without irrigation on all 
bottom lands, and will produce well on most 
all kinds of land with irrigation. Every farm- 
er with common intelligence that has been in 
this State two years that reads newspapers 
must know something about this anoient plant. 
Not planting alfalfa cannot be on account of 
expense, for all yon have to do is to plow deep 
and make mellow and sow about 20 or 2.5 lbs, 
to the acre, with or without other crops, and 
harrow lightly. The seed is usually worth 
from six to ten cents per lb. 

I have seen a fine stand from seed sown in 
October before the rains set In, I usually 
plant in January or February. Some claim the 
frost will kill the tender plant, and will not 
plant until April or May. It depends a good 
deal on what kind bf land it is desired to plant 
on. If low bottom land that holds moisture 
late, it can be planted in June and make a good 
stand. I have been handling alfalfa since 1858, 
and I have not satisfied myself that frost kills 
it, except In rare oases. 

We have become so accustomed to alfalfa up 
and down the Sacramento, American and 
Cosumnes rivers that we would hardly know 
how to do without It. Most all cattle and 
dairy men use it, and especially for family cows 
in the city. Alfalfa hay Is seldom below six 
dollars per too; usual price seven to eight, and 
now it is worth from twelve to thirteen. 

On account of break in levees a great acreage 
was drowned out last year, and now they are 
bringing It in from Nevada by the carload. 
Teams that are not worked too bard will do 
well on alfalfa without grain. 
~By getting a good stand, that is, plants close 
together, the hay will be finer and much 
better. If the plants or crowns are far apart, 
the stocks will be large and coarse as willow 

It takes tbe best kind of judgment to onre 
alfalfa in good shape. It requires close watch- 
ing to see when it is ready to rake, bunch and 
stack. To do this too soon makes musty hay, 
undesirable and distasteful to stock. Waiting 
too long makes it too dry, the leaves fall from 
the stocks and much is wasted. 

Alfalfa can be cut three or four times, ac- 
cording to location and Intention of grower. 
We usually cut twice and then save the third 
cutting for seed, which is worth more than all 
the hay. The straw or chaff from thrashing 
is almost as good as the hay to feed to stock, 
cattle or horses. 

When the plant first comes up in the spring, 
it is very watery and rank, and stock are not as 
fond of it as in May, June and July, when It Is 
very fattening. 

I have never measured the field from whioh 
I thrashed the seed, but should say it would 
yield from 300 to 500 pounds to the aore. 

How inviting it looks to ride in the country 
when all other grass has dried up, and see a 
few acres of alfalfa with its green contrasted 
with the dry stubble fields. Every farmer that 
can get water from ditch or windmill, should 
have a few acres, to look upon as an oasis when 
everything about him has dried up. 

When my eldest brother was out here to 
make me a visit in 1871, it was rather a dry 
year and being from the New England States 
he was not used to such a long spell without rain. 
I had a ten acre alfalfa field, and when it got 
too dry and dusty for him he would take his 
cane and walk down to the field and from top 
of the levee take a long look, and renew hie 
faith and hope in California climate and soil. 

On his return he would say "well, Daniel, if 
everything fails yon, and you lose hope, just 
go down and look at your alfalfa field," 

It is said that hay Is the most valuable crop 
grown. A large wheat farmer told me the 
other day, that if he had not plowed a furrow 
and let all his land volunteer and cut for hay, 
he would have made $10,000 more than be did 
make by plowing and growing wheat. 

Farmers that have no alfalfa, try my sugges- 
tions and if they prove good, send me a 
pound of gilt edged Jersey butter and a dozen 
of Light Brahma hen fruit. If false, send me 
your oomplimeots and say I did not know 
what I was writing about. 

Sacramento. D. Flint 

Mill FOR Martinez. — It la announced tbe 
vast milling and warehousing Interests of Car- 
qulnez straits are to be increased by the re- 
moval of Horace Davis & Co. 'a Golden Gate 
Mills to a site whioh has been donated by the 
village of Martinez. We hope it is true. The 
dreary waste of tules In front of Martinez has 
always seemed to us an undesirable environ- 
ment for tbe town and to have it covered with 
a milling plant will be a great help to the re- 
gion in many ways. 

Sutter County Will Be There, — The 
Snpervisors of Sutter county have appropriated 
$100 toward making an exhibit at the State 
Citrus Fair In Auburn, next week. It is pro- 
posed to make as good a general display as 
time will permit. 

Transplanting Old Orange Trees. 

Many people of limited experience in orange 
culture seem to think that an orange tree can- 
not be moved with any degree of safety after it 
has reached a bearing age. 

This is an erroneons Idea, as men can be 
found in most any commnnity who have tried 
the experiment and met with very satisfactory 

Two years ago I had some experience in this 
line, and met with such good success that I 
should not hesitate to move trees of most any 
reasonable size and age when convenience or 
necessity require their removal from one place 
to another. I moved nearly fifty orange trees, 
ranging from five to ten years old, some of 
them fully fifteen feet in height and six Inches 
in diameter at the trunk; most of them had 
been bearing for several years. During a warm 
spell in May, I out them back to about six feet 
in height, or where I could reach conveniently 
with saw and shears. The lateral branches 
were also cut back so as to leave a somewhat 
symmetrical head, although mostly composed 
of bare stubs; this also gave me a good chance 
to remove all the dead branches that had ac- 
cumulated about the center of the tree, where 
the dense foliage had shut out the light and 
air. These trees were removed for two good 
reasons. In the first place' they were scattered 
among deciduous trees where they caused con- 
siderable unnecessary labor to care for them 
when the deciduous trees were dormant; and 
more than that they were needed to fill some 
blank spaces in another orange grove of about 
the same age. After getting them all cut back 
and removing the brush, I proceeded to dig the 
boles for their new home. These holes were 
made from five to six feet across and abont 
three feet deep, and a furrow plowed along tbe 
side In readiness for the water when it was 
needed. The work of pruning and digging 
holes occupied several days, and by this time 
the trees had somewhat recovered from their 
severe shock and were in better shape to stand 
the root outtlog which must necessarily follow. 

To acoompUeh this a circular trench was dug 
around the root of the tree, about three feet 
from the trunk, and the roots, whether large or 
small, were severed with saw or shears, as fast 
as they were uncovered. When a suffiolent 
quantity of earth had been removed the tree 
would careen to one side so that the tap root 
conld be cut, and the tree would be ready to 
move. Oar Lugonia soil is a sandy loam, 
which long -experience has proved to be ad- 
mirably adapted to the culture of citrus fruits, 
and from its nature would not adhere to the 
roots of the trees, which were still as heavy as 
two men cared to lift from the hole and place 
on a sled which was drawn up to receive them. 
After covering the roots with a blanket to pro- 
tect them from sun and wind, they were 
drawn to the holes prepared for them, and let 
down oaretnlly to the proper depth, which we 
consider a little lower than they originally 
stood. They were then moved Into line with 
the other trees, and the holes filled about two- 
thirds full of dirt and a stream of water turned 
In to settle tbe earth firmly about the roots. 

T;vo or three days after this the holes were 
filled nearly full of earth, the water tnrned In 
again, and with occasional irrigations and cul- 
tivations they soon began to put forth sprouts, 
and produce canes several feet in length the 
first season. The next season some of them 
produced a few fine specimens of oranges. 

Tbe proportion of loss was very small, as 
bnt three or four out of the whole number fail- 
ed to grow, and I am satisfied that trees thus 
handled, and properly oared for afterward, 
will commence to bear again In two years, and 
in several years more will so far regain their 
size as to differ but little, if any, from the sur- 
rounding trees. — C. H, Lathrof in Orange 

Palo Alto Horse Sale. — An advertisement 
in another column announces the sale of some 
Palo Alto horses — brood mares of distingnished 
ancestry and honorable associations. Good 
long notice Is given, as the sale will not occur 
until Feb, 24. Catalogues are now ready at 
Elllip & Co.'s, and should be carefully studied 
over. This may be a chance to get good blood 
at very favorable figures. 

We wish to direct the special attention of horse- 
men and those interested in the breeding of draft 
and carriage stallions to tbe ad. of Tbeo. Skillman, 
the well-known importer, which appears in this issue 
of the Rural. Mr. Skillman celebrated the advent 
of the new year by placing on exhibition and (or 
sale at his stables in Petaluma a new and meritori- 
ous importation of stallions— the pick of Europe. 
None better have ever been seen in the State. 

Jacks and Jennys. 

In the light of history and experiance for 
ages, the most reliable beast of burden has 
been the mule. The closer relations which are 
being fostered between the United States and 
the South American Republics are giving an 
impetus to the breeding of jiioks, jennys and 
mules. Qaite a number of our most enter- 
prising ranchers and farmers have seized upon 
the advantages of this enterprise, and have 
quite extensive lireeding establishments for 
jacks and jennys. The largest of these on the 
Pacific Coast is owned by L. U. Shippee, Esq., 
of Stockton, Cal. His first importation was 
of the most royal blood that can be found in 
Kentucky. He has added to it from time to 
time from the most fashionable strains until he 
has a herd that is equal to any In the United 
States. He has recently bred some jacks that 
weighed over 1300 pounds and were over 15 
hands high, for whioh he received a long price. 
His herd having now Increased to over 60, 
he has conolnded to put upon the market a few, 
and therefore would at once open negotiations 
with any one who wishes to purchase any of 
this royal blood in jacks and jennys. His ad- 
vertisement appears in this issue of the Rural 

Pecans. — We acknowledge receipt of a fine 
sample of pecan nuts from Herbert Post, man- 
ager of the Texas Pecan & Seed Co. of Fort 
Worth, Texas, The nuts are the famous 
"Texas Thin Shell Pecan," and are very large 
and delicious, Mr. Post reports a very fine 
crop of seed pecan nuts this year, and hie sam- 
ple shows It. An advertisement will be found 
in another column. 

When in Tulare patronize E. D. Castle's 
livery and feed stables. 





All in tbe Wonderful Artesian Belt or 
New Talare Irrigation District. 

Witbln one mile (southwesterly) ot Tulare City limits, 
160 acres. Will be sold as a whole or in five-acre home- 
stead (or villa) lots. 

Seven miles fouthwest of Tulare, 480 acres, principally 
good for grain, alfalfa, vineyard, fruit, nuts, etc. 

A good, flowing, never-falling artesUn well of clear, 
healthful water; large reservoir; two-story, eight-room, 
well built house; large barn and other convenient build- 
ings; several acres of orchard and of alfalfa. 

Will sell as a whole or in lots to suit. Title perfect. 
All surrounded and subdivided with wire fence. Resi- 
dence has a garden, shrubbery and plenty of shade trees 
attached to it. Terms, one-fourth cash and balance in 
easy payments to suit purchasers. 

Also, 160 acres less than two miles south of the 480 
acres, of equally good but unimproved land, bound also 
to be greatly advanced in price. 

Examine this land and Improvements and be ready to 
bid It off at a bargain. 

Auction In Tulare City, Saturday, Feb. 27, 1892. Place 
and hour of sale to be announced later. 

Write or call on E. M. DEWEY, Tulare City, or A. T. 
DEWEY, No. 12 Front St., S. F. 


I suffered severely with face neu- 
ralgia, but in 1 5 minutes after appli- 
cation, of St. Jacobs Oil was asleep ; 
have not been troubled with it since. 
No return since 1882. F. B. ADAMS, Perry, Mo. 



f ACine f^URAli, PRESS. 

[Jam. 9, 1892 

breeder;' birectory. 

six lines or leiB In this Directory at fiOc per line per month. 


T. PHILLIPS, SimI, Ventura Co., C»l. Pure Bred 
Percheron Horses for sale. 

Station, S. F, & N. P. R. R. P. O., Penn's Grove, 
Sonoma Co., Cal. Wilfred Page, Manager. Breeders 
of Short Horn Cattle, English Draft Horses, Spanish 
Uerlno Sheep and Berkshtre Swine. 

for Sale. Bonnie Brae Cattle Co., Holllster, CaL 

JOHN LYNCH, Petaluma, Dreeder of thoroughbred 
Shorthorns Voung stock for sale. 

F. H. BOBKB, 628 Market St., & F.; Retjistered 
HolsteiDs; winners of more first prizes, sweepstakes 
and special premluniB than any herd on the Coast 
Pure registered Berkshire Pigs. All strains. 

J. H. WHITB, Lakeville, Sonoma Co., OaL, biesder 

of Registered Holsteln Cattle. 

Cattle. H. A. Mayhew, Niles, Cal. 

P. H. MURPHY, Perkins, Sac Co., CaL , Importer and 
Breeder of Shorthorn Cattle and Poland China Hogg. 

U. D. HOPKINS, Petaluma, importer and dealer In 
Eaetern rejristered Shorthorns, Red Polled Cattle, Hoi- 
steins, Devons and Shropshire Sheep. 

H. P. MOHB, Mount Eden, Alameda Co., Cal., breeder 
and importer of Registered Clydesdale Horses, Hoi- 
stein-Frieslan Cattle and Berkshire Pigs. Youn^ stock 
always on hand and for sale. Correspondence solicited. 

PBTBB 8AXB & SON, Lick House, San Frandseo, 
Cal Importers and Breeders, for past 21 years, of 
every variety of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs. 

P. PETERSEN, Sites, ColusaCo., Importer & Breeder 
of registered Shorthorn Cattle. Young bulls for sale. 

A. Hellbron & Bro., Props., Sac. Breeders of thorough- 
bred strains and Cruikshank Shorthorns; also Registered 
Herefords; a fine lot of young bulls in each herd for sale. 

CHARLES B. HUMBERT, Cloverdale, Cal., Im- 
porter and Breeder of Recorded Holsteln-Frlesian 
Cattle. Catalogues on application. 

PERCHERON HORSES.— Pure bred horses and 
mares, all ages, and guaranteed breeders, for sale at 
my ranch near Lakeport, Lake Co., Cal. New cata- 
logue now ready. Wm. B. Collier. 

WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, CaL Thoroughbred 
Registered Holsteln and Jersey Cattle. None better. 


JAMES QUICK, Patterson, Cal., Breeder of Pure 
Bred Poultry of Choicest Varieties and Best Blood. 

MADISON H. CRITCHBR, Santa Crui, Santa 
Cruz Co., CaL Thoroughbred Poultry. Settings, tS. 

Pure bred Fowls, Pekin Ducks, Belgian Hares, etc. 

JOHN McFARHNQ, Calistoga, Cal. , Importer and 
Breeder of Choice Poultry. Send lor Circular. Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire Pigs. 

R. Q. HEAD, Napa, Importer and Breeder of Land 
and Water Fowls. Send for New Catalogue. 

Box 283, St. Helena, Cal. S. C. White Leghorns, 
Toulonse Geese and Pekin Ducks. 

J AS. MITCHELL, St. Helena, W. O. & S. Wyandottes. 
O. J. ALBEB, Lawrence, Cal. Pure bred poultry. 


retry, Cal., breeders of Uerlno Sheep. &»ma tot sale. 

R. H. OBANE, Petaluma, Cal., breeder and Importer. 
South Down Sheep; also Fox Hounds from Missouri 

FBANK BULLABD, Woodland, Cal., Importer and 
breeder of thoroughbred Spanish Merino Sheep. Pre- 
mium band of the State. Choice rams and ewes for sale. 

ANDBBW SMITH, Redwood City, Cal.; see adv't. 


WILLIAM NILBS,Los Angeles, Cal. Thoroughbred 
Poland-China and Berkshire Figs. Circulars free. 

TYLBB BEACH, San Jose, Cal., biMdsi o; 
Ihoraoghbred Berkshire and Essex Hogs. 

ANDREW SMITH, Redwood City, Cal.; see adv-t 


quarters, Wm. Styan, San Mateo, Cal. 

APIARIAN SUPPLIES for sale by Mrs. J. D. 

Enas, Napa City, Cal. 


Imp'-rteis and Dealers 
Direct from Europe, 
English Shire Draft, 

Cleveland Bay 
and German Coach 
129 Klghteenth St.. 
IjOS ^ngeles.Callfornia 
Write for Catalogue. 

Short Horn Cattle and Draft Horses. 

Catalogues and Prices on application to 
Baden Station, - San Mat«o Co.. OaL 



Brood Mares, Colts and Fillies. 



(Sold on Account of 111 Health.) 

ON WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 27, 1892, AT 10 A. M., AT 

Salesyard, GoiQer Van Ness AYenne and Market St., San Francisco. 

The continued ill-health of Dr. Hicks compels liim, reluctantly, to permanently retire from the bushiesM of 
breeding standard-bred horses. Be has leased his stallions to parties in Indiana, and through the medium of the 
auction block proposes to dispose of his broodmares and young horses His splendid array uf broodmares, with 
their produce, collected and bred with such care and excellent judgment, will be placed unreservedly In the hands 
of the public, he feeling confident their merit will be recognized and fair prices obtained. His stock runs largely 
to the great speed lines of the country, and judicious crossing has produced broodmares which are invaluable to 
the breedii.i; community. 

Full catalogues giving breeding, registry, etc., together with breeding of stallions, for reference, may be had 
upon application to the undersigned, 22 Montgomery street, San Francisco, Cal. 

cf3 OO., .^'iactl03aeex*)S. 

DaioiL.sTEiisr-F'rLiEjjsi^Kr <d^t tidies. 

Retjisttred Herd Book Stock of the Aaggie.Netherland, Nep- 
tune, (Jlifden, Artis and other families. None better. 

Of the Coomassie, Alphea and other choice strains. 

Poland- Ohina and Berkshire Pigs. 

I»OXTIjTH.Y— Nearly all Varieties. 

Third Edition POCLTKT & STOCK BOOK, 60 cents 
by mail postpaid. Thirteen years experience on this coast. 



Iniiiorter and Breezier of 

Englisb Sbire, Clydesdale, Percberon and Goacb Horses. 


OUR STUD consists of a One lot of young Stallions and Mares, combining Size, (Quality 
of Bone and Choice Breeding, being descendants of some of the most noted Prize- Winning 
Strains in this country and Europe. Particular attention viven to the forming of Stock 
C'impanies and Breeders' Associations. Breeding Stock purchased in this way has invariably 
proved a success and a paying investment. Our Forms for their organization and manage- 
ment has proved one of the best. LOW PBICES AND EASY TERMS. 

Stable, Broadway and SSd Sta , Oakland, Cal. Address Box 86. 



Genuine only with RED 
BALL brand. 

Recommended by Gold- 
smith, Marvin, Gamble, 
Wells, Fargo & Co., etc., etc. 

It keeps Horses and Cattle 
healthy. For milch cows: 
it increases and enriches 
their milk. 

698 Howard St., San 
Vranclaeo, Oal. 

r* O lEL S ^ Xj 

A Consigument of SEVEN 

Clyde Stallions and Mares 

Due on the steamer Marioopa from Australia on tbe,26th 
Inst.; shipped by John Scott, Inquire of 

488 California Street, San Francisco. 



One and a half miles northeast of San 
Leandro, Alameda County, 


Every Facility for Breaking Colts Properly. 

Kates Very Reasonable. 


P. O. Box 149 San Leandro, Oal. 


successful Poultry and Stock Raising on thePaciSc Coast 
A New Edition, over 100 pages, profusely Illustrated with 
handsome, life-like Illustrations of the dlOerent rarlelle* 
otPonltry and Live-Stock. Price, postpaid 60 ots. Ad. 
dr«M PAaFIO BimAL PRESS Office, San Francisco, OaL 

Niles's nen 
manual and 
r e f e r e nee 
Dook on sub- 
] ects con- 
nected with 


from the finest strains of blood from Kentucky. Cor- 
respondence solicited. L. U. SHIPPEE, Stockton, Cal. 

Dana's White Metallic Kar Marking Label, stampe^ 
to order with name, or name and address and num- 
bers. It is reliable, cheap and convenient. t<ells at 
sight and isives perfect salisfuction. Illustrated 
I'rice-List and eaniiiit-s free. -Vuinls wanted. 

C. H. I>ANA, West Lebanon, N. H. 


SPLIT ROCK, No. 2758, Wallace's Register. 

Sired by Alcona (730) (Sire of Flora Belle 2:26, Clay 
Duke '2:29J, Alcora Jr., and others; dam. Pansy by Cas- 
sius M- Clay Jr.; 9 years old;15i hands high; weight 1100 
pounds; perfectly sound, well proportioned, very hand- 
some and an active and spirited traveler. Has no record 
but can go fast If given a chance. Is a sure breeder and 
colts are large, well framed, stylish and speedy and 
always of standard colors. 

For further particulars apply to 

Aptos, Santa Crnz Co , Cal. 


each; imte.sted. $1.00 each I, Hivei. SI .90 each. Roofs V 
KToove sectious, ^5.00 per 1000. Dadant's comb foundation, j 
Stic and 6£c a pound. Umokers, Sl.OO each. Globe veils, $1.00 I 
each, etc. WM. STYAN A BON, San Mateo, OaL j 

PodLjilY; Etc. 

If you expect to 


In the Chicken Business you 
need the 

Pacific Incubator and 

It is Cheap, Reliable, Sub- 
stantial, Easily Understood, 
and will hatch akv kind or 
BQus better than a BKN. 

GaLD MsDAL at San Fran- 
cisco and Sacramento State 

Send 8c stamps to pay 
postage on our new 82-page 
illustrated catalogue of In- 
cnbators, Thuronghbrad Fowls, Gal. Hex. Net- 
tings, Bone Mills, Poultry Supplies, etc. 

This book contains 30 full-sized colored cuts of Thor- 
oOKlibrad Fowls, and is replete with information. 


1817 Oaatro Street, Oakland, Oal 


O T> i^/^wW \'// \X' the bfst it 


CT* l*^f"l^( lyf > V P ^^^^ cheapc t, 

Lil^yj. ^J/MV>J\rj remedy. When it ia used on 
the roosts or in nest boxes, will kill all lice on the 
hens. Ask your dealer for it, or send direct to us. 
Price BOcts per quart c*"", by express. Circulars free. 

Petaluma Incubato. Co., Petaluma, CaL 

Hatch uhickens by Steam. 

ag iafaJ gtefcWill do it, ThonBands in enccesBfnl oper- 

TTO^^^Tf Lowest-pnced lin»t-cla8e Hatcher m&da. 
B l|™?ftLj Ciurirantoed to hAt<:ti a larger porcentag* 
'f of fertile etrga at less cont than any otber. 

fiend 6a for HIob. CaUlos. fiJtU. U. bTAUt, i^ahuj, 111. 



lai* Hyrtls Ktroot, eaklaad, Cal. 

Send Stamp for Circular. 

Wellington's Improved Egg Food 

Gives a fortune In plenty of eggs when high in price. It 
cures and prevents every disease known to poultry. Ask 
any Grocer— or Proprietor, 4aS Washington St., 
San Franclsoo, Cal. 





£31. lEX- HSL^ 

Horse Liniment 

Is certainly the best preparation of Its 
kind In the market. Ranchers, Stock 
Raisers and Horse Owners of every 
description will tell you that It does 
grood work every time. 

Umiias. H. H. Moosi it Sons, Stockton, Cal.— Grktli- 
HB>: In answer to your Inquiry, would state that I used 
your H. U. H. Liniment on my Holland prize-winning 
cow, " Lena Uenlo," for a wrenched shoulder, and it re- 
lieved her very much. She calved tlie next day, and while 
still suOerlDg from the sprain gave the largest authen- 
ticated quantity of milk ever given on this coast (101 
gallons per day), sh'jwing conclusively the great relief 
received from your remedy. I consider it a necessity in 
my stables, and when away from home feel perfectly 
safe, AS Inexperienced men can do no harm with It, as 
they can with the more powerful bllsteni. Respectfully 
yours, FKANK H. UURKK, 

Breeder of Registered liolsteins and Berkgbires. 

Henlo Park, Cal., January 22d, 1889. 







ary Surgeons, Loudon, England. Late N'eterinary 
Surgeon in the United States Army. Veterinary Con- 
tributor to the " Pacific Rural Press." The diseases of 
all Domestic Animals treated on Scientific Principles. 
Special attention given to Chronic Lameness and Surgical 
Calls to the country promptly attended to. Telephone 
N .*6e7. 


Patented in United 
. StAt«^ JiiJy 16, 1889. and 
tav*\5w>r>w/"'* in Ten Forti^n Countri^ 

A curnb that cotiibtno* tbu strL-agtli of meUil wiUi the 
ela^tielty of a bruHh. KfTlclent. bunmno, conTenlenC 
and durable. Den^crtptlve rirctilare on application. 
Send SOf! for Kample bv mail, If not p"ld by yourdeoler. 

tPRINB CURttr COMB CO. South Bend. Ind. 


Market 81, San rrandwo. Derator, U Fionl It 

Jah. 9, 1892] 

f ACIFie f^URAb f RES 


It stands the Test! 



Mexican Phosphate & Sulphur Co., 

Now favorably known throughout the Citrus 
Growing Sections of the State, Stands Unrivaled 
as a True Fertilizer. 

Certain in its Action, Great in Results, it 
maintains a high standard of fertility without 
undue stimulation. 

Growers in San Bernardino County— notably 
Riversiiie— and Butte County— notably Paler- 
mo — can attest its merit. 

We guarantee uniformity in its analysis, and 
seek correspondence with bonafide purchasers 
of a reliable fertilizer. 

Mexican Phosphate &SnIpbnr Co., 

H. M. NEWHALL & CO., Agents, 

809-811 Sansome Street, San FrancUco, Cal. 

-^Ifl,-- AIIVIL a VICE PHiCB_ 



Oxxly 925. 

Send for No. 16 Illustrated Catalogue. 

TRDMAN, HOOKER & CO., San Francisco. 


Greenbank" 98 degrees POWDERED CAUSTIC 
SODA (tests 99 8 10 per cent) recommended by the 
hij^hest authorities in the State. Also Common Caustic 
Soda and Potash, etc., tor sale by 

Manufacturers' Agents, 
104 Market St. and 8 Oallfornia St., S. F. 

J. F. HouoHTON, President, J. L. N. SnsPABD, Vice-Preg. 
Obas, R. flxoRY, Sec'y, R. H. Maoill, Gen. Ag't. 

Home Matnal Insnrance Company, 

N. E. Cor. Calirornla and Saiuonie Sta.. 

INOORPOKATED A. D. 1864. Nan Franclaco. 

Losses Paid Since Organization $3,175,759 21 

Assets, January 1, 1891 867,512 19 

Oapltal Paid Up In Gold 300,000 Of 

WBT SURPLtfS OTer everything 278 901 10 

f*BBM«H<%a«iBa#« Superior Wood and Hetal Engrav- 
r nKlflVinK >>»• EleotrotFplnv and Btereatyplng 
ftalll^l Uf IIIQ idsnt attheofflM of Ihli pap«r. 




Waretaoaae and Wharf at Port Oosta. 


Money advanced on Grain In Store at lowest possible rates of Interest. 
Fall Oargoee of Wheat famished Shippers at short notice. 

ALSO ORDERS FOR GRAIN BAGS, Agricultural Implements, Wagoni, Grocerlei 
and Merchandise of every description solicited, 

E. VAN EVERY, Manager. A. M. BELT, Assistant Manager. 




What We Guarantee Carbolineum Avenarius to Do: 

1 — To preserve any kind of Wood above or under ground or water, and prolong its life at least 100 per cent. 

2 — To prevent moisture from penetrating into brick or stone wa'.ls and preserve them same as wood. 

3— To keep oS all forts of Insects, Vermin or other enemies to wood or objectionable and deatructlve agencies. 

4 — To prevent Rats and Mice gnawing wood coated with Carbolineum Avenarius. 

5— To disinfect barns, stables or residences and dcptroy Microbes. 

6— To force all moisture out c{ the wood without closing the pores. 

7— To prevent shingles coated with Carbolintum from rotting, warping or cracking. 

8 — To prevent Rope treated with Carbolineum from rotting, causing it to remain [ liable and excelling Tar Coating. 

9— IMPORTANT I Teredoes will not attack Timber coated with C arbol'neum Avenariu". 

10— It does not contain any acids or other poisonous ingredients injurious to fibers of wood. 

11 — It is the cheapest and best wood preserver in the v/orld. 

All the above statements are facts, and all our testimonials to that effect ate genuine and Indisputable. 


MUECKE & CO., Pacific Coast Agents, 319 California St., San Francisco, Cal. 









Rooms and Board by the Day.$l to $1.50; by the Week, $6 to $10 ; by the Honth,$25 to $40. 

Good Rooms and Eleeant Table. Meals, 25c. Single Rooms, 50o. Free 'Bus. 

S. W. Corner Kearny and Montgomery Avenue, San Francisco. 

Frea Ooaob to and from the Honae. J. W. BHOKHR. Proprietor. 




Absolutely Guaranteed, 

Illustrated Circular sent Free. 
Et Etc Wi '^'""'^fciiM L'T"''^ {Mention this paper.) 

ASPINWALL W MFG. CO , Three Rivers, Mich. 

TRUMAN, HOOKEB & CO., San Francisco »ua Fresno, Agents for the Pacific OoasU 

Co|i)|ni$3io|i ^ercliapt^. 


Commission Merclvants 



Qreen and Dried Fruits, 
Grain, Wool, Hides, Beans and Potatoes. 

Advances made on Oonsignments. 
308 & 310 Davis St., San Francisco 

[P. O. Box 1986.1 
tVCODslgnmenta Solicited. 


501, 60S, 505. 507 & 509 Front St., 
And 300 Washington St., SAN FRANCISGO. 




AND wool.. 




General Commission Merchants, 

310 California St., S. F. 

Members of the San Francisco Produce Exchange. 

impersonal attention given to sales and liberal advances 
made on consignments at low rates of interest. 


Commission MercliaDts. 



41S, 416 Ss 417 Washington St., 

(P. O. Box 2099.) SAN FRANCISCO. 

[■STABLISHID 1861.] 




88 Olay Street and 28 Commercial Street 
Bar Franoiroo, Cal. 

EnoBNi J. Orbqory. [Established 1852.] Frake Orisort. 

Commission Merchants, 



126 and 128 J St.. - Sacramento, Cal. 

San Francisco Office, 313 DaTia St. 


And Dealers in Fruit, Produce, Poultry, Game, Eggs 
Hides, Pelts, Tallow, etc., 122 Front St., and 221, 288, 
226 and 227 Washinirton St., San Francisco. 


Incorporated AprU, 1871. 

Anthoriaed Oapltal $1,000,000 

Capital paid up and Reserve Fnnd 800,000 
DlTldends paid to Stockholders... 675,000 


A. D. LOGAN President 

1. C. STEELE Vice-President 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER...., Cashier and Manager 


General Banking. Deposits received. Gold and Silver. 
Bills of Exchange bought and sold. Loans On wheat and 
country produce a specialty, 

January 1. 1891. A. HONXPRLLIER, Uanager. 

fl Q ■ II P r A practical treatise bv T. A. Gabbi 
II K 11 n l« P K'ving the results of long experi. 

ence In Southern California. IM 
fllll Vimr* pages, oloth bound. Sent post-paid 
I III I 3IKI* al lednced price of 7B eta. psr iopy 
WUbl Wllk bylWWnkOO., Pnblidien.B.y, 



[Jan. 9, 1892 

Market Review. 


San Francisco, Jan. 6, 1892 
We have faiily entered the new year, yet it may 
take at least a fortnight before business resumes its 
normal condition. Money is in good supply, with 
the rate of interest favoring first-class borrowers. 
Rains and cloudy weather are working to the inter- 
est of farmers who are pushing outdoor work. 
Eastern and foreign wheat markets shaded off 
slightly, but toward the close the tone is stronger. 
The following is to-day's cablegram: 

Liverpool, Jan. 6.— Wheat — Firm. California 
spot lots, 8s 6}id; off coast, 43s; just shipped, 43s 
3d; nearly due, 43'! 3d; cargoes off coast, quiet; on 
passage, steadier; Mark Lane wheat, quiet; French 
country markets, quiet. 

Lilvei^ool Wbeat Market. 

The following are the closing prices paid for wheat 
options per ctl. for the past week: 

Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. April. Hay 
Thursday... ... SsT} d 8j7J d 897 d SbT d 89S1J d 


Saturday 88? d 8 6 d 8,8 d 886 d 

Monday *<s6J d 896} d 8s6 d 8>6i d 8s7J d 

Tueeday 896 d ga5 d 893^ d 8a6 d 895 d 

The following are the prices lor Calilornia cargoes 
lor off coast, nearly due and prompt shipments for 
the past week: 

O. C. P. S. N. D. Market for p. S. 

Thursday 439 43j 439 Steadier. 


'4aturd»> 43s3a 4393d 43f3.1 Rather Arm- r. 

Uinday 43-3 1 43sS<l 43-3.1 .S cadily held. 

laaeday 43b 43s3d 43-3d Inac ivo. 

Eastern Qrain Marketts. 

The following shows the closing prices of wheat 
at New York for the past week, per cental: 

Day. Jan. F b March. April. May. 

ThUTsday 176 178 180' .... 178J 


Saturday 174s 176§ 178i .... )76 

Monday 173J 175J 177| 175J ]78i 

Tuesday 174 J i;6J 178 177J 177i 

New York, Jm. 6. —— $1.05 (nr jauuary, 
$1.06 for February, i.oyH for March, $i.o-;% for 
April, $1.07 lor May and $1.05^ lor June. 

Chicago, Jan. 6.— Wheat— 955^ for May. 

Foreign Qratn Review. 

London, Jan. 4. — Mark Lane Express: English 
wheat is selling at a declme since Christmas. For- 
eign wheat sold slowly. December, on the average, 
was firm. To-day. English wheats were firm. For- 
eign wheat showed no improvement. Parleys are 
steady, with steady and improved retail demand. 
Oats, firm. Indian corn in favor of buyers. 

Foreign Bop Market. 

Mark Lane Express, Dec. ai : There are only a 
few growths of 1891 bops left in the hands of plant- 
ers, and for these the bids are gradually increasing. 
The principal trade in the Borough is between 
merchants and brewers, and owing to the shorten- 
ing of supplies values are very firm, with a tendency 
to increased price. Old hops are in belter demand 
and there is a slight improvement in values. Hold- 
ers, however, are not very willing to sell, the present 
prices being considered loo low. Continental hops 
are too dear on the other side to admit of much ex- 
portation to this country, but there is a good deal 
of inquiry here for medium and moderately priced 
sorts. New York State and California hops are in 
more demand, and the prices for these are gradually 

Eaatern Wool Markets. 

New York, Jan, i. — Bradstreet's says: The 
wojl markets are quiet, as is generally the case dur- 
ing the closing week of the year. Manufacturers 
are not buying heavily unless"! large concessions are 
made in their favor. Values, are on the whole, 
steady and firm. The year closed with prices gen- 
erally on a much firmer basis than did 1890. The 
indications point to a more active market during 
the first few months of 1892. Fleeces are still quiet, 
with very little business reported in them. T exas 
wools are moving well compared with the demand 
for other grades. A large sale is reported in Cali- 
fornia wool, but aside from this nothing of impor- 
tance has been done. There is a good, steady de- 
mand for Territories. Cheviot manufacturers are 
free buyers of pulled wools. Stocks are much 
lighter than they were a year ago, Australian wools 
have sold better. Wools from the new clip are now 
on the market, and lots from the last London sales 
are coming forward. The new wools are not as fine 
as those ol thr; last clip, being more burry and ten- 
der. Carpet wools are inactive. 

Boston.— Dec. 31. — The American Wool and 
Cotton Reporter, in its annual review of the wool 
market, shows the stocks of wool unsold in the prin- 
cipal markets of the United States, including Bos- 
ton, New York, Philadelphia, Chicago, San Fran- 
cisco, St. Louis, Galveston, Troy, Hartford, Provi- 
dence, San Antonio and Milwaukee, as follows. 
Total, 79.314,233 pounds; same time last year, 
65.920.822. Adding to the foregoing figures the es- 
timated amounts in other markets and concealed 
supplies, and wool in pullers' bands, they will make 
the total supply 106,414,233 pounds, against 92,861,- 
682 pounds one year ago — an increase of 13,552,351 
pounds. The prices for domestic wool during the 
year on an average, have declined about 2c per lb., 
and Australian and other foreign wools, fully ic. 
During the greater part of the year, an unusually 
large amount of foreign wool, notably Australian, 
has been sold in the American markets, which dis- 
placed an equal amount of domestic fleeces, which 
were for a long period, conspicuously inactive and 
accumulating in quantity. 

New York, Jan. 3.— Wool has no noted change 
in values; the trade for 1891 did not pan out in 
large profits. It was the lowest quoted year on rec- 
ord. Quick turns of stock at times made fair 
money, but holders who persistently waited for "the 
next deal " are not in the best of spirits. Still, the 
outlcok is favorable. Stocks are not heavy, and as 
there are Indications that manufacturers' wants will 

be steady, there is not the usual pressure to sell which 
is usual at this period. The surplus Australian stock 
of Boston largely belongs to mills that have been 
experimenting, and successfully, too, upon a pro- 
duction of high grade cloth. The Boston Wool 
Trade Record makes an estimate of 2@4C falling off, 
compared wiih Jan, i, 1891. The sales add up 
$150,800,000, against $151,600,000. Last year's 
stock of domestic amounted to 29,500,000 ths, 
against 24,700,000 tt>s. The stock of Australian 
was 1,904,000 tbs, 677.500 lbs more than on Jan. i, 

Dried Fruits. 

New York, Jan. 3. — Unpeeled peaches are weak; 
sacks, prime to choice, 6@7C. These should ob- 
tain a motion as the season advances, as there seems 
to be no stock of competing Southern. 

Prunes are quiet and easy; five sizes sacks, 7c. 
The recent rates lor special sizes are now extreme, 
even in grocery lots. 

Not much new business in raisins, but the holiday 
Week's consumption may soon develop some replen- 
ishing demand. It is well asserted that New Eng- 
land towns and smaller Eastern points have sold 
their first purchases down low. Two-crown bags, 
3^@4c; three-crown, 4M@4Kc; boxes, loose, are 
quoted at $i@i. 10, with sales. For layers there is 
no demand. 

Apricots are slow and cheap. Choice sacks bring 
8c; common, 6Hc; boxes, 9M@io. No old lots of 
importance are in the way. 

Chicago, Jan. 6 — The market for California 
dried fruits is brightening up alter the holiday slow- 
ness, so that a moderate business is already reported. 
Prunes are in good demand. Good clean lull 2 and 
3 Crown raisins in bags are in steady demand 
Dried grapes remain slow of sale. The trade in ap- 
ricots is very good, sack lots preferred. There is 
said to be a sharp demand for fancy peaches. 


New York, Jan. 3. — Hops seldom show such 
buoyancy at the close of the year. Cables are all 
strong; the home demand is liberal, though largely 
confined to the interior at this moment, with 20 
cents paid for 1000 only prime. The prospects are 
generally bright for the new year. State, common 
to choice is quoted at i8@22>ic; Pacific, i8@23c, 
high grades closing strong; Calilornia olds, 5@7C. 
The exports for the week were 3100 bales. 

New York, Jan. 6. — The aggregate amount of 
hops drawn from all foreign sources by England 
leaves no burdensome supply there, and the chances 
are that many more bales will be wanted from 
America before the end of the season, unless Ger- 
many does more in the future than up to date. 
There have been exported this season to date 
nearly 40,000 bales from New York and 8000 bales 
from other ports, which are far above the average ol 
preceding years. 


New York, Jan. 3. — Honey is firm, at 

Lima Beans— Spot, $1.75®!. 80 per bushel. The 

quality, size and cleanly condition of this crop is 

helpful to sales. 

Looal Markets. 


Buyer Sea.90D. 

Friday . . . 
Monday . 
Tuesda} . 


187 i 






Seller 1892 
U. L 

165 l.'SII 


tjuyer iteasOD Seller Season 



Tliuttday. . . 



Monday 114| 




H. L. 

lOSi 103 

Buyer 1812 



111 110} 

BAGS — The maiket shows more strength. With 
holders asking 7 to 7!^ cents for June-July delivery. 

BARLEY — The market, which has held weak 
and dull, shows a stronger tone at the close. In 
futures, trading shows a fair degree of activity. The 
following are to-day's reported Call Board sales: 

Morning Session: January — 100 tons, $1.11. 
Buyer season — 100 tons, $1.15^; 100 tons, $1.15 ^ 

BUTTER — The spot supply is light, yet the mar- 
ket does not respond much. Improving pastures 
and strong probabilities of increasing receipts of 
butter at an early day keep buyers ofi^sb. There 
has been and continues to be a large consumption 
of oleomargarine and butterlne. 

CHEESE — The market is weak, notwithstanding 
receipts are light. 

EGGS — Receipts are increasing, and as the holi- 
day consumption is over, dealers look for a gradual 
sinking in prices to set in toward the last of this 

FLOUR — The market is barely steady at un- 
changed quotations. 

WHEAT — The sample market has held to steady 
price?. Dealers and others report a slow demand 
Irom buyers, with holders showing no disposition to 
let go at concessions. In futures, trading has been 
light. The following are to-day's Call Board sales: 

Morning Session: Buyer season — 200 tons, 
$1.87; 300, $1.87;^; 100, $1.87 1? ctl. 

Market Information. 

Predictions of Bla Cropa Up North. 
Palouse (Wash.) Gaxelle : The Palouse hills are 
moistened so thoroughly that big crops next year 
are as certain as the rising of the sun. Heavy rains 
have been falling the last few weeks everywhere 
from Texas Ferry to Tekoa and from Alki to Union- 
town. Old settlers say that there hasn't been so 
much moisture for half a dozen years, and never 
such good prospects for crops this early in the 
season. In the western part of the county, about 
Endicott and Parapa, the moisture goes down 18 
or 20 inches, while in the eastern half, from Dia- 
mond to the Idaho line, the soil is damp 25 or 30 
inches from the surface. When spring opened last 
year, the total rainfall of the winter was not more 
than two-thirds of what it has been this fall up to 
the presen* time, and yet crops were good, except in 
a few localities. When it is known that the great- 
est fall usually comes during the months of January, 
February and March, an opinion may be formed 
of the condition in which the ground will be next 

Stocks of Oraln. 

Geo. A. Abel, official inspector of the Produce 
Exchange Call Board, reports the following stocks 
of grain, etc., in theeity Call Board warehouse : 
Tons. D»c. 1. Doc. 81. 

Wheat 8,018 4,827 

B rley 17.486 17,9.% 

Oats 8,3 .'S 5,032 

Corn 2,ida 3,350 

Bran 678 l,v!10 

At the close of December, 1890, the stocks were 
as follows : Wheat, 6464tons; barley, 9332; oats, 
1510; corn, 3210; bran, 30. 

The receipts in December, 1891, were 107,766 
tons wheat, 5817 barley, 2178 oats, 2968 corn and 
3158 bran. 

I'he stock of wheat, Dec. 31, 1891, in all Call 
Board warehouses, was as follows : 


San Franciso 4,527 

St ckton Dt.l54 

I'ort Co-ta 94,105 

Total 163,0S6 


Advices from all parts of the Slate report active 
outdoor work. It is very generally claimed that 
there will be an increased acreage seeded to all 
kinds of grain, particularly wheat and barley. Some 
counties report that .while the land has not been 
wet to any great depth, yet it is sufficient to meet 
all present requirements. With favorable spring 
weaiher there will be a very large crop outturn this 
year. Oregon and Washington advices report that 
the weather so far could noi have been improved. 

Wheat, in the sample market, continues lifeless. 
This inactivity is due largely to holders not pressing 
their grain on the market, and also to shippers wish- 
ing to clean up before entering in on new business. 
The quick dispatch given to vessels has seldom if ever 
before been equaled. It is now claimed that wiih 
a continuance in the present rate of loading vessels, 
the supply in this State will be cleaned up before 
three months pass by. It now looks as if we will 
enter the crop season of 1892-93 with a smaller 
carry over than at any time within the history of the 
prain trade of this State. 

Eastern mail advices report that the outward 
movement of wheat was never before equaled. 
Wheat is going out at the rate of 5,000,000 or 6,- 
000,000 bushels a week. For the week ending with 
Dtc. 19th, the eastbound shipments from Chicago 
aggregated 120,000 tons, against 80 000 tons fur 
the corresponding week in 1890. The enormous 
volume of the grain movement is further indicated 
by the fact that at last advices no less than 125 
miles of track at Chicago were filled with loaded 
cars, and that the Bnrlington road alone had 2200 
cars waiting to discharge. 

Barley in the sample market has held fairly steadv, 
with a stronger closing reported. The consumption 
in this State continues very heavy, notwithstanding 
a reported falling off in the demand from dairy and 
range stock feedt rs. It now looks as if we will have 
a small stock to carry over into the season of 1892- 
93. Receipts Irom up north continue light. 

Oats do not appear to be pressing the market so 
hard, and with a relaxation in shipments from 
up north to this port, there ought to be a rally in 
prices. The demand for feeding is said to be fairly 

Corn is essentially unchanged. Receipts and de- 
mand are about on a par. 

Buckwheat is firm, but rye is weak and heavy 
under a light call. 


For ground feed the market is essent'ally un- 
changed lor feedmeal, and also ground barley, but 
for bran and middlings the demand shows signs of 
shading off. 

Light receipts of hay and light supplies to draw 
from cause a fairly firm market at unchanged quo- 
tations. The demand for feeding range stock is 
easing up, but for work animals and stock fattening 
for market, the inquiry is about as heretofore re- 

Live Stock. 

Mutton sheep are marked up. Offerings are 
light. Bullocks are fairly steady. With improving 
pastures there will be less disposition to sell at pres- 
ent prices. Calves are firmer. Hogs move off at 
steady prices. 


Pears are going out. Quotations are more or less 

Grapes are hardly worth quoting, owing to poor 
supplies and an almost nominal demand. 

Receipts of apples from northern counties and up 
north continue quite free, but the consumptive de- 
mand, which is increasing and enlarging, cleans up 
the market for the more choice tart good-keepers. 
Choice to extra choice apples from Humboldt, Sis- 
kiyou, Oregon and Washington meet with a quick 
market at $t.5o@$2,oo for full-sized boxes. Of 
course the poorer kinds and defective sell for less 

Persimmons meet with a steady demand at 50c. @ 
$1.00 a box. 

In citrus fruits the market shows continued weak- 
ness, due largely to many forced consignments of 
wind-blown. After this rush is over it is quite rea- 
sonable to conclude that better prices will obtain, 
particularly when shipments eastward can be made 
at a profit, which will be soon after Florida's large 
crop is disposed of. Limes and lemons are a sliade 

Raisins are fairly steady. It now looks as if the 
Eastern market will soon begin to show more life. 
So far as we can learn raisins have gone quite gen- 
erally into consumption, and that stocks in all dis- 
tribution centers are light. Many look for a fairly 
active spring call, which will clean up supplies and 
permit our entering the new crop this season with 
almost bare markets. 

In dried fruits there is absolutely nothing new to 
report. Dealers continue to express confidence in 
the future. This belief is grounded on confirmed 
advices of large distributions throughout the East 
and also on this Coast, which have caused low 
stocks. With orders to replenish stocks for the 
spring trade, it is thought that the surplus now on 
this Coast will be cleaned up. Choice to fancy 
dried fruits of all kinds are said to be more strongly 
held, with an advance asked for some lines. 

The market continues poorly supplied with garden 
truck. Rains and favorable weather are favorable 
for gardening purposes. Unless we have unusually 

cold weather in this month, the season for truck 
farm stuff will open early. 

Freer receipts of onions and a sluggish demand 
have caused onions to shade off. 

Potatoes show a slightly stronger tone for the 
better keepers. Receipts are only fair, while the 
demand appears to be increasing. The quantity of 
wormy and otherwise defective potatoes put on the 
market was never before equaled. 


From reliable advices up to Jan. 6, the following 
summary tonnage movement is compiled : 

^In port.-%^ 

1892. 1891. 1892. 1891. 

Sao Francisco 280,093 281,211 "119,265 •62,680 

San Diego 20,l74 14,086 S,ai9 ) 

San Pedro 7,644 7,478 1,453 r 19,223 

Oregon 49.515 31,716 40,312 ) 

Puget Sound 21,880 28,010 . . 

Totals 579,206 3fl2,530 164,3.39 SI, 803 

"Engaged (or wheat, 1892, b3,9S2 1891, 53,262 

The statistics of produce exports from this port 

compiled by the Commercial News, Irom July ist 

to Dec. 28, are as follows: 

1S91. 1890. 

Wheat, Ptls 7,812,819 6,'.'88 788 

Flour, bbls .523.741 642,000 

Barley, ctU 764,703 188,378 

Poultry is generally higher, owing to light re- 

Hops are in light supply. To meet their require- 
ments both brewers and shippers are forced to pay 
more money. 

Wool is well cleaned up. It now looks as if bet- 
ter prices will rule soon. This will be enlarged 
on in our annual review, to be published this month. 

Honey is dull. 

Grass seeds are in good demand at firm prices. 

Domestic Prodaoe. 

Bitra oholoe In (ood paokages fetch an advanoe 00 top 
jaotatlouA, wDlle rer; poor grades sell lees tban the lower 
duolatlona. Weunesdat, January 6. 1891. 


Baro, ctl 1 75 I 

Butttst 2 20 I 

2 10 

2 85 
2 63 
2 05 
2 05 
2 65 
2 45 
2 '/5 

1 75 

2 10 

Pea 2 35 I 

Bed 1 90 I 

Pink 1 75 I 

Small White .. 3 25 1 
Large White. ... 2 10 1 

Uma 1 65 I 

Fid Pesf.blkere 1 50 

Do mru 1 90 

Do Eastern do.. 3 60 _ 

D:>Nliea 1 33 @ 1 45 

Upllt 4 @ — 

CaL Poorto('15 @ 30 
Do good to choice 321'A — 
Do Olltedged... 35 @ - 
Do CrBaraeryrolU 35 (g — 
Do doGiltolge.. 36 « — 

Eaatern 18 «t 30 

Oal. pickled 25 ft 23} 

Oal. cholou mild 13 @ - 
Da fair Co good 11 — 
Do gilt edged.. 14 ffl — 
VouDg Amfrica 12 (s 15 

Oal. ranob, doz. 35 (g — 
Dodo selected.. 40 (<« — 

Da store 25 (it 

Eastern 25 C* 35 

Bran, ton 16 .50 @18 50 

reedmeal 26 00 S - 

ar'd Barley.... 24 00 f 27 00 

Hlddllngs 20 00 (a22 CO 

OU Cake Heal. .25 00 !a27 CO 
Mauhattan Food y cwt. 7 50 

Wheat, per ton. 14° 00 @ — 

Do cfaoioe 15 5J @ — 

tVheat and Uatsl3 00 » 

Wild Data 12 00 — 

Cultivated do.. 12 50 @ — 

Barley 11 00 @ - 

AlfaUa 10 00 S — 

Clover 12 00 « - 

Straw bale 50 @ IM 

Barley, feed, ctl 1 07|^ - 

Do Oholoe I 12l 

Do Brewing .... 1 12i@ - 
Do do Choioe... 1 16 S - 
DodoOiltedge.. 1 29 ^ - 
Do ChcTalier ... 1 20 (rf 1 45 
Dodo Giltcdge.. 1 48{(se 1 52i 
uuckwtaeat. 2 00 M 2 25 
Com, White. .. 1 35 « — 
Yellow, large... 1 2613 1 311 

DoamaU 1 33J§ 1 38| 

uats, mlllJug. . . 1 45 ^ — 
Feed, f'hoiO!.... 1 42* @ — 

D j good 1 35 « — 

D) fair. . .. 1 30 @ — 

Surprise 1 50 @ — 

Black Csl 1 60 «< f 95 

Do O.egou... 1 45 @ 1 60 

Gray 1 32J(? 1 41} 

Kyo 1 60 ii* - 

Wheat, milling. 

OUtedged.... I 85 - 

D» Oholoe 1 83ilg — 

Dofalrtogood.. 1 80 W — 
Hhipping, oho'oe ] 80 @ — 

Do good 1 78JS — 

Do fair 1 76 a - 

Oommon 1 71}@ — 

Honora I n\<& 1 89 


1891 Choice to Ex. 21 & 23 
Fair to Good... IBlg - 

Sxtra.OltyMiUs 5 40 5 
DaOountryUiUa 5 25 i| 5 

luperUoe 3 40 ^ 3 

Walnute, Oal. t> 

Do Oboloe 

Da paper shell . . 

Da Chili 

Almonds, s(t till. 

Paper ithell 

Hard Shell. 


Pnoans smalL . . 

Do large 






.Silver SkiD 50 1 

Barly ViMe, ctl. 30 @ 

Peerlefs 35 C 

BurbaukHeedUog, 40 (/» 
Dodo Halloas.. 90 @ 1 

.Sweet's 3 Ub (0 3 

Garnet Chiles.. . 40 (a 
KlTer Reds 30 @ 


Hens, dox 6 00 @ 9 

Rooeteta.old.... 6 00 

Do young 6 SO 

Broileti, small.. 4 50 

Do large £60 

Fryers 6 60 

Ducks 6 00 

Oeeae. pair I 75 

Turkeiys. Oobl'r. 13 
Turkeys, Hens.. 13 ^ 
Do Dressed. ... 16 
Mauhattan Egg 

Food cwt... 11 60 @ 
Oal.BaooD.lie'Ty.l) 929 

Uedlum 11 S 

Light I31« 

Oal. 8m'k'dBw>« llt9 
Hiuiis,CalBalt'd 10 (0 
do Eastern... 12t^ 

7 a 
10 I 


3 60 I 



Olover, Red. 




Mustard, yellow 3 

do Brown ... 3 CO 
Spring, 1891 
Htunb't AMen'dao 30 
Bacto valley. ... 16 
Free Mountain. 19 
8 JoaQuln valley 

do mouotalu . 
Oala'Tt F'thll. 
Oregon Eastern. 

do valley 

Bo'n Coast, def.. 
Bo'n Coast, tree. 

Fall, 1391, 

San Jnaqulu 9 @ 

Mouutaio 10 «t 

Humb'tft Men'clQo 14 ^ 

WhiteComb,3-n> 10 
do do 1 -lb f ram J 
White exttact'd 
AmlKr do 
Beeswax, lb 

13 -a 







Fmits and Vegetables. 

(Choice selected, 
qaotatlons, while 

Limes, Mel 5 

Do C'al 

l.emous, tios — 1 

Do Hicily 6 

OrauKes. Winter 

small box 

D" Seedlings 

River .'ide 1 

Ix>B Angelee.. 1 
Do NaveU— 
Los Angeles, , 1 
Riveraide .... 2 

Duarte 3 

Apples, box. . . . 
Do choice 1 

In good packages, fetch ao advance oc the 
very poor grades sell lees than the lower 

Wed.ns;8DAV, January C, 1891 
50 @ 6 50 Do extra chuicu 1 50 (3 3 00 
75 ) 00 Do Lady Apples 7S S 1 35 

25 m 3 50 Grape* 40 1 00 

53 (?( 7 00 Pears, box 60 @ 1 25 

60 ( 
15 I 

Beets, sk 
50 ^ 1 00 Carrots, sk.. 

Ukra, diy, B> 
75 @ 3 2li Parsnips, ctl. 
25 «' 1 75 Peppers, dry, lb IS n 

Turnips, ctl 60 a 

75 @ 2 75 Cabbage, IOCSh 60 a 

00 «t 3 50 Garlic, lb 3 

00 @ 3 50 8quagb,Mrft, tn. 7 00 @ 
40 <S 75 Pumpkins, ton. 7 00 @ 
00 «( I 25 

i 00 

1 36 

Live Stook. 

HOGS. [Third quality 4 @ - 

Light, V lb. ceuts 4)3 -'Bulls an 1 tlUn Cuws.. 3 @ 3 

Heavy 4 « - VEAL. 

Feeders 5|»f— Range, heavy 4|@ i 

Stock Hogs 3 @ - light 8 « 8 

BEEF. Dairy 7 6 8 

Stall fed 6*^ - MUTTON. 

Grass fed, extra 6 % -|Wethers 9091 

First quality 54® - Ewes 8iO 9 

Second qoalllr 41^ — LMmb, ysarliog 9 (8 — 

Do i'all Uldll 

Jan. 9, 1892.] 

, pAciFie i^uraid press. 


List of D. S. Patents for Paolfio Coast 

Beported by Dewey & Co., Pioneer Patent 
SoUcltors for Pacific Ooaat. 


466,146.— Bow FOR Stringed Musical In- 
struments — Ayres & Schroeder, Whipple, Barracks 
A. T. 

466.214.— Instrument »or Measuring the 
Units of Work Done by Machines— H. C. 
Behr, S. F. 

466,014. — Nut Lock — Brasnahan, Richardson & 
Fritschi, Suisun, Cal. 

466,075. — Wrapping Machine— W, A. Brown, 
S. F. 

466,063.— Electric Annunciator— F. C. Col- 
ville, Oakland, Cal. 

465,974. — Lock— H. Elliott, Los Angeles, Cal. 

466.231.— Valve FOR Hydraulic Elevators— 
C. I. Hall, 8. F. 

465,861.— Fire Extinguisher.— C. D. Harsin, 
S'ockton, Cal. 

465.929 — Steam Boiler — A. Heberer, Alameda, 

466,237. — Motive Engine — J. L. Heiderson, 
Alameda, Cal. 

466.073. — Truck— Hunt & Ball, Winters, Cal. 

466.074. — Memorial Burial Tablet— J. W. 
Hant, Kirby, Or. 

466,170. — Metallic Packing — Kilborn & 
Young, Oakland, Cal. 

465,987.— Car Coupling— John C. Look, San 
Josp, Cal. 

4615,878. — Dumping Trap — C. D. Page, Tacoma, 

466.256— Vineyard Burner— Jas. Porie- 
0U-, Fresno, Cal. 

465,979. — Ore Concentrator— G. E. Wood- 
bury, S. F. 

NoTB.— Copies of U. 8. and Foreign pktentg furnished 
by Dewey & Co. , in the shortest time possible (by mail 
for telegraphic order). Amurican and Foreign patents 
obtained, and general patent business for Pacifio Coast 
Inventors transacted with perfect security, at reasonable 
rates, and in the shortest possible time. 

The Self-Pubification of Rivbes. — Pro- 
feiBor von Pettenkofer has been stadylng the 
laer River, wbioh flows throagh Manlob, carry- 
ing the city's sewage. He says that five miles 
below the city there Is not a trace of the polln- 
tioD which finds its way into the river. Some 
observers have thought that the self-pnrifioa- 
tlon of rivers is dae to deposition of sediment. 
Dr. von Pettenkofer, however, maintains that 
the real agent at work in porifying the Iser 
river is the oxygen of the air which is absorbed 
by or dissolved in the water. 

Newspaper Agents Wanted. 

Extra inducements will be ofiered for a 
few active canvassers who will give their 
whole attention (for a while at least) to so- 
liciting subscriptions and advertisements 
for this journal. Apply soon, or address 
this office, giving address, age, experience 
and reference. Special inducements to old 
agents. Dewey & Co., Publishers, 
No. 220 Market St.. S. F 

Improvements in Sugar Manufacture. — 
It is laid that recent improvements that have 
been made in the manufacture of sugar from the 
sorghum plant deprives the sugar of an objec- 
tionable flavor which it has previously had. Ik 
is also claimed that by the new process the yield 
la materially increased. The new process is 
thus, in part, described : " Alcohol is mixed 
with the sorghum syrup, and after treatment 
the former is recovered by redistillation, so that 
there is no appreciable loss. In the use of five 
barrels of alcohol, only a quart or so was lost. 
The sugar is nearly white, and it is strong in 
saccharine qualities — above 90 degrees." 



Importer of American and Foreign 
Band Instruments, Accordions, Violins, 
Guitars, Sheet Music, Books. Etc. 


No. 6 and 9 Best Qaality Steel Wire in 
Long Lengths. 

We have a very large Stock and will sell low. 


No. Fremont St. San Francisco Oal. 

No story need be told of the Cyclone or of the number that have been sold. They can be seen working in 
every Inhabited part of the Pacific Slope whilst hundreds are exported every year. 

The Cyclone mill is not an experiment, but acknowledged by all who have used it to be the most powerful and 
durable mill on the market. 

It is simple in construction, has no cogs or complicated gearing to get out of order. Has only three principal 
bearings, heavily babbiterl boxes and self oiling apartments. 

The wheel and vane of the Cyclone (which are the most durable parts of any solid wheel mill) are made strong 
and of well seasoned wood finished with the best lead and oil which neither blister in the sun nor is consumed by rust 

Send for Illustrated Catalogue to 

Pacific Manufacturing Company, 


Manufacturers and Jobbers of Windmills, Pumps, Tanks, TUBULAR 
WELL TOOLS, Pipe, Fittings, Etc., Etc 


NO POLE except oo 

tra ihe road. 


One Plowman 
Instead of two. 

Solid (qmforT 





Seven Acres a ^o/oVtwo* 

Four horses abreast— one in the 
furrow, three on the land, 
'oot brake prevents gunj^ running on 
team. Levers within reacb. 

J\'o bottom or 
side friction. 
Weight of furrows, 
frame and plowman 
carried on three greased splndlea. 
Draft reduced to 

lowest possible limit 

Saslcr Driving, Stralgliter Far- 
rows, and Lighter Draft 

than any Gang in America. 
Adjustable /raine—cau be iiari'ovvea or 
widened at will, and converted Into a 
single plow in a few moments' time. 
Made with .Stubble, Sod and Stubble, and 
prairie breaker bottoms, in Steel or Chilled 
Metal. Kightorleft— 10, 12or Hinchcut 
^pecial prices and time for trial ffiven on 
llrat orderafrom points where we haveno Agents 

ECONOMIST PLOW CO., South Bend, Indiana. 

Our book -"VVn ON THE FAKM"- sent Fre« to kU who menUou this paper. 







Assoc. Prof. Agriculture, Horticulture and Entomology, 
University of California; Horticultural Editor Pacific 
Rural Press, San Francisco; Secretary California 
State Horticultural Society; President Cali- 
fornia State Floral 'Society; President 
San Francisco Microscopical Society. 


Emhodying the Experience and Methods of Hundreds 
of Successful Growe p, and Constituting a Trust- 
worthy Guide by which the Inexiierienced 
may Successfully Produce the Fruits 
for w it h California is Famous. 

Large OctaTO-599 Pages, FdI y Ulnstratei 




PuBLisHEHS Pacific Rural Phess, 
220 Market Street, Elevator 12 Front Street. 


Advertisement for Proposals ! 

Directors of the Bear Valley Irrigation Company at 
Redlands, California, until March Ist, 1892, for the con- 
struction of a Tunnel about 6600 feet in leneth through 
rock, in accordance with the plans and specifications on 
file in the office of the undersigned. Biddets may propose 
to furnish their own plan^, o to use a c^'mplete power- 
drilling, hauling and ventilating plant to be furnished by 
the Company. Each bid must be accompanied by a 
certified oheck fir not less than 2% of the amount of the 
proposal. The Directors reserve the right to reject 
any or all proposals. EDWARD M. HOGGS, Engineer, 
Banning, California. 





The Best, Lightest, Cheapest 
Engine in the world. Can be 
V arranged to Burn Wood, Coal, 
Straw or Petroleum. 5 or 8 H. P. 
Mounted on skids or on wheels 
TRITMAN. HOOKKK A CO Ran Franoinoo. 

Treatise on the Horse and His Diseases. 

By B. J. Kendall, H. O. 

35 Fine Engravings showing 
the positions and actions of sick 
horses Gives the cause, symp- 
toms and best treatment of dis- 
eases. Has a table giving the 
doses, effects and antidotes of 
all the principal iredicinesused 
for the horse, and a few pages 
on the action and uses of med- 
dicines. Rules for telling the 
age of a horse, with a fine en- 
graving showing the ftppearanoe 
of the teeth at each year. It is printed o'_ fine paper 
and has nearly 100 pages, 71x6 inches. Price, only 26 
cents, or five for SI, on receipt of which we will send 
by mall to »Dy address. DBWBT Si OO., 

090 Uarlrot Ot R V 



As Chean as the Cheapest and as Good as the Best. 
Terms reasonable. Horsemen, do not purchase elsewhere 
until you have seen and judged the recent importation 
o( Theo. Skillman, Petnluma, Cal. All choice young 
Stal ions, warranted sound and foal-getters. 

Visitors cordially welcomed. Catalogue sent free on 




SECTION 15, T. 23, R. 24-640 ACRES OR LESS-S4 
miles S. W. of Plxley, can be had at a nominal rent 
the first year, with preference for after years. Would give 
use of 160 acres or more for two years for boring a flowing 
artesian well. Call on L. E. Smith, Wells, Fargo & Co. 'a 
office, Pixley, or address the undersigned, A. T. DEWEY. 
Also, one-quarter Sec. 13, T 21, R. 23, 9 miles S. W. of 
Tulare City. Satisfactory arrangements can likely be 
made for irrigating the latter. 


W^- . SEND TO..,-'--^-^^^ 






Dieman " Pecan, soft shell, grown by Col. Stuart. 
The finest and largest pecans grown. For terms, address 
MRS. J. HUTCHIKSON, Fillmore, Ventura Co., Cal. 

Texas Thin Shell I 

Growing the Texas Tbin 
Shell Pecjn pa^8 better 
than Banking, Real Estate, 
Bonds or Stocks. One acre 
earns more than 10 acres 
in most farm products. 
Send for Circular. 

Texas Pecan & Seed Co. , Fort Worth, Texas. 

LAST & BEAR like WHOLEtii^ 
ROOT Trees; see "Fruits andAV 
Fruit Trees"— Free. ylmt r.XO 
/»'«sa,ys iNovel, USEFUL, to the point, (mi ii'ii- ./i/ij<l\\\ 

Fiiriiii'r: Ably written: gives trusty INFORMATION. I 'al 
Fnd/ (jroicer: Surprising LOW pncesl Apple, Pear^ " 
ry, Plum. PRONE, Peach, Ap't, Quince, Nut. Or. Trees 
R0SE8— (!»ervM!H(/. No larger stock in U.S. No BETTER 
No cheaper. STAKK BRO.S. ,16th Bt., Louisiana, i\ 
Itlo.—Foanded 18^5; OLDEST. 1000 Acres; LARGEST .\) 

Alfalfa, Grass. Clover, Vegetable, Flower and 

Seeds of every variety. Trees and Nursery Stock. B F. 
WELLINGTON, 426 W»<>hlr%ton St.,'San Francisco, C»I. 



Oldest and Most Reliable Seed House on the Pacific Coast. 

In no business in existence is there a greater room for fraud and deception than in the SEED BUSINESS. In 
nothing should more care be exercised than in the purchase of Seeds. Many Gardeners both professional and 
amateur, have found out what it was to buy SEEDS from IBRBSFONSIBLE SBKDHIUKM . 

We do not believe that people want fo be HUMBUGGED when they buy Seeds, consequently we believe In 
sending out only the beat which we can grow or procure. HONEST SEKOS AT BOMBST PRICES. 
Thsce not already purchasers of our SEEDS are respectly invited to make a trial of them. 


We mail free on application our beautifully Illustrated Catalogue, containing description and prices of Grass, 
Vegetable and Flower Seeds of all descriptions, Fruit Trees, Plants, etc. 





[Jan. 9 1892 

The Hoit Grafter. 



Rapid in Operation. Eisily Handled. 


S«Dd for tree descriptive pamphlet to 


724- J Street, Sacramento, Cal. 





about Seeds. We will send 
you Free our Seed Annual 
for 1892, which tells 



We illustrate and give 
prices in this Catalogue, 
which is handsomer than 
ever. It tells 


Write for It to-day. 
(P. O. Box 1033 ) 

D.M.FERFV A. CO., Detroit, Mich. 

NAPlTVALLEY nurseries! 




Strictly First-Class. 

Special Attention c&Ucd to Magniflcent Stock of 

FRENCH PRUNES (Pettte d'Agen), 

Send for New Catalo^e. 


Fine Small Fruits a Specialty. 


and luscious, stands travel finely, bears immens ly, 
and has two crops a ye»r; 50 cents per dozen; J3 per 100. 
Also Strawberries, Blackl)errie3, Gooseberries, Currants, 
etc, of the finest imported varieties. Prices on applica- 
tlou. L. U. McCANN, Santa Craz Cal. 




ALFRED WRIGHT, Pomona, Gal. 

p. O. Box 382. 
ManzanlUo and Nevadlllo Blanco Trees, 

One and Two Years Old. 
Every tree warranted true to label end free from scale. 
All orders will be carefully packed and delivered at S. P. 
Depot, Pomona, and Santa Fe, North Pomona, without 
extra charge. 


One year transplanted, 6 to 6 inches, Slper 100, tlSper 
(too, $30 per M. Other small stock for transplant! l g. 
Send for llbt. Address 

GEO. VESTAL, Little Rock. Ark. 

FRUIT TRFP<5 french prune on myrobc 

r iiui ■ ■ iii-Utf, Ian, dormant two buds on each 
stock; French Prune and Peaches on Peach, 1-2 feet high, 
(6 100, $50 $ 1000; also Apples, 2-4 feet, standard vari- 
eties; Bartlett Pears, 2 years, cheap. For siniplos address 
NURSERYUAN, P. 0. B. 363, Sacramento, Cal. 



nnd many otlier tlilnsn can he 

wbcri-lhuc-llmati-wiU permit. Our 
it'iisL' Htorage luiuscs are tilled 
til I ht-clioicest Fruit iirjil <»r- 
naiiii-ntnl Trees, Shrubs, 
KoMi's, (JrniM-n, A.C., iiii lu<l- 
inu many >oVi:l.TII-:S.V.-e 
jiack in .such u manner tliat 
t'liipils can be traiisporte<l in 
ilie lolilest weather uilbout In- 
Jiirv. New llhiMtrnted and 
) I>escri|>live priced (ieneral 
CATAHMinC, containiii); in- 
^^^^^^^^^^H 1~i>rnialinii in4li>*prnsnble to 
planters— Iht' most roiniilele rublishe.l — KllEE. 





Successor to L. BURBANK. 


On Peach, Almond and Myrobolan Roots. 

oiisimiES. o Hi IVES 


Everything in the Nariery Line. 

Centennial Cherries, Walnuts, Chestnnts, 
Shade Trees and Small Fruits. 



Onion Sets. Grass, Clover, Vegetable 
and Flower Seeds. 



lUustratfd Descriptive and Priced Seed CSataloeue for 
189:i. the most elaborate and valuable of its kind of any 
Pacific Coast publication, mailed free to all applicants. 


816 & 817 Sansome .Street, San Francisco, 
or 65 Front Street, Portland, Or. 



Prices and a Paipli'et u \U Mn Mailed Free. 


John S. Calkins' Nurseries. 

Pomona, Los Angeles Co., Cal. 



13 U OI 13 XTO XT 161 TMJE S 

Price List mailed free. Address 


p. 0. Box 88 REDWOOD CITY, CAL. 









Pomona, Los Angeles Oounty, OaL 

Write and get Prices. 

Pacific H eights N ursery 

Nurserymen and Florists, Attention I 

We have on hand and constantly arriving from Japan 
and China: 

Camellias, Aaaleas, Iris Kaempferl (over 160 
varieties). Ferns, Palms, Cycas Revoluta, Zamla, 
Japan Orange, Persimmon and other Frnlt 
Trees, Lillles, Nerine Japonica, Chrysanthe- 
mums. New and Kare Evergreen and De- 
cldaoug Trees, New and Kare Plants, Shrnb 
and Paliu Seeds. 

All plants acclimated. Send us your Business Card 
and we will quote Trade Prices for 1000, 100, 10 or single 


aS26 Jackson Street, 

San Francisco, Cal. 

Pacilc Mmi 



Fruit Trees, Olives, Grapes, 

Ornamental Trees and Plants, 

Roses, Magnolias, Palms. 


Azaleas Indica and Mollis, 

Camellias and Rhododendron. 

Send for New Price List. 
Baker and Lombard Streets, San Francisco. 

100,000 EXTRA PIWE 


Apple, Pear, Plum, Cherry, Peacb, Apricot, 
Nectarine, Quince. Orape Vines 
and Small Fruits. 

500,000 FRUIT TREES. 

Orange, Lemon, Lime. Olive, Japan Persim- 
mon, and all kinds of Nut-Be^rlng 
Treee. Shade and Ornamental 
Trees, Shrubs, Etc. 


Ask for Prices. 

James T. Bogue, Marysville, Cal. 

Apple, Pear, Plum. Etc. 

Peaoh, Apricot, Etc. 
Complete Assortment. Order now for Spring Planting. 


P. S. PHCENIX, NurBeryman, 





Fruit and Ornamental Trees ! 

: FOR SEASON 1891-92. 

We are the heaviest growers of FIO TREES AND ROOTED TINES on the Coast. 
FIG AND GRAPE CUTTINGS (including Thompson Seedless) for sale. 








ll'J Pnircs, 200 Pine EnnravinKs, Handsome Colored PInti-jt. Full uf usi ful mid instructive 
miormutiun. One of the most reliable ciitiili.i-ues pubM.ibed. DeHcriblnic nil kinds ol'iciinrnntei-d 
l.arUen. Flower and Field Seeds, Fruit nnd Ornnineiitiil Trees, Siiinll FriiilN. Choice 
KOHCH. Flowerinu Plants and Itulbs. Thoroughbred Land and Water Fowls, Keicistervd 
IJKS, ».eriiian^IIareB, iVc. Sent free, on application. Address, mentloiiint! this i 


B arren Hill N ursery. 




The Largest and Finest Collection of 


To be found in the United States and 
excelled nowhere in Europe. 


Proeparturiens, or Fertile Walnut, 

Introduced into California In 1S71 h^ Felix OUlct; and 
also of the great market walnuts of the world, 

Mayette, Franquette and 

The " HARDIEST " walnut varieties known, and which 
render walnut culture possible as far north as the State 
of Washington. 





APRIL CHERRIES, four varieties, the earliest kinds 
ever introduced in California. 


By FELIX GILLET, of Nevada City, Cal., an Essay on the 
Different Uodes of Budding and Grafting the Walnut; 
illustrated with eiaht cut-* made a'ter nature. 

Will be sput with descriptive catalogue to any address 
on receipt of 25 cents in postage stamps. 

California Dessert Prunes, 


Prepared by Felix Oillet's Process Elegantly packed in 
two-pound suKsr pine boxes. 75 bents per box, by ex- 
press to any part of California and Orceon free of charge. 
SO cents by mail to all parts of the United States. 

plement" containing chapters on Walnuts and Prunes, 
illustrated with 26 cuts, and Price List, sent free on 





Web avc the Largest Collection 

— OK — 

Fruits, Palis, Ferns. 

Economic Plants, 


From the F'HJR CORNERS of the Karth, grown for 
sale in the U. S. No nursery like ours. Supply Cas- 
tomers all over the Whole Wor d, bj MAIL, 


E-itablisbcd lbs3. 




Citrus Fruit Trees ! 

LEMONS- Eureka, Villa Franca, Lisbon and Sicily. 
ORANGE -Washington Navels, Mediterranean Sweat, 

St. Michaels Blood, &c., Mandarin and Tangeriene. 
OLI VES— Mission and the Foreign Varieties— Spanish 

Italian and French. 

With the largest collection of TROPICAL FRUIT 
TRKES AND PALMS In the State. 
Send for Catalogue and Price List to 


Santa Barbara, Cal. 

FOR sale-rooted VINES 

200,000 MUSCAT. 
200, OOp MALAGA. 
50,000 SULTANA. 

Warranted true to name and first-class. LOWEST 
MARKET RATES. For particulars, address 


Box 165, Fresno, or 480 California Street, 
San Francisco. 

Addreo. C. B. OBCDTT, Oroutt, Oallfomla 


Jan. 9, 1892.] 

pACine f^URAlf> PRESS. 


geedg, WaDl3, be. 




New Stock. 


Northern Seed Co., 

(Successo'S to WESTCOTT & CO ) 


Raspberry, Strawberry and Blackberry Plants. Price 
on application. L. D. BUTT, Penryn, Placer Co., Cal. 


£0,000 Bartlett Pear. 

15,000 Yellow Cling and Free Peaches. 

Leading Varieties. 

Royal A pricot. New White Nectarine, French 

JAPAN PLUMS in Variety. 

D. W. LEWIS, Nurseryman. 



IB for sale by Agents at bookstores in San Diego, River- 
side, Los Angeles, Bakersfield, Visalla, Hanford, Fresno, 
Meroed, Sacramento and Marysville; also, by Dewey & 
Co., 220 Market St., and the H. S. Crocker Company, 216 
Bush St., San Francisco. Prloe. Three Dollars. Send 






New American Grape, " The Pierce." 

Olives, Oranges, Lemons and Figs. 

New California Orange, "The Joppa." 

Shade Trees, Evergreens, Shrubs, Roses, Climbing Plants, Etc. 

Send or our New Catalogue. 

CALIFORNIA NURSERY CO., ''^'^roliA^cVf^Z%r''''- 




Largest and Most Complete Stock of Fruit, Shade and Ornamental Trees on the PaciQc Coast. 

nipples. Almonds, Apricot, Pear, Prune, Plum, Peach and Cherry. 
Also Fine StocK Olives, Oranges, Lemong, Nut Trees and Small Fruits; Magnolias, 
Camelliasi Palms; Large Stock of Boses, Clematis, Etc., Etc. 


Catalogues Mailed Free. Address 





FOR SEASON OF 1891 AND 1898. 




Address CENTRAL NURSERY CO., Acampo or Sacramento. 


Med. Sweet, R. W. Navel, Malta Blood, P. R. St. Michael, Satsuma, 

And other new .md old varieties. 

Villa Franca , Lisbon and Eureka Lemons. Shamrock Orange for Hedges. 

ALOHA NURSERIES, Penryn, Placer Co., California. 

WM \Mnnn rn commission merchants, 


ALFALFA SEED I to 125 J street, 



I. H. THOMAS & SON, Proprietors. 



The Famous Early Imperial Peach a Specialty, 




fanoher creek nursery, 






New Descriptive Catalogue and Pamphlet on Fig Culture mailed Free on application. 

Correspondence Solicited. Address 




Oaxx Too I3oll-^oi-o<rl jfroxxx □F'l-osxxo or Stools. ton.. 

Special Prices on Lots of 50,000 or more. 

White Adriatic and San Pedro Figs 

A Full Line of Fruit and Ornamental Trees, Shrubs, Vines, Palms, Roses & Small Fruits. 


Stools-toxx. — — — — — C«,l±f orxxl«,. 


4 TO 6 FT.; 2 TO 34 FT; 1 TO 2 FT. 


These trees have an extra fine lot of roots, and are guaranteed to be the genuine French Prune (Petite Prune 
d'Affen), the well known variety which is grown and dried so successfully in California. 

White Adriatic Figs, 2 to 4 Feet, 



P. W. Treat, Davisville Nurseries, Davisvllle, California. 



^mESKTOH I»HXTiIXrElS on Myrobolan, Peach and Almond Roots. 


T^-Ft TTT%/r-FtTT T .T ■ c*? "Ft KZ-fclBJEJ, 

Growers of Fruit and Ornamental Trees, Vegetable, Flower and Farm Seeds, 




For Over Thirty Years 

we have always had very pleasant dealirgs together, the 
public and myself, and I again have the pleasure of 

f resenting to them my Annual Vegetable and 
'lower Seed Catalogue. It contains .the usual 
immense variety of seed, with such new kinds added 
as have proved to be real acauisitions. Raising many 
of these varieties myself, on my four seed farms, 
,-ind testing others, I am able to warrant their fresh- 
ness and purity, under such reasonable conditions as are con- 
tained in my Catalogue. Having been their original intro- 
ducer, I am headquarters for choice Cnry Corn, Miller Melon, 
Eclipse Beet, Hubbard Squash, Deep Head, All Seasons and 
Warren Cabbage. Ktc.Klc. Catalogue KKEE to all. 
a. J. II. OKEeoteY <t so*, Marblehettd, Maaa. 

DBWBY & CO. i=^^,^fvtfo^.^^a^/riu^.-.^i PATENT AG £]Im'1«. 


f ACiFie i^uraid press. 

LJam. 9, 1892 

( Formerly Called " TRIUMPH." ) 


:pi?,o G-i?.E ss I 


Southeast Corner Market and Main Sts., San Francisco, Cal. 

Greatest Pulverizer of the Age. 




(Copy.) TuLiRE, CiL., Nov. 27, 1891. 

H. C. SHAW PI/)W WORKS, Stockton, Cil.— Dear Sir: Replying; to yours o( the 25th concerningr the 
Horfiran Spading Harrow would say, first we bought one oa trial. It gave auob perfect satisfaction that we bought 
two more. This number not being sufficient, we borrowed a fourth one from our neighbor. We take pleasure in 
saying that as an orchard and vineyard cultivator, as well as a pulverizar, we have seen nothing to eijual It, it do- 
ing the work cheaper and nicer than any other cultivator we have had. We have laid all others aside, and next 
year will use nothing but the " Morgan Spading Harrow." Yours truly, PAIOE & MORTON, 


Saoramento, Cal., Dec. 31, 1891. 
H, C. SHAW PLOW WORKS, Stockton, Cil.— Gents: In reply to your inqniiy concerning the Uorgao Spad- 
ing Harrow purchased by me last spring, would say that 1 ordered it for the purpose of experimenting in my 
orchard to ascertain whether or not I could get an implement that would combine the qualities of the disc and 
cult vator. I find upon trial that the harrow above referred to is the most complete tool that can he used in an 
orchard. As a pulverizer, leveler, and cultivator, I do not hesitate to say it is the best I have ever seen. It thor- 
oughly stirs the ground beneath the surface without opening it to the sun's rays and keeps the ground loose of 
Buffloient depth to retain necessary surface moisture. I do not hesitate in recommending it. Very trulv, 


We are Sole Agents for the Coast. 


361, 363, 365, 367, 370 389 and 390 El Dorado Street. 



This Pump Is double actingand made 
entirely of brass. 


Does Its work thoroughly and Is the 
best small spray pump made. 


with Adjustable Coultet, Equalizer, 
Neckyoke and Extra Share. 




Hand and Windmill Pumps and Cylinders, Feed Cutters, 


I Write (or Prices. Hontlon this Paper. 

Nnmber 42. PRIC E $75 .00. Order by Number. 

We positively gua-aotee this Bugey better than work being sold at *125 to S150. Double Collar, steel axle, 
Sarven piteot wheels or shell band with rims bolted between each spoke; top, leather quarter and back staya 
cushion and back of the very best leather; paint, bottle green or carmine. 


SURREY. $127.00 

SURREY 149.00 

CARRIAGE 125.00 

CARRIAGE 190.00 


h: isr E s s 


$7.00, $9.00. $13.00, $14 00, $15,00, 
$17.00 and $18.00. 

3K FreiBt SI. San Fraicisco, 


TOP BUGGY $61.00 

TOP BUGGY 75.00 

TOP BUGGY 78 00 

PHAETON 95.00 

PHAETON 99.00 









49 00 
89 00 

$115.00. $125.00, $150.00. 

Nnmber 38. PRICE $48.00. Order by Nnmber. 

Doub'e collar, 1-inch eteil axle, and l>lnch steel tire, Sarven wheels and oiNteiupered springs, trimming of 
Kvana' leather, finished In oil and varnish or painted. 

The Cheapest and Best Knock-About Wagon Sold on the Coast. 


CALIFORNIA WAGON & CARRIAGE CO., ^e* fRemont^stre^^^^ 

Vol. XLIII.-N0. 3. 


[ Office, 220 Market St. 

A Great Aqueduct for Irrigation. 

We are doing many original thinga in irri- 
gation engineering in California. Some of our 
reservoir dams are, we anderitand, the great- 
est of their kind in the world and Involve novel 
prluoiplei and methods of oonstraotlon. Some 
of oar flames, which oondact water both for 

money. It is fortunate, too, that a maoh 
greater expansion of oar irrigated area is still 
within the reach of private capitalists and co- 
operative effort among private land owners. 
It may be in the years to come when the im- 
provement of the greater arid regions of the 
Interior shall be reclaimed by irrigation that 
publio works rivalling those of India may be a 

this aqaeduot carries over the Kili Niddi, was 
designed as an extension of the irrigation 
scheme of the Upper Ganges canal, conceived and 
oonstrnoted by Sir Proby Oantley about the 
time of the matiny, and was opened in the year 
1876. In the year 1888-89, the Lower Ganges 
canal had 564 miles of main line and 2050 miles 
of minor distributaries, and irrigated 519,022 

aqueduct, all the railway and road bridges be- 
low it were also destroyed, and many villages 
swept away. 

The proportion of the foundation to the 
superstructure of the new Nadrai aqueduct can 
be gathered from the fact that three-fourths of 
the expenditure of money and time were con- 
sumed by what is now liidden below gronnd. 



mining and Irrigation, are peerleBs for ingenuity 
in location and ways of building and support. 
Still, for grand irrigation works California doff^ 
her hat to India and the California irrigating 
purse shrinks when oompared with the British 
Government treasure-hoases wbich have been 
freely opened to bring water upon the arid 
wastes of Soathern Asia, It is fortunate that 
we have hitherto been able to make such com- 
mendable progress in irrigation with a compar- 
atively small expenditure of money, and that 
the development of such respectable areas of 
our lands have not been forced to wait upon 
the GovernmeDt for a large investment of public 

neoesaity, but meantime we go along with our 
little dams and ditches and pipe lines and pro- 
duce results per acre which the Government, 
with Its vast expenditure in India, cannot ap- 

Still great publio works for irrigation are of 
much interest to our people, and for this rea- 
son we present in this Issue engravings and text 
description of one of the largest irrigation 
works of its kind in the world which has been 
but recently completed. We are indebted for 
the facts to Engineering, an English journal. 

The Btrnotare is known as the Nadrai aque- 
duct. The lower Ganges oanal, whose water 

acres of crops. From this it will be seen how 
important a line of irrigation this oanal consti- 
tutes, and how urgent the reconstruction of 
the aqueduct was. The new aqaeduot replaces 
one of much smaller size, viz., five spans of 35 
feet, which was damaged by a high flood in 
October, 1884, and completely destroyed by 
another bigh flood In July, 1885. 

The Kali Naddl, for the greater part of the 
year, is a very insignificant stream some 50 
feet in width only, but on the date mentioned, 
It was swollen Into a river a mile wide and In 
places 25 feet deep. 

In addition to the construction of the Nadrai 

The foundations consist of 268 circular brick 
cylinders or wells, as they are always called in 
India, all sunk 55 feet below the river bed. 
There are 15 bays of 60 feet, divided into three 
groups of five each by abutment piers. The 
abutment piers consist of a double row of 12- 
feet wells, spaced two feet apart, and the 
ordinary piers of a single row of 20-feet wells 
similarly spaced. 

The wells are all sank through a stratum of 
stiff yellow clay, averaging 16 feet thick, into 
a substratum of pare sand. The wells are all 
hearted with hydraulic lime concrete filled in 
(Concluded on page iO ) 



LJah. 16, 1892 

Qo f^t^ESf O N D E N CE. 

Oonea ondeots mn alooe reoDonsible tor their opintoc- 

The Paternal Plan of Colonization. 

To TUE Editor:— Pioneer life is generally 
■urronnded by hardship). These are especially 
oneroni when removed from friends and em- 
barking in a new industry upon hlgh prioed 
Iftnd. These olroumstanoes generally surround 
those now starting in the fruit business. To 
reduce them to the minimum, the plan has been 
Inaugurated of planting large tracts under ex- 
pert superintendence. Colonists pay install- 
ments as needed for cultivation, remain at 
present occupation, and complete payments and 
assume posseesion when trees come into full 
bearing. Sometimes, the patsrnal plan is car- 
ried still further by encouraging more sub- 
stantial building by supplying bricks at cost. 
Sometimes, promoters bond the land on long 
time from the owner, contract for planting, ar- 
range with colonists to pay installments to meet 
current expense, piy for land from proceeds of 
orop, then turn over tract to shareholders la 
anbdlvlsions already agreed upon. Sametimee, 
they arrange for payment of land in easy in- 
stallments, and the promoter collects his 
charges for cultivation from prooeedb of first 

Saveral plans of this nature are in very suc- 
cessful operation at Madera, Fresno Co., and 
seem particularly attractive to Eistern invest- 
ors. It Is pretty certain that a large orchard 
oan be brought to bearing under some such 
plan at half what it will cost Individuals to 
oare for a like area In ten acre tracts. Then, 
If proper selection and management is secured, 
nine of every ten colonists will have a bettor 
orchard than they would have raised them- 


The man who spends the savings of years for 
a future home chould have them as secure as a 
good savings bank. To make this oertiin, the 
financial standing of the promoters shonld be 
beyond question, and their judgment in choice 
of land, location and fruits should be thor- 
oughly endorsed. Granted that these points 
are solid, and no plan of settlemrnt of a now 
fruit region can offer similar advantages. C3l> 
onlsts can afford to pay rates that allow large 
margins to promoters. In San Joaquin valley 
are many tracts suitable for such enterprises 
where land and water can be had for $50 to 
$100 per acre, with annual cost of maintenance 
of ditch added unless in Wright Irrigation Dis- 
trict. Then we buy subject to a first mortgage 
for water of $5 to .$50 per acre, owing to nature 
of land and system of irrigation. Oast of root- 
ed vines vary from $5 to $1.5 per acre; of trees 
from $10 to $30. These estimates would not 
iuolude extremely close planting and famine 
prices such as ruled for prune trees last spring, 
Mr. Hatch contracted for the most thorough 
system of cultivation at about $10 per year, but 
his land was very mellow and be did not Irri- 
gate. This adds greatly to growth of weeds 
and cost of cultivation. 

0^ these firms now advertising one charges 
$90 per acre in four in!)tallments, for cultiva- 
tion for first three years, and deducts $200 per 
acre from net nrooeeds of crept for land. 
Another charges $75 for three years onltiTatton, 
and $125 per acre for land. Oaltlvation and 
interest on land payable in semiannual insttll- 
ments. Interest six per cent. Land to be 
paid for in five annual Installments, the first 
payable iu advance. 

A Point for Land Holders Contemplatlns 

Many hesitate because there Is danger that 
aales will progress slowy, the land be left idle 
on their handi, but so cut up as to make former 
industries not practical. Again, they dielike 
the Installment plan because courts have ruled 
that party once in possession cannot be re- 
moved until last installment is delinquent. 

To promote sales, secure good prices and in- 
sure disposal of whole tract, some modification 
of the paternal plan offers many advantages, 
bat requires work of a good solicitor, the same 
as life Insurance business does. Sunh are meet- 
ing with very good success in the Eist, when 
backed by proper credentials. 

0:ie firm has In two years pl&nted and dis- 
posed of 3060 acres and started on another 
tract of 2000 acres. Another firm has been 
working in Pennsylvania through a local agent 
there, and expects 40 families of actual settlers 
in September. Such development Is good basis 
for the growth of a town. It is far better to 
see them grow as trade demands, than wrong end 
first, as so many have been started. This plan 
Insures disposal of the entire tract and imme- 
diate development, thus enhancing values of 
adjacent property. 

The small land holder, who develops his own 
property, usually needs some Income from the 
time when his labor is not required at home. 
In a section settled by others In like olrcom 
stances, there are no employers. To find work 
he leaves home. Possibly he can only get work 
when most needed at home. If compelled to 
borrow money, it Is at a disadvantage. The 
paternal plan meets these objections, and by 
supplying work for those who need, makes Bob- 
divisions of other lands In vicinity praotical, 
Under this system, imprOTements like the far- 
famed Magnolia Avenue of Riverside are made 
to contribute vastly to values. Considering ad- 
vantages of large purchases, economy In plant- 

ing and cultivation, advantages of expert super- 
intendecoe, convenience of the installment sys- 
tem, payable as needed for development, 
chances for laying out and planting In such a 
way as to greatly increase attractions at little 
cost, we believe that the Paternal System of 
Oolonlzition, under proper restrictions, has 
oome to stay. Frank S Chapin 

Drainage in Irrigated Districts. 

The newspapers in irrigation districts seem 
to be overcoming their horror of saying any- 
thing about the needs of drainage. The Fresno 
Expositor of last week has the following: 
Twenty years ago, if a meeting of the citizens 
had been called to discuss a means for draining 
the soil of Fresno county, the men taking part 
In th} meeting would have been considered 
crazy. Toe long reaches of plains, bounded 
only by the horizon, were so dry and parched 
that they seemed able to drink an ooean dry 
and still be thirsty for more. Little did any 
one then suppose that the miles and miles of 
arid prairie, shimmering with heat, ever would 
need drainage. 

The years that have elapsed have brought a 
change. And the change In the landsoape, and 
the physical oondltion of the plains between 
King's river and the San Joaquin, has been as 
great as the change which the agency of man 
has been instrumental in bringing about for any 
country In the world. 

Although the plains 20 years ago were so 
parched that it did not seem that they ever 
couM become filled with water, and It was nec- 
essary to dig wells 50 to 100 feet deep, yet now 
it is all different. 

A recent meettug of the Farmers' Institute In 
this county devoted nearly an entire day to a 
discuseslon of the problem of draining the lands 
in the Irrigated districts. It was an all-im- 
portant problem, and it received the considera- 
tion it was entitled to. But it was somewhat 
strange, after all, that It should become so soon 
necessary to drain the plains which less than a 
generation ago were dry and parched. Yet 
such is the case. The work of man has brought 
about this change. It is attributable to his 
agenoy and to no other. It Is not known that 
such a great physical change was ever before 
accomplished, in many times the epace of 
years, by the works of man. 

It was done unintentionally. Iu fact, no 
one supposed that it evnr could be done. The 
canals were built from King's river leading the 
waters out on the plains, and work of irriga- 
tion was commenced on a small scale, and from 
that small beginning, It grew to the large pro- 
portions which it now has attained into. 

The vineyards, the orchards and the gardens 
grew and flourished, and the desert was trans- 
formed Into profitable possessions. 

Bat while this was baing done, there were 
not many who ever thought how soon the soil, 
to its very foundations, would bo filled with 

After the work of irrigation had gone on for 
some years it begun to be noticed that the 
water in the deep wells was rising. Year by 
year It approached nearer to the surface of the 
ground. In digging wells, instead of going 50 
feet for water, it came to be that water was 
found at 40, 30, 20, and later it was reached in 
still less, 'This was because the soil was filling. 
From the bedrock, perhaps hundreds of feet 
below the surface, it was becoming full from 
one side of the plains to the other. 

As might be well expected, in course of time, 
in the low places in the plains, the water be- 
gan to appear on the surface, and to stand in 
pools. At first, when these low places begtu 
to appear damp, it was called sub-irrigation. 
When the water appeared on the surface it was 
called ponds. 

The change was slow and gradual. Bat It 
has been complete. In many of the vineyards 
that have long been irrigated, the water is so 
near the surface that Irrigation Is no longer 
necessary. By digging a few feet water Is 

In more places than one, where certain parts 

of vineyards are low, windmills may be seen at 
work pumping water up into the canals so that 
It may flow away. This reverses the process of 
a few years ago, when windmills were employed 
to pump water on land, not to pump it off. 
Then there was a scarcity, now there Ir a super- 
abnndanoe, and It Is desirable that it flaw on to 
other districts. 

Thus it can be seen that the drainage prob- 
lem in Fresno county is not a theoretical one, 
but a practical need. The Farmers' Institute 
gave much consideration to the matter. If the 
country were all level and smooth, It would not 
be so necessary to drain the land, bat, as it is, 
the water settles in the low places, while the 
more elevatsd portions are comparatively dry. 

From the nature of the country It will not be 
a very diflBoult matter to construct outfall 
canals and ditches to carry off the surplus 
water. The plains between the San Joaquin 
and Kings rivers are considerably higher than 
either of these streams, and the water can be 
drained either way. It also can be drained 
westward Into Mussel slough, Cole slough and 
the other swales In that region. 

So there is no great diflScnlty In the way of 
carrying out the drainage problem, but the 
work must, in oouree of time, be considerable. 


The Lemon in California. 

James P, Jones, one of the Horticultural 
Commissioners of San Diego county, has writ- 
tsn for the San Diego Union an essay on the 
lemon, from whioh we take the following, 
which will interest all who are thinking of the 
lemon in the different parts of the State, He 

When a person has determined that he will 
plant a lemon grove, the first thing that will 
present itself to his mind after securing the 
land will be what variety shall he plant, and 
on what stock shall they bs bud led, and much 
of his after-saccess will depend upon the answer 
to this question. There Is hardly a variety 
of lemon grown which is not the favorite of 
some one. 

Many will tell yon to plant the Eureka, 
while It is well known that it is a tree of strag- 
gling growth and of scant foliage. Such a tree 
does not give proper protection from frost in 
winter or from sunburn in summer. There are 
other objections. The fruit has a very bitter 
rind, and is often ooarse- and overgrown. 
Its best quality is Its early and prolific bearing. 

What is known as the Sicily lemon Is erown 
from seed from fruit imported from Sicily, 
henoe the name, and as many varieties are 
grown under the same general name, tbey will 
not do to tie to. A safe procedure would be to 
take buds from a tree, no matter what the 
name, if in fruit, oaring and growth It meets 
your ideal. 

The Villa Franca, the favorite Florida vari- 
ety, is a tree of much promise. It being a 
medinm as to growth, foliage and early fruiting 
between the Eureka and the Lisbon. It is a 
new variety here, having fruited but two yeart 
In Southern California. The rind of this lemon, 
though sweet. Is rather ooarse and thick, but 
this is characteristic of the lemon on all young 
trees, and will probably be cared as the trees 
attain age. 

The Lisbon lemon tree was imported from 
Portugal, and has been thoroughly tested, and 
seems to meet the requirements better than 
any other. The tree is a vigorous grower, and 
attains a large sizs; does not fruit much until 
the third year. Its habit Is to put on wocd 
rapidly. Trees are often found 10 to 12 feet in 
height, and well proportioned at that age, giv- 
ing abundant limb surface for the immense 
orops that are to follow. The only objection 
that is urged against this tree Is, that It is very 
thorny, and It is claimed by persons well qaali- 
fied to judge that about 25 per cent of the fruit 
is made unsalable by thorniag. 

I recall a young gentleman from Los Angjies 
county who set 20 acres to seedling oranges, 
with the intent to bud them to lemons. Before 
doing so, however, he came to San Diego ooun- 
ty, as he said, to talk with me about varieties, 
and to look at bearing groves planted to differ- 
ent kindc After visiting all points where In- 
formation was to be had, or lemon groves eeen, 
he came to me and said: "I believe you are 
right. I shall bud to the Lisbon, thorns or no 
thorns. I believe there will be more profit 
with the Lisbon, even if one fourth are unfit 
for market." 

The fruit is cb'.ong rather than roundish, 
very uniform in size, rind thin and sweet, cures 
perfectly, and is the best keeper grown. As to 
thorns, prune them off. 'This will require 
labor, bat, believe me, it will be time well 

Several seedling varieties have been propa- 
gated in this county, viz., the Agnes, by Frank 
Kimball, and the Bonnie Brae, by H, M. Hig- 
gins. Of the Agnes, It may be said that the 
quality of the fruit is hard to excel, bat Its 
shape (being in form much like the orangt-) 
spoils it for market purposes. 

The Bonnie Brae Is the most beautiful lemon 
grown. Its rind is smooth ss a kid glove, and 
so very thin that many think It cannot be 
shipped to distant markets. I am not prepared 
to accept tholr j adgment as final. I feel very 
much like an importer of citrus fruits did whom 
I met at the southern district State Citrus 
Fair, and that Is, that the appearance of tha 
fruit will sell It In any market of the world, 
and that I would take them to that market, 
even though I were obliged to ship In egg-boxes 
or those made on a similar plan. 

There is one more lemon that I shall consider 
here — the Belairo Premium. This lemon origi- 
nated In Florida, and in form is the moat per- 
fect of any known. I have one tree, sent me 
by a friend, whioh has fruited a little for two 
years. The tree is perfectly thornless, but not 
a very vigorous grower; rind rather thick and 
coarse, but sweet; acid very strong and of ex- 
cellent flavor. A lemonade made from it will 
retain its quality for 24 hours. If kept cool. 

The question of budding stock for the lemon 
Is of great importance, and lays at the very 
foundation of this Industry, but there Is no 
question Involved in the growing of the fruit In 
whioh opinions differs so widely. 

I should favor the wild sour Florida orange 
stock on which to bud the lemon were It not 
that this stock Is often affected with what Is 
known as twig and leaf scab, and while this 
malady is never found above the bud, when 
budded to the orange, It is a well established 
fact that It does go above the bud when budded 
to the lemon, often enveloping the whole tree, 
fiuit included. I am Informed by D.-, Claflin, 

of Riverside, who spent months In Florida last 
winter traveling over the state in the Interest 
of citrus culture, that in several lemon 
groves he found this trouble, and that the fruit 
visited from those groves could not be sold and 
was an entire loss to the growers. In justice to 
the sour stock I should say that this malady 
has not appeared on sour seedlings grown in 
Southern California, though the sesds were im- 
ported from Florida. 

Refering again to badding stock, some Flori- 
da growers are taking the rough lemon stock, 
budding to sweet orange, and after the stalk 
from the bud Is of sufficient size budding with 
the variety of lemon they wish to propagate. 
This method leaves a piece of sweet orange 
wood in the stock between the sour root and 
the lemon. It is claimed that this method Is a 
counter to the bitter, sour flavor that 
possibly might be Imparted from the sap from 
the sour root. 

The best results as to growth which I have 
seen, has been from budding the lemon on grape 
fruit stock, but I am not advised as to the 
longevity of that stock and would not oare to 
recommend it, though I think experiments In 
that direction might lead to happy results. 

I think it preferable to bud the lemon on 
some kind of sour stock, and would state as a 
reason that most sweet stock Is subject to foot 
rot (or Mala de Uoma) to some extent. While 
sour seems exempt, I do not think It dlffionlt 
to determine why Florida growers bud the wild 
sour stock with the sweet before budding to the 
lemon, and the reason given to effect quality of 
fruit Is not the true one as the twig and leaf 
blight or scab never gets above where the sweet 
orange bud IS inserted, it is reasonable to sup- 
pose that the section of the sweet wood be- 
tween the sour root and the lemon bud will be 
ample protection, and henoe its use. 

As to cultivation It cannot be too thorough. 
There is a tendency to have irrigation take the 
place of cultivation, but the practice is not to 
ba encouraged. A medium amount of water 
and a thorough stirring of the soil after each 
application is the correct thing and trees so 
treated will be far ahead of those where the 
water is allowed to run along the rows for sev- 
eral days chilling and souring the ground and 
often c«ailng foot rot and gamming. A good 
Illustration of what cin be done with a mini- 
mum amount of water aided by tbarongh cul- 
ture and mulching can be seen on Point Loma 
at the grove of Frank Jennings. Last season 
the trees received about 21 gallons apiece, bat 
the growth exceeded other groves in what is 
believed to ba a favored locality where the 
ground was kept saturated. 

Perhaps the distance apart whioh lemon 
trees should be planted Is of same importance, 
and in setting- by the equilaterlal triangle 
method at 25 feet apart will give 79 trees to 
the acre, and for a tree which attains the size 
usual to the Lisbon or Villa Franca, is plenty 
close, while 20 feet apart will give ample roem 
for the Eureka or Bonnie B.-ae. The question 
Is often asked, "Shall I attempt to grow aoy- 
thiag between the trees?'' I say, understand- 
Ingly, "yes, almost any hoed crop. Bat yon 
should return to the soli by the use of fertilizers 
all and even more nutriment than Is abstracted 
by the crop removed." I think it a good plan 
to plant a peach tree between the lemons; both 
can be irrigated with little extra trouble and 
as the peach Is past its prime In ten years, tbey 
can be removed at any time when the lemons 
need the room, and will In the mean time pay 
all the expenses of preparation of ground and 
culture of both trees and leave a margin on the 
right side of the ledger bssides. 

The Gnava in California. 

[An esf&y read by L. E. AbLsx, ol San Dief(o county, at 
the Marysville Fruit Growers' Ck)nveution.J 

Unlike the orange or lemon, the gaava is 
still in almost its mtural or wild state, only 
being improved as nature Improves all fruit, 
by change of cllmito, soli, or crossed by bees, 
etc. In all oar leading horticultural papers, 
magazines, pamphlets, etc., we find the or- 
ange and lemon receiving the utmost attention 
of our most able horticulturists, and seemingly 
these fruits have nearly attained perfection, 
while the guava is left to make its way into 
our homes and market as best it can, unaided, 
unimproved and neglected by man. 

As to the origin of the guava, I can do no 
better than to quote from the United States 
report: " Bast authorities agree that tropical 
and subtropical America is the original home of 
the guava. The fact remains, however, that 
the cattley guava was first introduced into En- 
gland from Cnina in 1820, though It is possible 
that this species anJ yellow cattley, or Chinese 
gaava, was first carried from Brazil to China 
before their Introdnctk-n Into European hot- 

"The common gaava (Psidium guavave) was 
first introduced into Florida by Ool. H. V. 
Snell, In 1847, and the original trees are still 
standing, or rather their roots, as the tops 
have been frosted down several times. The 
guava of this spuoieii Is now common all over 
South and Middle Florida in endless varieties, 
size, shape and vigor, pear-shaped, apple- 
shaped, large, small, pink, yellow and white- 
fleshed, with flavor like that of strawberry to 
that of sawdust and vinegar; full of seed and 
almost entirely seedless." 

The varieties of guava are numerons, and 
many of them have not been Introduced into 
the United States. The one most common in 
Southern California Is the cattley guava 
{PtUlium caUUyanum), or strawberry gaava, 

Jan. 16, 1892.] 

f ACine f^URAlo f RESS. 


■0 called beoaase of Ita itrong reaemblance in 
flavor and odor to a ripe strawberry. It ia aUo 
called the hardy (;uava, as it will endare more 
frost than most other varieties. It ia an ever- 
green with small, thick, gloasy leaves, resem- 
bling the camellia; flowers white and not very 
oonspicaona, and are borne at the axis of the 
leaves. Frnit commences to ripen in Septem- 
ber, and continues for six months in the most 
sheltered localities, although the bulk of the 
crop Is harvested in about four months. The 
fruit is eaten and prepared in almost every con- 
ceivable way, and is very delicious whether 
eaten fresh from the bush or alioed with cream 
and sugar, preserved or made into strawberry 
shortcake, pies or puddings. 

But its crowniog excellence, and that which 
will make it most valuable as an article of com- 
merce, is found in the delicious jelly made from 
the ripe fruit. It is not only world-famed for 
its excellence as a table delicacy, but poseesaes 
medicinal properties, being highly valued by 
aineers and public speakers as a voice clearer. 
A fiae wine la also made from It. 

Wo find the so-called strawberry guava of 
San Diego county of many varieties, differing 
in color, form and flavor and ranging in size 
from two inches in diameter to those ao small 
and aeedy as to be entirely worthless, though 
grown on the same soil and produced from same 
seed. I believe the guava is aneceptible of as 
much Improvement aa any other frnit, and 
mnch can be done in this line by planting only 
seed from the finest and largest fruit, also by 
thorough cultlvatioa, careful pruning and cull- 
ing out Imperfect plants and those which pro- 
duce inferior fruit, tbpreby avoidiog the possi- 
bllity of hybridizing by bees or scattering of 
seed by birds. 

Florida ia said to contain hnndreda of varie- 
tiea unnamed, and most of them worthless. Be- 
cause of chance seedlings from those Introduoed 
by Mr, Snell, and our carelessness, there is 
danger of producing the same condition here. 
By using the same care that has been exercised 
in the orange and lemon, I expect a guava will 
be produced na much superior to those we now 
have as the Navel orange or Eureka and Bonnie 
Brae lemon is anperior to a worthless seedling. 

We also have from Florida the Psidium py- 
ri/erum or pear guava — plants of large growth, 
a light green and resembling that of the apple, 
but larger, pear-shaped and when ripe of a 
beautiful yellow color, fine for eating, etc. 

So far as iny experience goes, am not favor- 
ably Impressed with it, as it is too tender for 
our oocational frosts and takes too long to ma- 
ture its fruit, and Is also a shy bearer. We 
have plants five years old large enough to pro- 
duce 100 pounds of fruit. Some of them have 
none at all, others a few, mnch of It only about 
half grown. 

The guava thrivei best on a sandy loam, but 
will adapt itself to any aoil and prove aat- 
iafactory; requires about the same amount of 
water and cnltivation aa the orange, but unlike 
the orange it needa no treatment for scale or 
other injurious peets, ia free from disease and 
always produces a good crop. 

And aa for prcfit, I believe the guava will 
compare favorably with and surpass any other 
fruit, not excepting the orange or lemon, when 
we take into consideration the small amount of 
care required, ease of cultivation, together with 
the certain and bountiful crops and early age 
at which it begins to yield returns. To illus- 
trate: Suppose we take one acre of ground 
renHy to plant. 

We put guavas eight feet npart each way, or 
680 plants to the aoro, at $40 per thousand cont 
$27 20; nlanting, $25; care first year, $25; 
water, $3.50; care and water second year, 
$28,50; cost of plants, care and water for two 
years, $109 20. 

At the end of the second year, we will have 
harveated a small crop. The planta should 
yield at leap*: 25 cents each, $170; packiug and 
marketing, $40; net income, $130; expenses for 
the two years, $109, Profit for the first two 
years, $21. 

The inquiry ia frequently made: "What 
are we to do with our fruit? We have no mar- 
ket; it ia too far to ahip Eiat. The weather ia 
too warm," etc. We can only answer by oom- 
pariaon. We have no home market for 
peaohea, prunes, apricots, etc., but hope that 
aa soon aa we have frnit enough to support a 
cannery, one will be built. So with the guava. 

Much could be aald on this subject, but aa it 
belongs to the question of "How to market," 
we will leave it for others. However, will add, 
oar Eastern friends are ready for all our va- 
rious frnits, if only properly put up and placed 
in their markets. 

Points on Peanuts. — The following paper 
on Peanuts, written by J. B Rea of El Cajon, 
waa read before the County Horticultural Con- 
vention in December: I have been requeated 
to give my method with peanuta. The best 
aoil ia a light, aandy loam. Time to plant, 
when the ground is warm, same time that corn 
ia planted. Plant seed 18 inches by three feet. 
If the aoil ia not naturally moist, it must be 
thoroughly irrigated and cultivated before plant- 
ing. Cultivate till vines interfere — never tonoh a 
vine with hoe, shovel or cultivator. This rule 
is imperative for best results. Never hill or 
draw dirt to the vines. Irrigating and dlstnrb- 
Ing vines after they are up canaea muddy nnta 
which are impoasible to make bright afterward. 
My plan of harvesting to aave fodder, which is 
about equal to good clover hay, ia aa follows: 
Put a knife on the two* hind cultivator teeth- 
take all other teeth out — drive the horses 
•stride the row. The knife oate tlie taproot of 

the vine. Leave the vine in the row for two or 
three days, then put two or three rows together 
for two or three days till cured. Then haul to 
barn or storehouse and pick nuts off by hand. 
The nuts are then put into a wire cylinder and 
turned around till polished bright, when they 
are sacked. Although my method is not aa ex- 
peditious aa harvesting by a machine, the fod- 
der ia of such good quality as to more than 
compensate for the extra time. My yield waa 
40 sacks of 40 pounds to the sack, or 1600 
pounds to the acre, worth 3 cents per pound — 
making $48 per acre. 

Destroying Surface Roots of the Fig. 

Colusa, Cal. 

To THE Editor: — I have an Item from par- 
tiea near Oroville, who are cultivating the 
White Adriatic fig, and their experience ia that 
they get much better fruit by plowing deep, 
and tearing up and destroying all the surface 
roots on their trees. 

I am growing several hundred trees of this 
fig, and this experience is so adverse to practice 
and theoriea I have alwaya heard advocated on 
thia line, that I thought you might throw some 
light on it through the Press. 

Fig roota go down very deep, and many of 
them epread a few inches from the surface. 
What use the surface roota serve in the forma- 
tion of fruit, I am not advised. It's been aup- 
posed they serve a useful purpose. 

Fig Grower. 

[Will the advocates of this practice enlighten 
us ?— Eds.] 

The Hop Crop of the Pacific Coast. 

A short time ago we gave a few notes on the 
hop crop of the Pacific coast in advance of the 
census bulletin on that subject. It may Inter- 
est our hop-growing readers to examine a little 
more in detail into the reanlts of the census ex- 
amination of the subject: 

In the United States only 17 States now re- 
port the production of hops for market. Of 
these only five produce 100,000 pounds or more 
each, and may be considered important hop- 
growing States from a commercial point of view. 
These are California, New York, Oregon, Wash- 
ington and Wisconsin. Of the 39,171.270 
pounds of hops grown in the United States in 
the cenana year 1890, the five Spates named 
produced 38,965,920 pounds, or 99.48 per cent. 

The following atatement shows the acreage 
and product of each of these five States in the 
order of production: 

States. Acres. Pounds. 

New York 6,670 20,063,029 

Washington .S,113 8,S13,780 

California 3,974 6,547,338 

Oresoo „3,130 3,613,756 

Wisconein 9(j7 4^8,647 

Totals 49,8B* 38,965,920 

The averages per acre of the United States 
and the five bop-producing States are aa fol- 


The United Stales 7S0 

falifornia 1,618 

Washington 1,616 

Oregon I,lft5 

New York 647 

Wisconsin 443 

The 12 other States reportfd a production 
o' only 205,350 pound?, or 52 per cent. Theee 
12 States reported only about o e-twenty-third 
of th« annount produced in the single county of 
Ota3go, N. Y. 

The Paoifio coast States, California, Oregon 
and Waahington, show, respectively, the fol- 
lowing increase in product and its percentage 
as compared with the census reports of 1880: 

Pounils. Per Cent. 

California 6,103,261 353.39 

Oregon 3 339,356 1,378.79 

Washington 7,610,003 1,082.08 

New York and Wisconsin show a decrease in 
the same period aa follows: 

Pountis. Per Coot. 

New York 1,56.5,902 7.24 

Wisconein 1,538,280 78.21 

The hop acreage of the three Pacific coast 
States has in like manner increased aa follows: 

Acr s. 

California 2,S65 

Oregon 2,836 

Washington 4,579 

In the same time, New York and Wisconsin 
have decreased in acreage respectively 2402 
and 3472 acres. Fifty thousand two hundred 
and twelve acres of land in the United States 
were devoted to the cnltivation of hops in the 
year 1890 (census year 1890), an increase of 
3412 aorea in ten yeara. 

It will be observed that thia increase of acre- 
age is by no means proportionate with the in< 
creaae in the crop for the same period. The 
increase in the quantity of hops grown is 47.56 
per cent, while the increase In acreage is only 
7.29 per cent. The discrepancy between pro- 
daction and area is readily accounted for, by 
the fact that in the States of New York and 
Wisoonsin, where the average yield per acre is 
small, ranging from 443 to 647 pounds, many 
growers have retired from the business, and 
hence the acreage has been largely reduced. 
New York has fallen off from 39,072 to 36,670 
acres in the past ten years, and Wisoonsin from 
4439 to 967 acres during the same period. 
Thus, ia tbe«e two States, there l« • decrease 

of 5874 aores since the census of 1880, and the 
decrease is still continuiog. On the other 
hand, an enormous increase in the product ia 
shown in California, Oregon aud Waahington, 
where the average yield per acre is very large, 
ranging from 1155 pounds in Oregon to 1626 in 
Washington, and 1648 in California. These 
two elements, increase in acreage where the 
average is great and decrease where it is small, 
account for the reanlt shown. 

The variations in yield in hop-growing locali- 
ties are frequently very great, and in some 
States the naoertaintiea of the crop have been 
so marked that its cultivation is nearly aban- 
doned. Twenty years ago, the States of Maine, 
Massachusetts. Michigan, New Hampshire, 
Vermont and Wisconsin produced annually ten 
times the quantity they now produce. Wis- 
consin ten years ago ranked second only to 
New York in hop production, but in that 
period it has been left far behind by the Pacific 
States, and now ranks as the fifth, prodaoing 
less than 500,000 pounds, against about 2,000,- 
000 in 1879 and 4,500.000 in 1869. 

Ten counties in the United States produce 
over 1,000,000 pounds of hops each. These 
counties being the most important localities of 
the hop growing industry, the following 
analyses of the statistics reported from them 
will be of interest. The acreage and amounts 
respectively produced by them are given as fol- 
lows, the counties stated in the order in which 
tboy rank as producing counties: 


Otsego , . 
Madison . . . , 
Oneida .... 



Schoharie . . , 
Sacramenti . 
Sonoma . . . . 
Marion . . . 


Acres Pounrs. 

New York . . . 
New York. . . 
Vew York . . . 
New York. . . 
Calif rrnia . 
California . 


New York . . . 

• 963 


The aegretratn production of these ten coun- 
ties is 28,258,095 pounds, grown upon 36,142 
acres, or 72.14 per cent of the entire hop crop 
of this country from 71.98 per cant of acreage. 

The following table exhibits the average 
yields per acre of these counties, as compared 
with their respective State averages and with 
the average of the United States, they baing 
arranged in rank according to production per 
acre, the signs indicating the quantity above or 
below the State or United States averages, re- 
sppotivdv ; 



"acramento Califotnia 2,217 

King Washington 1,831 

Pierce Washington 1 

Sonoma Calfornia 

Marlon Oregon .... 

r>neida New York. 

Otsego New York . 

Madison |New York. 

Schoharie New York. 

Franklin I New York 

"Dt-notes t'lufl. 


? B 

a g 

m °- 

I I 
!» B- 




It will bo observed that the average yield per 
acre is enormously greater in the Paoifio States 
than elsewhere. Thia fact tends to but one 
result — the gradual abandonment of hop-farm- 
ing east of thn Mississippi and it* rapid in- 
crease on the Pacific Slope. New Yorfi, hcv- 
ever, still remains the greatest bop-producing 

Honey Dew on Hop Plante. 

To THE Editor :— In your issna of Nov. 28, 
1891, your Corvallls correspondent makes me 
say at the Uarrisburg Farmers' Institute: "The 
excrement of the hop lice falling on the leaves 
of the hop occasions a condition favorable for 
the growth of mold, etc." 

What I really did say was that " honey dew 
secreted by the lice at work on the under side of 
the leaves and falling on top of the leaves be- 
low occasions a condition favorable to the 
growth of mold, the so-called 'hop blight.'" 

Will you kindly make the correction in the 
columns of your paper? F. L. Washburn. 

Sugar Beet Growing in Pajaro Valley. 

The Pajaronian of Watsonville gives a re- 
view of the ooat and returns from sugar beet 
crops in the Pajaro valley, during the last sea- 
son. The editor says by way of introduction: 

Although these are acme of the most favor- 
able instances, yet the average is not far be- 
hind, and it ia difficult to find a farmer who 
did not make more from his beets this year 
than from any other summer crop. The aver- 
age yield for 1891, as shown by the Western 
Baet Sugar Co, 'a books, is between 13 and 14 
tons per acre, whioh is .$5 per ton — the average 
price paid by the comoany — gives a return of 
$65 to $70 per acre. The coat of production, 
not including rent nf land, variea from $2 to $3 
per ton, or from $26 to |40 per acre. It is, 
perhaps, impossible to give the exact average 
profit per acre for the season, as ao mnch of the 
work ia done by the farmers and their eetimatea 
of the value of their labor vary so bxtremely, 
yet it ia quite safe to aay that the average 
profit on »ugar beets thU year was $30 per 
acre, and that this figure waa conaiderably in- 
oreaaed when the farmer did hia own work. 
The following reanlts of this year'aj crop are 
taken from tbe oultiTator'g owo fiaares, In 

every instance the land belonged to the beet 
raiser, and his estimated value of rent of land ia 
alao given. Where the farmer did any of the 
work himaelf, the coat of such work is estima- 
ted at the amount it would take to have it per- 
formed by hired Ubor nd teams. 


Plowing and preparing land, $4 per acre- 22 
cents per ton — total, $20. 

Seed, $1.20 per acre— 7 cents per ton — total, $6. 

Hoeing, thinning, topping, and loading into 
wagon. $27.28 per acre— $1.50 per ton— total, 
$136 40. 

Plowing out and hauling, $9.09 per acre— 50 
cents per ton — total. $45.45 

94,742 tons yielded $473.71; prcfit, per acre, 
$53-17; per ton, $2.71; estimated rent of land, $(5 
per acre — 82 cents per ton. 


Plowing and preparing land, $5 per acre— 31 
cents per ton— total, $75 

Seed, $1.02 cents per acre— 6cents per ton — total, 

Hoeing, thinning, topping and loading into 
wagon, $24.23 per acre— $1.50 per ton-total, 

Plowing out and hauling, $8.08 per acre— 50 
Cdnls per Ion— lotal, $121.20. 

241,147 tons yielded $1205.73; profit per acre, 
$42.05; per ton, $2.63; estimated rent of land, $15 
per acre— 93 cents per ton. 


Plowing and preparing land, $6.50 per acre— 32 
cents per ton — total, $32.50. 

Seed, 78 cents per acre— 4 cents per ton — total, 


Thinning and hoeing, $8 per acre— 40 cents per 

ton — total, $40. 
Topping, $14.07 per acre— 70 cents per ton— total, 

$70- as- 
Plowing out, $3 per acre— 15 cents per ton— total, 


Hauling, $10.05 P^r acre — 50 cents per ton — total. 
$50- 25- 

102.56 tons yielded $512.81; profit per acre, 
$60,16; per ton, $2.89; estimated rent of land. 
$20 per acre— $1 per ton. 


Plowing and preparing land, $3 per acre — 14 
cents per ton— total, $33. 

Seed, $1.50 per acre— 7 cents per ton— total. 
$16 50. 

Hoeing, thinning, topping and loading into 
wagon, $27.52 per acre— $1.25 per ton— total, 
$302. 72. 

Plowing out and hauling, $11. oi peracre — 50 cents 
per ton — total, $121.11. 

242 135 tons yielded $1210.67; profit per acre, 
$67.03; per ton. $3.04; estimated rent of land, $20 
per acre — 91 cents per ton. 


Plowing and preparing land, $5 per acre— 20 cents 
per ton— total, $35. 

Seed, 71 cents per acre— 3 cents per ton — total, 

Ihinning, hoeing, topping and loading into wag- 
on. $37 38 per acre- $1.50 per ton— total, $261.66. 

Plowing out, $4.29 per acre — 17 cents per ton — 
total, $30.03. 

Hauling, $12.46 per acre— 50 cents per ton — total, 

171.21 tons yielded $856.06; profit per acre, 
$62.45; profit per ton, $2.60; estimated rent of land, 
$15 per acre— 60 cents per ton. 


Plowing and preparing land, $5 per acre— 29 cents 
per ton — total, $30. 

Sfed, $1.17 per acre— 7 cents per ton — total. 

Thinning, hoeing, topping and loading into wag- 
on, $26.22 per acre — $1.50 per ton — total, $157.32. 

Plowing out and hauling, $10.49 per acre — 60 
cents per ton — total, $62.94. 

103.43 tons yielded $517.15; profit per acre, 
$43.31; profit per ton, $2.54: estimated rent of land, 
$15 per acre — 86 cents per ton. 


Plowing and prepiring land, $7 per acre — 30 
cents per ton — total, $105, 

Seed, $1.09 per acre — 5 cents per ton — lotal. 

I'hinning, hoeing, topping and loading into wag- 
on, $28.43 P^'' ^'^'^ — $1.20 per ton — total. $426.45. 

Plowing out and hauling, $9 48 per acre —40 cents 
per ton — total, $142.20. 

350.17 tons yielded $1750.86: profit per acre, 
$70.72; per ton, $3.05; estimated rent of land, $20 
per acre — 84 cents per ton. 


Plowing and preparing land, $8 per acre — 29 
cents per ton — total, $48. 

Seed, $1.42 per acre — 5 cents per ton — total. 

Thinning, hoeing, topping and loading into wag- 
on, $40.68 per acre — $1.50 per too— lotal, $244.08, 

Plowing out and hauling. $21.70 per acre — 80 
cents per ton — total, $130.20. 

165.54 tons yielded $827.70; profit per acre, 
$66.15; per 'on, $2.36; estimated rent of land, $15 
per acre— 55 cents per ton. 


Plowing and preparing land. $5 per acre — 27 
cents per ton — total, $50. 

Seed, $1.12 per acre— 6 cents per ton — total, 

Planting, 65 cents per acre — 3 cents per ton — 
total, $6.50. 

Hoeing, thinning, topping and loading into wag- 
on. $17.81 per acre — 95 cents per ton — total, 
$178. 10. 

Hauling and plowing out, $9.37 per acre — 50 
cents per ton — total, $93.70. 

187.527 tons yielded $937.62; profit per acre, 
$59.81; per ton, $3.19; estimated rent of land. $20 
per acre — $1.07 per ton. 

The Wooden Nutmeg of fraud fame has 
been eclipsed by Dutch ingenuity. According 
to the word sent from Utrecht, the Hollanders 
are making artificial almonds in large quanti- 
ties from paate composed of glucose. They are 
shaped and colored to nature, and steeped in 
nitro-benzole, to give the necessary odor. 
Hundreds of buahela have been sold to nnaora- 
puloua dealers, who mix them with the genuine 
article, The aame people are at work oo a v»r« 
niahed ooffee bean. 


f AClFie l^URAb PRESS, 

[Jan. 16, 1892 

JpATRO^S Of ]EiuSBA|4l3F^Y. 

Onr OfficlBl Orange E«IIUon.-The Grange news 
of most general lottrrat is given through all editloni of our 
D»Der on this page. One or more pwua. devoteii to iTrange 
fntereat«, are siren in our nrsnge eait.on which auy sub- 
scriber can receive in lieu of the regiilar edition wiTHol T 
BXT&A COST, by adilreMiog the p'lhlishere^ ^ 

The Master's Desk. 

■. W. DAV18, W. M. 8. O. or OiLirORKI*. 

The new year is fairly started. At the 
first meeting of your Orange make a list of 
all farmers in your jurisdiction, with the 
members of their families, who are eligible 
to the Grange, and call on them with the 
view of interesting them in Grange work. 
You will surely find some who will join the 
Grange. It will pay to try. Good seed is 
almost sure to grow, and especially so if 
well planted in good soil. 

Wanted ! A charter list for a Grange in 
Southern California ! 

A good organizer can make money by 
taking the field in behalf of the Grange. 

Manchester, N. H., is bidding high for 
the next session of the National Grange. 

The new word is ready. 

installed at the Hall of Santa Rosa Grange 
by Past Master G. N. Sanborn, on Satur- 
day. Jan. 9, 1892. 

The Baby Grange — Glen Ellen — has in- 
stalled newly elected officers. A class of 
five members is to receive the third and 
fourth degrees at the next meeting, January 
23d, and all Patrons in good standing will 
be welcome. 

Help the oflScers of your own Grange and 
of the State Grange and of the National 
Grange to advance the interests, elevate the 
characters, increase the opportunities and 
enlarge the sphere of the American farmer. 
Help your Grange paper, for by so doing 
you help yourself, you help the Order, you 
help the farmer and you help humanity. 
Any means of education is a help. 

The success of an army in a hard-fought 
battle is often due to sood music. History 
teaches so. The general knows it; so does 
the soldier. Even the drummer boy knows 
his worth. Just so in the Grange. We find 
music a winning instrument. Try and 
have plenty of good music, and I am sure 
you will go home and say : " We had a 
good meeting to-day." 

Appoint a committee of your Grange to 
assist your County Deputy to organize new 
and reorganize old Granges. Visit the lo- 
cality where a Grange is most needed, and 
stay with those farmers till you get a 
Grange. " If at first you don't succeed, 
try, try again." " Where there is a will, 
there is a way." 

Ask farmers to read ; ask them to think ; 
ask them to act ; and then offer them the 
Granee as a means and as an end. The 
more they inquire about the Grange, the 
more they will respect it, and the more 
they will be convinced of the importance of 
an organization among farmers. 

Recommend a good, live, competent 
Deputy. We must have workers. The 
Grange must grow ; it must be extended. 
Work will do it, and nothing but work will 

From and after this date, the National 
Grange will furnish the working tools, 
knife and pencil with each charter outfit. 

The Grange will have suitable headquar- 
ters at the World's Fair, for all members of 
the Order. There will probably be a Bu- 
reau of Information, and from time to time, 
lectures will be given and essays will be 
read. On this point, more anon. 

We want to elect men to office who will 
be servants, not masters of the people. 
Please bear that in mind. We want honest 
men, not the ordinary two-by-four hothouse 
politician. We want men who represent 
ideas more than they do dollars. In short, 
we want fitness, not flesh alone. 

The sad news of the death of Bro, Wm 
M. Ireland, one of the founders of theOrder 
of Patrons of Husbandry, reminds us that 
there are but few of that noble band who 
have not been called to the Land ofEternal 
Rest. Bro. Ireland died Christmas Eve, 
1891. His many years of usefulness on 
earth are closed, but the work he helped to 
begin will live after him. He erected his 
own monument. The Order of Patrons of 
Husbandry is sure to live and sure to oc 
cupy a useful position long after the last one 
of its founders has been garnered. All 
honor to the name of each one of the 
founders of the Grange ! Let the announce 
ment of the death of Bro. Wm. M. Ireland 
a founder of the Grange, be made by the 
Worthy Lecturer of each subordinate 
Grange in California. Peace to the ashes 
of our departed brother ! 

The oflScers of Bennett Valley, Sebas 
opol and Santa Rosa Granges were jointly 

Splendid weather ! More like May than 
January ! Just the finest kind of growing 
weather. A good time to scatter some 
Grange seed. Send out a few Declarations 
of Purposes. Hand your farmer neighbor 
a copy of the Constitution and a blank ap- 
plication for membership. Sow Grange 
seed ! 

Cooperative Bujing. 

Practical Besnita Accompllebed by Two- 
Rock Grange. 

To THB Editob: — Enclosed please find 
the report of the Cooperative Committee of 
Two Rock Grange, which was read and 
accepted at our last meeting, and, at the re- 
quest of W. Master Martin, copied for pub- 
lication in the Rural Press for the pur- 
pose of leading other Granges to feel an 
interest in similar work. 

If anything I could say, would induce 
other Granges to' follow our example, I 
would gladly do so. To those who will 
read our report, it would be unnecewary to 
point out the material benefits derived, aa 
the figures speak for themselves. And 
surely all know, that all kind of products 
now pass through too many hands, making 
the diflference between the price the produc- 
er gets and the price the consumer pays, 
altogether too large. We complain of over- 
production, but if consumers could be 
supplied with the various products they 
need at less expense than is now the case, 
overproduction would not be heard of, or at 
least very little. 

Especially should we never speak of 
overproduction of the necessaries of life, 
as long as one worthy human being suffers 
for the want of them. We should then put 
the blame where it belongs, viz., to our faulty 
system of distribution. 

It is, however, not so easy to remedy 
an evil which has existed so long, but 
we should try; we should make a begin 
ning, even if it is somewhat difficult. 

The first difficulty will be in getting a 
good committee; a committee that will work 
and work together; one willisg to sacrifice 
time for the general good, and not be dis 
couraged even if it sometimes hears grum- 
bling and criticism instead of appreciation, 
for in the end honest eflForts will always be 
appreciated. Then the members must be- 
come interested. This would seem easy, as 
not only can they be shown that they will 
receive a direct benefit, but that, by getting 
accustomed to work together, we farmers 
can ultimately remedy all the social, polit- 
ical and commercial evils we now complain 
of. Nevertheless, the bulk of the members 
will be found slow to get started, and for 
various reasons; one of which is the scarcity 
of cash. In too many instances the mem- 
bers are indebted to the local stores in such 
a way as almost to be owned by them 
There are other reasons that need not be 
mentioned. This, the most common one, is 
mentioned because it is the one we should 
most try to remove. It is worth sacrificing 
something to become free men and women 
If we have a great many unpaid store bills 
we are not free. 

The manner in which Two Rock Grange 
worked last year is briefly this: Every other 
month a combined order for groceries would 
be sent off, shortly after the first monthly 
meeting. The goods would then arrive be- 
fore our second monthly meeting, on which 
day such articles as were to be divided were 
taken to the hall and divided. The Grange 
owns weighing scales and furnishes books 
and necessary stationery. 

In some cases it may be well to pay the 
committee one per cent of sales to partly 
pay them for their trouble: in other cases, it 
would not be necessary. In order to avoid 
as much as possible buying broken pack- 
ages, it is well to have a sinking fund either 
advanced by the Grange or created out of 
the orders by charging one or two per cent 
on the various bills for the purpose. The 
committee can then always order full pack- 
ages of such articles as don't spoil, like 
soap, starch, rice, beans, etc., and hold 
them until used. We buy such articles as 
coal oil, flour, feed, etc., once or twice a 
year. Hardware we have so far not bought 
with any regularity. We have also taken 
advantage of the Trade- Card system to quite 
a large extent. 0. NissoN. 

The Committee's Beport. 
The above mentioned report of Two Rock 
Grange Cooperative Committee is as follows: 

Worthy Master: Your Ct)operative Com- 
mittee begs leave to submit the following 
report for the year 1891: 

VVp have bought groceries to the amount 
of S1246.41. Calculating that we have 
made 20 per cent by buying these goods 
wholesale for cash, instead of at retail, it 
made us a saving of $311.60. 

In hardware we have not bought together 
as we should have done, for reasons ex- 
plained during the year; but on the two 
bills of goods bought, a large saving was 
made. It is somewhat difficult to say what 
the average discount would be; on some 
articles it was 70 per cent, incredible as it 
seems, on others .50 per cent, 30 per cent 
and less. The average discount would 
probably not be less than 30 per cent, mak- 
ing a saving on the two bills of $37.56. In 
other words, instead of paying $125.70, we 
only paid $80.64. Under the " trade card " 
system, members have bought about $300 
worth; with a saving on these purchases of 
ten per cent, a saving was made of $30. Of 
coal oil we have bought during the year 
about $400 worth, with a discount of 15 per 
cent, making a saving of $60. 

On feed and flour we made, on one trans- 
action, a profit of $200. This was somewhat 
of an accident, however, as was explained 
at the time. As a regular thing we have 
not been able to get more than 2i per cent 
discount from feed and seed from ton rates, 
and on flour from 5 to 10 per cent. 

The aggregate profit made, exclusive of 
feed, seeti and flour, amounts to $428.50. 
As comparatively few members have taken 
as much advantage of our system of buying 
as might have done so, it is safe to say we 
could easily double this amount, and even 
treble it. We think our members do not 
quite realize how much they might save, 
because, in buying in the ordinary way in 
small quantities, the extra price paid 
amounts to but little each time, and is 
therefore not noticed much. It is for the 
same reason that a tariff tax is so popular 
all over the world. It is paid in small in- 
stallments and not felt much at the time, 
although it is well known that it is the 
most expensive way of collecting a tax. 

In showing the total of the profits made 
during the year, we hope we have made it 
clear that cooperative buying is a decided 
success. We desire, however, for the benefit of 
our successors, to say that this system of buy- 
ing entails a great amount of work on the 
cooperative committee, and Tie should all 
make it a point to lighten this work as 
much as possible, by being prompt in send- 
ing in our orders, when called for, have 
them clearly made out, and always accom 
panied by sufficient cash to cover the or 
ders. Respectfully submitted.— C. Nisson, 
J. R. Denman, Walter Church. 

Practical Topics Before Dixon Grange, 

Eds. Press: — Our Grange i.«i in a pros 
perous condition. We have not missed a 
meeting since we organized on the 7th of 
last March. I am sorry to say that we did 
not receive the communication relating to 
the Grange Anniversary, until the time had 
passed, so we did not have an opportunity 
to celebrate it. I append some notes from 
the minutes of a preceding meeting so that 
you can see the direction of our discussions: 
Sister E. J. Aylworth suggested select 
readings at each meeting. Bro. McCrory 
called upon the Lecturer for remarks, who 
however felt himself unable to instruct those 
who knew as much about farming as him- 
self. Bro. Colter called to mind a Grange 
meeting which occured years ago. Each 
member was assigned a subject, such as 
fruit culture, tariff etc. He suggested break- 
ing up our quaker meetings by a similar 

Bro. Wells said he believed it would not 
do to graft apricot on peach stocks, as the 
wood does not unite. Apricot should be 

f rafted upon apricot of a diflferent variety. 
The peach is the best stock for the apricot 
under some conditions. — Ei). Press.] The 
Royal is the best apricot, for it always pro- 
duces a crop which is the most saleable. 

J. K. Armsby had told him that the 
Fresno peaches, though larger than the 
Vacaville peaches, were not so favorably 
received upon the market. The Vacaville 
peaches were brighter. They used French 
sulphur, which costs 5 cents per pound, 
while Fresno used the common California 
sulphur at 2J cents per pound. 

He said all peaches should be graded be- 
fore drying by a grader which grades into 
several different sizes, for large peaches 
bring the best price, while large and small 
mixed do not dry so evenly and bring no 
better price than the smallest. 

He recommended the use of bisulphide of 
carbon for exterminating weevil from 
granaries and grain sacks. 

Bro. Colter said a gentleman had recom- 
mended the use of alum mixed with white- 

wash as an efficient remedy for weevil, and 
that he himself had used carbolic acid crys- 
tals which he dissolved. 

Sister Aylworth recommended the use of 
carbolic acid powdered, around chicken 
houses for removal of insects. 

B. M. Rockwell, Ass't Sec'y. 

Past Master Coclter called in after 
attending the bank meeting on Wednesday. 
Suffering from a slight indisposition, he re- 
turned to Santa Rosa by early afternoon 
train. With Past Master Flint, he will 
visit Vacaville Grange Jan. 23d, when lots 
of good Grange doctrine and sound sense 
will be dealt out by word of mouth to the 
Grangers and farmers of Vaca valley, who 
should attend with their household jewels 
in round numbers on so good an occasion. 

Waterloo. — Secretary Merrill writes 
that Waterloo Grange will install officers 
Jan 23d. 


SelllDg Grain Short 
Senator Washburn of Minnesota, the au- 
thor and introducer of the Option bill pre- 
sented to the United States Senate last 
month, while in Chicago on his way to 
Washington, was interviewed by an Inter- 
Ocean reporter, and said: " I have just fin- 
ished reading the interview in your paper 
with Mr. Counselman, in which he severely 
criticised the bill introduced by me to pre- 
vent grain-gambling. I am not surprised 
at his hostility, nor disturbed by the sar- 
castic references to my philanthropy in the 
premises, for any effirt directed toward the 
curtailment of the great evil known as short 
selling is expected to call down the wrath 
of all dealers in illegitimate or fiat grain. 
What I want to do is to slop the pernicious, 
demoralizing practice known as ' short sell- 
ing,' where a man can go on a board with- 
out a kernel of grain, real or prospective, 
and sell a million bushels, depressing the 
market the same as if so much grain had 
been dumped on it. Mr. Pillsbury, the 
largest buyer of real wheat in the world, 
tells me there are men in Minneapolis with 
their offices in their hats, who sell more 
wheat in a year than he buys." 

Referring to the meeting of the Minne- 
apolis Chamber of Commerce called on 
Saturday for a conference with him, the 
Senator said: 

"Of course, the Board of Trade folks up 
there occupy the same position as the Chi- 
cago Board, save that they believe the bill 
means the utter demolition of all trading in 
futures, but they will find their mistake 
when the bill becomes a law and goes into 
effect. A very interesting table I came 
across the other day selects ten days from 
April to October, 1890, and shows that in 
those days, while the actual sales of wheat 
amounted to 437,800 bushels, the optional 
sales of fictitious wheat amounted to 125,- 
720,000 bushels. On the 14th of April. 
1890, New York speculators sold 44,000,000 
bushels of fiat wheat, probably more than 
twice as much as reached that city during 
the year, and the actual sales that day were 
but '6000 bushels. 

" Were it not for Board of Trade methods, 
I think every bushel of wheiat would be 
worth 20 cents more to-day. In fact, all 
Europe is astonished that it is getting our 
wheat to-day for such a ridiculously low 
price, considering all the circumstances. 
They expected to pay more, and it is an 
outrage upon the producer that he should 
be a sacrifice to the relentless greed and 
disreputable deals of the short seller on our 
Boards of Trade. In my opinion, some kind 
of relief will be granted the producer in a 
restrictive law that will preserve all the 
good features in future dealings and elimi- 
nate the bad." 

Don't Take Stock In It 
A man at Antiocb, who is in the saloon 
business, has built the finest house in town. 
A bold inquirer asked where he got the 
money to put up such a beautiful and ex- 
pensive piece of architecture. The answer 
given was to the eflPect that the working- 
men of Antioch and vicinity made weekly 
contributions to this building fund— many 
of them casting in all that they had, even 
honor, manhood and self-respect, placing 
themselves on a degraded plane with the 
canaille, while they suffer the loss of their 
hard-earned money. Dear workingman, 
i are you helping some saloon- keeper to build 
' a fine house, while you degrade yourself 
and family by keeping them in second or 
third rate tenement rooms or a hovel ? Do 
you go down every day or week into your 
pocket to help some saloon-keeper to sup- 
port his wife and family in elegance, while 
you are obliged to see your own, poorly 
clothed and half fed? If so, may God help 
you to boycott the saloon and thereby break 
the chains of the worst monopoly that ever 
cursed the world.— " Pow" in Tradetman. 

Ja». 16, 1892J 

f ACIFie l^URAlo PRESS. 


Farmers' Alliance. 

The Truth Close Home. 

To THE Editok: — Aa I have noted the 
real value of a dollar or any piece of money 
is what you can get for it. As collateral 
propositions, it may also be said that if at 
different times the amount of produce of 
any kind' which can be got for it differs, 
then the value of the dollar in the purchase 
of commodities is variable, while if it will 
always be accepted as credit for just one 
dollar on book account, then its value in 
the payment of debt is always the same ; so 
each piece of money may have, generally 
does have, at the same time a variable and 
an invariable value; and as value is a rela- 
tion between human want and the available 
supply for it, there is no measure of values 
save the amount of human desire in any 
given case, and all talk about money, as 
a measure of value is empty combination of 
words. One fact staies us in the face 
in this country : There is not enough of 
the metals which have been selected for the 
money purpose, to do the business of the 
country. There is a great lack of them, 
and we find it necessary to, and as a mat- 
ter of fact, business men do supplement 
them with pieces of paper used for the same 

cumstances, the exact knowledge of which 
must necessarily be limited to sections of 
the country, or whether they should be is- 
sued by the General Government, which 
every one knows about, under circum- 
stances which may be made well known to 
every citizens. 

The advantage of simplicity, to be gained 
by General Government issue, is easily ap- 
parent. It is also apparent that the re- 
sources of the Government are greater than 
those of any private individual or corpora- 
tion could be. Its revenue, or income, is 
also greater; and the amount of such reve 
nue due it is the measure of its ability to 
receive its notes back from citizens, giving 
them credit and extinguishing their debts 
to it. This revenue it is authorized to col- 
lect would thus be a " redemption," or, 
rather, exchange fund, for any paper pieces 
it might issue in addition , to the limited 
metal currency; and this revenue fund now , 
amounts to $400,000,000 a year, every dollar 
of which must be paid by citizens, with ! 
some kind of money. If that greatest of , 
all citizens, the General Government, could j 
afford to recognize its own notes at their j 
face value in all commercial transactions i 
and in payment of debt, all private citizens 
could also afford to; and thus all commodi- 
ties in the United States which changed 
hands for cash would add themselves to the 

cided tb place a general limit to the legal 
tender quality of such currency. The face 
denomination of a piece should be the only 
standard of its value in payment of debt. 

The larger bankers — the " banking inter- 
est " in a general way — of this country and 
Europe ask that the currency systems of the 
world be augmented by the issuance, in ad- 
dition to metal of a paper currency, which 
shall be held to be valuable only because 
such paper shall claim that behind every 
dollar of it there is a gold or silver dollar 
ready to take its place in the hand of the 
holder at the holder's option. In case the 
claim were true, and there was a gold or 
silver dollar locked out of circulation for 
every paper one put in, then the paper 
would be but a substitute and the volume of 
currency would not be increased. If the 
claim were not true, and the paper was 
issued in excess of the gold and silver held 
out of circulation to " support " it, then it 
would become false to the extent of the 
overissue; and as no one could know which 
dollars would prove baseless in case of at- 
tempt to exchange more than the amount 
of the gold and silver held, the taint of dis- 
trust and danger would be thrown upon the 
whole paper circulation. Paper circulation 
should depend for its value upon the fact 
of itsequal receivability with all other kinds 
of money issued by the same Government. 

Alliance and Union Meetm^ 

J. L. Gilbert, Lecturer State Farmers' 
Alliance, has consented to attend the Ala- 
meda County Alliance meeting at No. 865 
Broadway, Oakland, on Saturday, and 
speak at the public Union Meeting at the 
same place, in the evening. J. J. Morrison, 
District Lecturer, from Placer county, and 
members of the Farmers' Alliance, Trades 
Unions, Citizens' Alliance and other pro- 
gressive associations will speak in the 

A Great Aqueduct lor Irrigation. 

(Continued from page 45.) 
by skipe, and Id each pier the welU, by oorbel- 
Ing oat the brickwork, are joined together (or 
the superstraotare of the pier. 

The total quantity of well sinking was 15,019 
lineal feet, or nearly three miles, and was exe- 
cuted by hand and steam dredging. It was 
commenced in May, 1886, and completed in 
May, 1888. The arching was commenced in 
November, 1888, and finished in April, 1889. 

The well sinking and arching went on night 
and day, the work being lighted by ten arc 
lights of 2500 candle power each. This con- 
straction is shown in the engraving on page 29. 

Now that the aquednct is completed, it forma 
% moat ttriking object in the vicinity, and will, 
Engineering hopes, stand to bear witness in far 

THE NADRAI AQUEDUCT - BRICKWORK IN PROGRLSS. - Ste first page of this issue. 

purpose as the metal pieces, which use, 
Webster's dictionary says, makes them 
money. In short, any material commonly 
used to equalize the valuations put upon 
things by agreement of human beings is 
money. It is this use which gives to any 
material, for.a time, the character of money 
— metal, paper, sawdust, sand or any mate- 
rial whatever. (See definition.) The real 
question is, whether it is better that these 
paper pieces should be of varied commercial 
character and form, issued by different citi- 
zens and corporations, or whether they 
should be of only a few forms, and issued 
by the General Government. 

At this point it is necessary to remember 
that the General Government is simply the 
greatest citizen of the Nation; it is a corpor- 
ate, legally constituted individual in all 
business matters; it is a public citizen which 
can do the same acts in a business way that 
private citizens can do, whenever it is au- 
thorized to do them by Congress or the 
people. It can issue its notes in satisfaction 
of accounts with private citizens, and re- 
ceive them in accounts of private citizen 
with it; and the current worth of such notes 
will be determined by the knowledge of the 
private citizen as to the Government's 
readiness to, at all times, receive them as 
freely as it gave them out (that is, for all 
debts due it as well as all debts from it), 
and at the same valuation in matters of ac- 
count, in this respect being subject to the 
eame laws of business as the notes of pri- 
vate individuals. The question, again, is 
whether these paper pieces — which have 
scarcely any intrinsic value as paper, but 
which may have, as notes, whatever value 
is put upon them, provided it is justified in 
the minds of men by the circumstances of 
their creation and circulation — the question 
is, whether such paper pieces shall be issued 
helter-skelter by individuals and private 
corporationa under a great variety of cir- 

revenuesof the Government as a still larger 
exchange fund for the Government's paper 
money; and even beyond this, we may go, 
jwid to satisfy those who prefer to handle 
metal money, we may say that the different 
kinds of material upon which the Govern- 
ment places the money stamp (the authority 
to circulate as equalizers of value) shall be 
exchangeable at the will of the holder, at 
places designated by Congress, for equal 
amount of any other kind of money issued 
by the Government and in its hands, and 
not specifically appropriated by the Gov- 
ernment for its regular expenses. 

Thus private citizens would gain all the 
advantage that could accrue from the main- 
tenance by the Government of a special 
specie "redemption fund" which the bank- 
ing interest of the East and Europe now 
leads the Government into pretending to 

Two things only are necessary to a 
mixed currency which shall be equally 
honest and just to all in a nation: 1. That all 
materials used by the Government as money 
shall stand equal in legal tender quality. 
2. That all classes of money issued shall be 
interchangeable at the will of the holder at 
Government depositories to the extent that 
each kind called for is in the hands of the 
Government and free from specific appro- 
priation; provided that when metal money 
is called for in lieu of paper, the Govern- 
ment shall not pay more than half the sum 
in gold, and may elect to pay all in silver 
whenever, in the judgment of the officials, 
it is necessary to do so in order to protect 
the public welfare. 

The legal tender clause of money should 
read : "This piece (or bill) is legal tender, 
within the United States, for all debts, 
public and private, to the amount specified 
upon its face" — in case of dollars and lar- 
ger; or, "to the amount specified by law," 
in case of fractional currency, if it is de- 

A paper currency which depends for its 
value upon metal is necessarily either a 
substitute or a fraud. The bankers would 
not object to a dishonest paper issue because 
they could control its metal base, raise the 
price of gold and silver, when needed by 
private citizens for purposes for which the 
bankers beforehand would carefully see that 
the paper was not legal tender and so reap 
a profit by discount. Such is the kind of 
paper money they favor everywhere, and 
the kind they secured in the United States 
during the war of the rebellion and in the 
Argentine Republic during its recent land 
boom, and by which they wrought financial 
destruction to all but themselves and even 
to some of themselves. F. P.. C. 

Executive Committee Meeting. 

Fresno, Cal., Jan. 5, 1892. 

To THE Editor : — In reply to your in- 
quiry as to January meeting of State Ex- 
ecutive Committee, I will state that as our 
late December meeting at S. F. was so 
near the end of the year, we decided not to 
meet again until April. 

I would enjoy being at your county meet- 
ing, and did our committee meet at all this 
month in S. F., would certainly make dates 
so we could be with you. As in future we 
have so much longer time in which to hold 
county meetings, if counties will leave dates 
to be arranged by County Presidents and 
Secretaries, or to a committee, so arrange- 
ments can be made to have dates for several 
counties follow in proper order. State offi- 
cers and others can visit many counties and 
great good would come from visits by one 
Alliance to another, where practicable. 

Our Institute and County Alliance at 
Fowler this week promises to be a big suc- 
cess, if I judge correctly by interest mani- 
fested on all sides. Fraternally yours, 

John 8. Dobe, Oh. Ex. Com. 

distant agei to the beneficence of British rule 
in Icdii and to the skill of Eoglish eagineere. 

The solidity of the great arches and piera 
and the fine sweep of tlie bastion-like wings all 
unite to give an idea of vast strength and sta- 
bility, while the monotony of such a large anr- 
faoe of facade la relieved by the effect of light 
and ahade obtained by the bold oorbellng out 
over the ipandrela to form a support for a road- 
way on either side of the canal, and the long 
horizontal lines of the cornice and railings are 
broken up by a tower at each end and one at 
each of the abutment piers. 

What the Bvzz. of a Bee Says.— In a re- 
cent work on the bee, T. W. Coman states 
that the insecl; can draw 20 times its own 
weight, can fly mora than four miles an hour, 
and will seek food at a distance of four miiee. 
By a beautiful mechanical adaptation its wings 
bear it forward or backward, with upward, 
downward or suddenly arretted course. Its 
threefold voice organa are the vibrating wings, 
the vibrating ringa of the abdomen, and a true 
vocal apparatus in the breathing aperture or 
apiraole. The buzz is produced by the first 
two, and the hum, which may be "surly, 
cheerful or colloquially significant, " by the vocal 
membrane. A number of the bee'a notea have 
been interpreted. " Humm " Is thn ory of con- 
tentment; " wuh-nnh-nuh 1 " glorifies the egg- 
laylnga of the queen; "ihu u-a" la the note of 
the young bees at play; "s-s-a-a " meana the 
muster of a swarm; " b-r-r-r " the slaughter or 
expulsion of the drones; and the "tu-tu tu " of 
the newly hatched young queens is answered 
by the "qua-qua-qaa " of the queens still im- 
prisoned in their cells. 

Farmers' Institutes. — The Farmers' Insti- 
tute at Fowler, Fresno county, on Thursday of 
last week, was a grand suooees in interest and 
in the importinoe of the discussions. We hope 
to present an outline of proceedings in our 
next issue. Preparations are being made for 
an Institute the first week in February, of 
which we expect to have fuller information in 
a later iaaae. 


f ACIFie f^URAlo PRESS. 

[Jan. 6 1892 

Mother's Country Parlor. 

iWrltten for the Ri,aii, fRinn »<} W. T. Hkali'.) 
A simple room with irimmings plain, 
Clftan, ipoiless sash and window pane; 
Lace curuins that have known no stain, 

Arr seen in Mother's Parlor. 
Mv brothers and my sisters, too, 
Have loved that place their childhood through; 
And love it still, indeed they do, 

"Tis Mother's Country Parlor. 

The pride of mother's thoughtful care 
Is what you'd see on entering there. 
You could not find a room elsewhere 

More neat than Mother's Parlor, 
A little organ, dear to me, 
In richest tones of melody, 
I'ours forth sweet anthems, full and free, 

From Mother's Country Parlor. 

Upon the walls hang pictures dear, 
Ol those who almost welcome here, 
The stranger who lias chanced to steer 

His course toward that old Parlor. 
And there is Mother's easy chair. 
You never see her sitting there, 
Because she'd have her friends to share 

Its comforts in her Parlor. 

Those albums lying on the stand. 
Have passed through many a bving hand, 
And set before their vision grand 

Old friends of Mother'.. Pjirlor. 
Some of those old friends are gone, 
And, as the silent years roll on, 
We see their photographs alone 

In Mother's dear old Parlor. 

1 heir photographs I love to view; 
1 love to look the albums through, 
And tell my friends how much they knew 

Those dignities of Mother '.s Parlor. 
No personage will ever be 
So eloijuent and grand to me 
As those wise heads I used to see 

In Mother's Country Parlor. 

But as I grow toward manhood now. 
Youth's emblem soon will leave my brow, 
I'Vom thee my bark will turn its biw, 

And yet, b»loved P.irlor, 
While going down the stream of fate, 
On childhood's days I'll nieditite. 
And vainly will 1 often wait 
For scenes so d'^ar and folks so great. 
As those 1 knew, my childhood through, 

Iti Mother's Country Parlor. 

A Dream. 

After t'llve Schrelner. 

lRe»<l before the Wcman'iiClul) of Los An){elop, Oil., by 
Mhh. .Sakaii K. Judhok.I 

In the dark night I Uy on my bed. For a 
long time I tossed uneaiily about, for the tea 
at the Raskin Art Club was atrone, and I 
oruld not iileep. My thoughte were of the 
woman who lay out on the doeert, with sand 
piled about her. I had tiret heard of her that 
day, and she interested me exoeudingly. 

At last I fell asleep and dreamed I saw the 
woman lying on the sand, near to the stream 
which she must oross before she coaid oome in- 
to the Lind of Freedom. I saw that her bead 
wM lifted, and the light of hope was in her 
eyes, but the burden upon her back was too 
heavy; she could not rise. 

Of this burden, whioh so weighed the wom 
an down, 1 could only see the cover. It was 
made of oloth, woven in the mo«t primitive 
style, and the bands which bonnd it to her 
body were of the strongest metal and very 

There stood one beaide me In whoso hand 
were the keys to the book of knowledge, past, 
present, and future; and I said to him, "I have 
a woman's ourioslty. I wish to know what is 
In this terrible burden which crashes the wom- 
an to the earth," 

He touched my eyes, and said, "Look!' 
and though the oover and the bands remained 
unohanged, I saw that the burden was com 
posed ot many packages, some old and moth- 
eaten whioh the woman had carried always, 
others which she had gathered by the way and 
patiently borne npon her back. 

The Urat and largest package was marked 
"Clothes," and in it waa suoh a multiplicity of 
garments that time wonld fall me to name 
them all. There were dresses for every hour 
of the day, some of them with trains for street- 
oleanlng purposes; dresses for every degree of 
heat and oold; dresses expressing every shade 
of sentiment, from the airy ball-oostome to the 
orape-oovcred robe of the inoanaolable widow, 
with every thing to matoh, from bonnet to 
shoes — these last • trlHe small for the wearer. 
There were corsets, ot course, and strings, and 
elastio, and whalebones, to hold poor hnmanity 
down and biok, and fetter arms and limbs. 
There were dotted vails, each dot worth $10 to 
the oculist; kid gloves for hot days; and jew- 
elry enough to satisfy the most birbarons 

Inclose proximity to the olotbes were "Aids 
to Beanty," inolading " Bloom of Youth " (the 

sort that comes in bottlet;) face-bleach, war- 
ranted to regenerate the worst complexion; 
quantities of false hair; Improvers of every 
kind, rogue and paint for the lips, bleaches 
and dyes for the hair; in fact, all the devices 
by which the fair sex from time immemorial 
hive sought to cheat Time and make them- 
ee'.ves attractive, with doubtful snccees. Th» 
next package, rivalling in size and importance 
its neighbor, Clothes, bore the label " SDciety," 
and first exhibited the menu of lunch, a pink 
lunch of thirteen ooaraes, the most indigesti- 
ble and complex dUhes poisible to be con- 
cocted, ending with ice cream as an aid to 
digestion. There were visiting cards of 
the dear 500 whom nobody carea about; 
cards for dinner parties, birthday parties, an- 
niversaries, at all of whioh yonr pre»mts are re- 
quested; receptions big and little, with son- 
venrii band-painted, bills for music, colored 
waiter!, gas, CHsd in preference to sunlight, 
refreshments, flgwers; and close by 1 saw black- 
bordered stationery, indicating the exact rela- 
tionship and the time elapsed since the death 
of the departed, gates aj»r in flowers and a 
dove for the funeral of a wicked old man. 

There were other things but I will not men- 
tion them all. 

A very bulky package called " Hoasehold " 
then claimed inspection. In it were curtains 
to keep out the snnlight; locks for windows 
that were never opened, easy chairs, some very 
light novels, photographs of servant girli who 
never went to cooking school, or any other 
school, company things simply innumerable, 
badly-painted pictures, and very amateur work 
of all kinds, common shells and specimens, 
Christmas cards, tidies, drapes for everything, 
bric-a-brac, thingi neither ornamental nor use- 
ful, and the trail of the dust oloth was over 
them all. There were children's garments 
elaborately trimmed; receipts and bills of fare 
for every-day use, including every complicated 
and unwholesome viand known to the ingenn- 
ity of woman. 

A small bundle; which gave me a thrill as I 
looked, held stimnlantr; principally tea and 
coffee, and, in small quantities, drugs of all 
kinds, with a very little alcohol to brighten the 
intellect, if required, and assist poor weak sis- 
ters to keep up when tired natnre refused its 
aid. Basldes the stimulants, were narcotics to 
soothe the nerves when some of the other things 
had done their work too well. 

At this stage of my discoveries I began ts 
feel weary, for I have not told the half of what 
I saw; but he who stood beside me said: " Go 
on. 'This opportunity may never oome to yon 
again, and you have not yet seen the heaviest 
things whioh the burden contains." 

And I looked again, and saw a strangely as- 
sorted oolleotion, marked " Miscellaneous," in 
whioh were some small coins, presented by a 
man to his wife for parchasiog necessaries for 
the family; receipts for the work done at half a 
man'd pay; dressmakers' and milliners' bills. 

There were chains and fetters, ttamped with 
the makers' names, viz.: Precedent, Eitab- 
lished Custom, Popular Opinion, and many 

There was a box containing marblei, black 
and white; and I said to him standing by me, 
' What are these for?" And he answered, 
"They are used by Cinbs for the Advancement 
of Women, the white ones for voting in women 
who do not especially need their help, the black 
ones for voting out those who hold imploring 
hands to them for inspiration and help — for 
driring them out into the world with the brand 
of infamy npon them, so far as it lies in the 
power of a Woman's Club to do it," 

At this I blushed, and I think I must have 
groaned a little in my sleep, for those marbles 
weighed heavily on my conscience. 

There was a pair of tweezers, bright from 
long usage, in which the characters of women 
had been held up for inspection; a microscope 
to aid in the good work; and a stilleto, stained 
with blood from the hearts of bcautifni women. 
This murderous little instrument was made of 
combinations of words, looks and inainnations, 
harder and sharper than the finest steel, antl 
nsed principally by very virtuous women who 
never did anything wrong in all their 

List and most pitifnl of all, there was a baby 
— a sad-faced little thing, with tears upon ita 
face, one of the large family of nnweloome 
nhildren, the offspring of an enforced mater 

Underneath all the rest, quite out of sight 
until the last, I found a small package marked 
"Work." In it were plans for bringing up and 
educating the children; answers to the question, 
"What shall we do with the boys and girls!" — 
plans for making them happy and beautiful; 
appliances for the care of the sick and helpless 
ones of the earth; garments for the orphans and 
aged; plans for charities and reforms of all 
kinds; kindcrgarden and church work; plans 
for saving the fallen, and winning back the 
weak and erring ones into right paths. 

The bands that bound theje things together 
were of silk, with the words ' Love" and 
'■Duty ' woven therein, and formed a yoke eas- 
ily adjusted to the wearer, and the bundle was 
not heavy because of the yoke. 

And when I had seen all that waa in the 
burden, I wondered not that the woman was 
unable to rise. I wondered more that she had 
ever come so far on the road that leads to the 
Land of Freedom, 

I was very sad, and said to him who stood 
by me, "Is there no hope for the woman?" And 
he answered, "Yes, See, her head is lifted 
she is thlukingl Look again." And I looked 

and behold, there came to her a band of angels. 
Their names were Reason, Common Sense, El- 
ucstion, and Independent Thoaght. One car- 
ried In his band a staff with the word " Ea- 
francbisement" engraved thereon. This he 
offered to the woman to Msist her in rising, and 
give her strength to go on the way. 

They all whispered in her ear, and tugged at 
tee bands cf metal. The woman straggled, till 
at last the bands snapped aannder, and all the 
burden rolled away, except the lost and least 
of all, which the woman cheerfally adjusted to 
her shoulders by the bands of Love and Daty. 

And with the vision of the woman standing, 
staff in band, her face turned toward the Lind 
of Freedom, I awoke. 

Polly Frost Talks With Betsy Snow. 

Deab Mb.s. Ssow;— The editor of the Rural 
granting me his permission I would like to talk 
with you for a little while. Of course these 
are busy time* with the farmers wives, (trhtt 
times are not?) Just now we are occupied 
with the making of head-cheese, cleaning pig's 
feet, trying ont lard, helping with the sausage, 
etc. And here let me tell you two of the ways 
I have of providing for times of scarcity. 
When we have quantities of sausage in the win- 
ter, I fry it, and pack it down in jirs as closely 
as I can lay the cakes together, and then beat 
lard and pour over It, entirely covering the 
sausage, which in this way will keep freab and 
sweet all summer. And if any of the readers 
of the RcRAL like myself live far from "the 
bntoher and baker and c»ndle-stick maker," 
they will find themselves provided with many 
appetizing dishes in this way, when confronted 
with that everlasting problem, fts to what 
shall we eat. Oar sausage put down last win- 
ter was perfectly good in August and Ssptem 
ber. I pat it down In gallon jtrs, take it op 
and beat it through when I wish to use It. An- 
other method of looking oat for tiones of scar- 
city is by canning mince-meat. Before the 
fruit season come;, when our stores of canned 
fruit wax low, the problem of desserts for din- 
ner becomes a vexed one, and at this seassn 
when apples and fresh beef are plenty in the 
farm homes why not prepare for future needs ? 
for the hungry men will enjsy-mince pies In 
the late spring. Bat perhaps my housewifely 
ways will not be new to other housekeepers. 

It Is as yon say Mrs. Sqow, we are in the 
midst of the holiday season, and if it i< also as 
yon Bay, that good husbands are ordering gro- 
ceries and other indispensable articles for their 
wives' Christmas gifts, let as accept them 
cheerfully, and put it down to man'd atapidity, 
for the experience of years teaches me that 
men are stupid creatures. They may be our 
superiors mentally, (but I do not believe they 
are,) but be that as it may I Insist npon it, that 
they are stupid. There is Deacon Brightly a 
good man truly, bat he never seems to have 
any innate sense of the fitness of things but 
goes blundering along all the years of his life, 
and the funniest part of it is, bis wife never 
ases her quick woman's wit to counteract bis 
stupidity; never indeed sees that he Is stupid. 
Of course, the money the careful housewife 
has taken in from the sale of poultry has gone 
to help pay the taxes, or for something equally 
necessary; and why should it not? I am sure 
I worked no harder for the poultry money than 
Tom did for the money from the grain. And if 
our partnarshlp means anything, it mast mean 
that the payment of the taxes is a matter of 
just as vital interest to ns as to oar husbands. 
There is one thing in your letter of the Rural 
of Daosmber 12tb with which I feel like taking 
issue, Mrs. Snow, that is, that devoted wives 
are using their long hoarded nlckles to buy 
cigar-cases for their husbands. I mean I take 
issue with the thoaght that this Is the right or 
proper thing to do. Now, Mrs. Snow, be jast 
as food of year Fred as yoo please, that Is your 
affair. Rise early and walk off just as far as 
yon told of In one of yonr letters some years 
ago, and get a pumpkin and make pumpkin pie 
for breakfast, to suit your husband; all that Is 
a matter for you to decide yourself. Bat I do 
protest, and that vehemently, against any wom- 
an who entertains the old-fashioned belief, 
" that cleanliness is next to godliness," doing 
anything to aid or abet ber husband in 
continuing in this vile practice. Of course our 
husbaods have ways and ways of their own in 
which they must be let alone. Joslah Allen, 
yon remember, would go In bis stocking feet. 
Tom Frost does hive such a fondness for news- 
papers and I have to bear It patiently, bat to 
encourage any man in the filthy habit of oslng 
that poisonous weed, I never shall while my 
name is Polly Frost. 

A STOUT elderly lady was hanging by a strap 
and casting blaok looks at an inoffensive bat 
ungallant male beanty who sat sucking the 
head of bis cane. A sndden lurch of the tram 
oar flung the lady upon him with great force. 
" Siy, dash it, don't yon know," exclaimed the 
youth, "you've crushed my foot to a jelly 1" 
"It's not the first time I've made oili's-foot 

At the close of a oonoert, while a young gen- 
tlemm was strnggliog with his hat, stick, over- 
coat, operaglass and bis young lady's fan, all 
of which he was trying to retain on his lap, a 
suspicious looking bottle from the overcoat 
pocket fell on the floor with a lond thud. 
" There," he exclaimed to his companion — 
"there goes my cough medicine, tool" There 
was presence of mind for you. 

The Farmers Wife as She is Not. 

[Wrltren (or the Rclal Pans by VAts-op -Atb-Woaa. ] 
Wnsn the town quill driver "HlT^tktti to 
write about the famMr** wive* of Califonua, 
he succeeds in making a fine display of his own 
ignorance and filling up ■ eolaam or two to the 
great injury of the paper eonUiniag th« ataff, 
and he approximates a deaeriptioa of a farm- 
er's wife aboat as well aa a dao e r lptl o u of a flat 
boat would pau for a rupraaantittou of a 
locomotive. It is intended to be witty, and 
is marked, "funny, this is to be laughed at," bat 
it is a weeping f alio re, because the individual 
who is intended to bear the brunt of the wit 
has been dead and baried a gr^at many years. 

In the olden times when nunery tales were 
invented, three blind mice got after a farmer's 
wife, and she seizid the beat piece of cutlery 
the had in the house, and brought it down 
with sach force and accuracy as to seriously dam- 
age the beantifnl curve of their ciodal extremit- 
ies. And this same thing is liable to happen again 
if our city dailies do not cease to damage the 
reputation of our beaatlfal and prosperous 
State by bringing ont illustrations of the 
farmers' wives as draggled and dirty and over- 
worked, and generally abused. A great many 
people read these thing* and think they are 
founded on fact. 

The average farmer's wife in California it 
neither a drudge nor a sloven. If farms here 
could cot Buppirt their women better, they 
wonld cease to be desirable in the modem way 
cf looking at things, and land would drop so 
low it would revert back again to large hold- 

Imagine a wife on ao average California 
farm going ont to milk, as represented In a 

daily not long ago. No one wonld be more 
surprised than the cow. In this tidy woman 
with a neat foot and well kept hair, the cow 
wonld see no resemblance to the slip shod 
creature so familiar to the imagination of the 
city penny-a-liner. When milking time comes 
the Ckltfornia cows expect to see the best hired 
man or the man who pays the taxes on the 
farm, and she would'nt stand for Mary or any 
other woman. 

If the sad man who writes fanny article* on 
the farmer's wife conld attend a session of the 
State Grange, the blow to his imagination 
would be so great, that his surprise would 
take the form of petrifaction. He would be 
labled "loft-ioap-itone,'' and set aside in a 
corner. Those grand dames in silk and velvet 
and fine shoes, who make witty speeches, 
and report laborious committee work, and 
make times agreeable whereever they are, are 
somewhat different from the wretched creatures 
of the quill drivers' imagination. 

They evidently have done something else 
beside cbarn and wash. 

The women of the State Grange are represen- 
tative women, and they repreient tasteful and 
comfortable homes, contentment, and all the 
domestic and social graces. 

C jntrary to the illustrated versions in the 
papers, the California farmer's wife does not 
churn butter with boots on, a grain sack for an 
apron, and her hair standmg in seven direc- 
tions, nor does she have to oarry her butter 
to town in a basket and trade it for calico and 

She is not a cross bstween an emigrant Ger- 
man with a growler, the Irish wlddy of foot- 
light comedy fame, with her "auld market 
basket," She is educated, neat and indus- 
trious, and if she does her housework, aha 
does it with ea^e and giaoe, 

Washing, sewing and butter-making are 
getting to be eliminated from the farmhouse 
work, as largely as from city homes. 

The farmhouse has lost its heterogeneous 
character. Farmers are divided into horticul- 
turists, viticulturists, stock raisers, dairymen, 
wheat growers; and the farmhouse Is the 
place where the family resides, and not where 
petty industries are kept up to support the 
paucity of the acres. 

One whose memories of a hard and joyless 
childhood on a farm way back in Missouri or 
somewhere else, leads him to libel the Cal- 
ifornia farm home, ought to be invited out to 
pay a visit to the genuine California farm home 
he knows so little about. He will be treated 
like a king, and will be fed on light diet while 
he slowly digests bis snrprite. The daughter 
from the Seminary will sing for him, the Nor- 
mal School girl will inform him on the leading 
qaestioni of the day, the Business School 
graduate will beat him at chess, and be finds 
it is no use to make love to the pet daughter 
of the house, for the farm is too good a place 
to leave. 

Even in humble farm homes where prosperity 
has not yet arrived, sqaalor, misery and dirt 
is never present in the absence of intemper- 
ance. The wife of a poor man is able to live 
a great deal easier in the country on a farm, 
than she can In the city, and food to eat is 
always assured. 

She has no false appearances to keep up, she 
isn't a slave to her door-bell, and her work, if 
she has to work for wages, is independent and 
self-controlled. The penny-a-liner who would 
describe the farmhouse, will be surprised to 
learn that pi^s are no longer allowed to wander 
at will in the kitchen, and that knitting the 
family hosiery, and making the matcnline 
garmints from the weaving up, is a forgotten 

In these times the convenience* and com- 
forts of life are about equally distributed 
between the city and country, according to the 

Jak. 16, 18921 

pAClFie f^URAlo PRESS. 


respeotive conditions of the famllleB. The 
poor eee more mieery In the city, and the rich 
flee to the oonntry for reat and comfort. 

Browning aaya: "There is nothing good In 
the city, bat the patient lives of the poor." 

All the world is In sympathy with that 
patience, and all the love and means of philan- 
thropy is now being directed to the alleviation 
of that misery and sin. And the only remedy 
seems to be transportation to the freer oppor- 
tnnitles and purer air of fields and pastures. 

It is BO much easier to make fun of things than 
to present troths in readable shape, that the 
dammies of the farmer and his sponse, made 
entiiely out of *' old clothes," are continually 
set up to fire bad jokes at. For cheap reading, 
this is space-filling, but does It advance the 
prosperity of an agricultural State, whose 
hope lies In training the next generation to 
caltivate onr thousands of now lightly tilled 
acres. Or have we reached a time when we 
can afford to pay anything for a laugh, or be 
witty at our own fnneral. If we must make 
fun, let it not be of our homes of industry, 
economy and enterprise. 

But if the humorist can spare no one, let him 
dilate upon the miserable slip-shod farmer's 
wife as the exception, and not as the rule. 
Beware, oh, all blind mice, for there may yet 
be a farmer's wife who has a carver, and 
knows bow to use it. 

makers' establishment in Awotabi, In Echlzeo, 
the proprietor's ancestors first established the 
industry a thousand years ago. The same as 
above, so far as skill in the family goes, is as 
trae of China as of Japan, 

Lessons in Volapiik, 

The International LanKuage of tbe Entire 


In lesson i it was taught that any adjective may 
be made an adverb by adding o to it. There are 
also primitive adverbs of which the following are the 
principal : 

Of time. Of manner. Uf quantily. 

Ai, always. Also, thus. Dilu, partly. 

Anu, at this mo- Elso, otherwise. Lolo, entirely. 

ment. Jeno, actually. Modo, much. 

Beviino, mean- Mofo, away. Sato, enough. 

while. Plobo, thorough- Te, only. 

Biseo, before- ly. Ti, nearly. 

hand. Sago, even; yet. Tobo, scarcely. 

Bletimo, recent- Somo, so ; in Tu, too. 

ly. such manner. Umo, more. 

Bub, formerly. Voto, otherwise. Vemo, very. 
Denu, again. Vio, how. Za, nearly; 

Egelo, always. Zo, round about. about. 
Fino, finally. Of place. Varied. 

Jiinu, up to now. Diso, below. Ba, possibly. 
Lato, lastly. Domo, at home. Bene, well. 
Nog, stiU. F6, in front. Bo, of course. 

Nu, now. Ge, back. Dduo, neverthe- 

Ofen, often. Ino, within. less. 
Poso, afterwards Is. here, Kludo, conse- 

Siso, since. Lino, around. quenlly. 

Sotimo, some- P6, behind. Leno, by no 

times. Seo, without. means. 

Suno, soon. Suso, above. No, no. 
I ano, then. Us, there. Si, yes, 

Ya, already. Valopo, every- Sikodo, con";e- 
where. qucntly. 

Zi, moreovi r. 

LikoPhow? Kimna ? how many times ? 
Kikod ? why? Kiop? where? 
Kimiko, in what way? Kiiip, when ? 


Kb, where. Kii, when. 

The vowel series avails to form adverbs of time, as 
for example : 

delo, by day, ivigo, three weeks ago. 

adelo, to-day. omulo, next month, 

adelo, yesterday; uyelo, year after next; evigo, week 
before last. 


Ogolob oyelo lodbn in dom olik— Jiblod obik 
kidof ai obi — Elogom bletimo fleni olik kel al<bmoni 
idelo— Okbmoms denu umulo— Kim'ko sagol vol;i- 
piikiko atosi?- Kimna eflapom jevali olik?— K op 
ogolols oyelo ol e jinef olik ? — Epoliidof lolis, kanof 
deno lemon flolis et kels binoms su tab — Kanon 
lifbn nen fineds, nams u lams, ab no nen kap — 
Epelob ti sentabis fols a paun plo kaf et kel no 
binom gudik — Li-kanol konbn obe kikod man at 
ehetom edelo vomi et e esedom adelo ofe Ic'.is ? — No 
li-ovipol spitbn odelo ko ob ve jol fluma?— Ologobs 
us flolis nidik e nimis smalik e gletik. 

I recently saw a man without feet or arms who 
formerly lived at your father's house — I shall by no 
means give you books if you lose them again --Yes, 
sir, I said that that boy that you saw yesterday will 
come to your sister's house to-morrow to remain 
there- If you will go soon then I shall go with you 
to the house where those boys live who always hate 
each other, although they sometimes kiss each other 
and have been taught to be friendly — I shall go 
soon. Will you go with me? otherwise I shall go 
with my uncle— Where shall I see you, day after to- 
morrow ? It is especially (patiko) bad to hate your 
brother or your sister. 

This series of twenty lessons was begun in the Pacific 
Rural Press of Oct. 10, 1S91. Those desiring assistance 
in the systematic study of the language will be put in the 
way of obtaiDing it mthout coat by addressing A. li. Ban- 
croft, Cijel for California, 303 Sutter St., San Francisco. 


Gentleman (to organ-grindet) — "I don't 
like your playing outside my house." Organ- 
grinder (blandly) — "Very well, sar, sail I 
oomes inside ? " 

Minister (dining with the family) — " Yon 
were a nice little boy in church this morning, 
Bobby. I noticed yon kept very quiet and 
btill," Bobby — " Yee, sir. I was afraid of 
waking pa," 

She — " Mamma says she knows that when 
we are married we shan't live so much like cat 
and dog as she and pa do." He — "No, indeed, 
your ma is right." — " Yes, she says she is 
sure von'll be easier to manage than papa is," 
—"Oh !" 

Mrs, Beownson — "Why. under the snn are 
you standing here, gazing out of tbe front 
door?" New servant — "Sure the sun won't 
hurt me." 

A young man was calling on a oonnty oonn- 
cillor's daughter the other evening, when tbe 
father appeared at the parlor door. " May I 
ccme In?" he aiked, hesitatingly, " Ob. yes," 
she answered, "you may, bat we have a quo- 
rum without yon. 

Little Johnny (looking curiously at tbe vis- 
itor) — " Where did the hen bite you, Mr. An- 
gel-Smith?" Visitor — " Why, Johnny, I 
haven't been bitten by any chicken." Johnny 
— " Mamma, didn't you tell papa Mr. Angel- 
Smith was dreadfully hen-pecked ? Why, 
mamma, how funny you look. Your face is all 

He was a bad writer. — Mre. Green (to 
young physician whom she had called in haste) 
— "Oh, doctor I doctor 1 I fear yon have made 
a terrible mistake t My daughter had that 
prejcription which youeeat her last night filled, 
and she took a dose of the medicine. Now she 
exhibits every symptom of poisoning 
Young physician — " Prescription, 
Why, that was an offer of marriage. 

Enter housemaid to give notice. 
"Why, Sarah what are you dissatisfied nith?" 
Housemaid (with a simper): " It ain't as any- 
thing ia wrong, mum, but I'm going to be mar- 
ried." Mlstresb: "Why, yon didn't tell me 
you were engaged when you came 1 " House 
maid: "No, mum, I wasn't then. But you 
remember yon gave me a holiday about two 
months ago to go to a faueral. Well, I'm going 
to marry that oorpse's husband." 

Watts— Aren't you ever going to get tired 
of shopping ? You never seem to bring any- 
thing home. Where's the fascination in it, I'd 
like to know ? Mrs. Watts— Ob, Ijlike to look 
at the new goods, yon know, and to see what 
lovely things I oonld get if I had only married 

Skill Euns in the Family Line. — It is well 
known that the Japanese are very skillful work- 
men, and the reason for this is undoubtedly 
accounted for in tbe following extract from an 
ezohange: In Japan apprentices begin to learn 
their trades usually much earlier than In oar 
oonntry, so that when majority is attained the 
mastery of tbe crafts is thorough. Another 
striking feature of tbe Japanese system is that 
of heredity. Skill runs in family line. Not a 
few of the famous artisans of the present decade 
are descendants in the ninth, tenth and even 
twentieth generation of the founder of the es- 
tablishment. A carpenter in Fakui can baant 
of his ancestry of woodworkers through 27 
generations; and the temple records show anoh 
boasting to be true, though often adoption In- 
terrapts the aotaal blood line. At • paper- 

Oh 1 "— 



The Little Singing Girl. 

[Written for the Rural Prbss by Miss Evkltn.] 

Far away in the wilds of the Alps, there once 
lived a poor charcoal burner. His hut was 
high np a mountain side, aud his little girl 
Gemma never went to school, because many 
weary miles lay between Gemma's home and 
the nearest village. 

Gemma did not want to go to school, how 
ever. She was quite happy playing under the 
trees and hearing the birds sing. 

" Wbat a sweet sound yon make, little 
birdies," she would say. "How I wish 
could do It, too I " and then she wonid try to 
imitate the singing of the birds, until at last 
she could make sounds almost like theirs, her- 
self. Now, behind Gemma's home, the moun- 
tain towered up till it was lost In enow and 
clouds. Some people have a fancy for climbing 
to the top of such mountains. They say they 
can see more of the world than they can in the 
valleys, where the view is shut In. 

One bright, August day, when Gemma was 
about eleven years old, she was sitting at the 
top of a piece of rock, singing, when two gen 
tleman, accompanied by a guide, came down 
tbe mountain side. 

" What sweet masic I " exclaimed cue of the 
strangers, " It sonnds like a nightingale sing 

" I really believe it must be that little girl," 
replied the other gentleman; and they stopped 
under the rock to listen. 

Gamma, who bad no idea that any human be 
ing was near, continued to sing. Imitating the 
birds in such a wonderful manner that one of 
the gentlemen beoame too mnoh delighted to 
keep silence, 

" Brava 1 brava t " he cried, clapping his 

Gemma was terribly startled. She jnmped 
up and ran to take refuge in the cottage, 
whither the gentlemen followed, for they wish- 
ed to see the parents of the wonderful little 
singing girl. 

After some conversation, one of them made a 
most startling proposition to Gemma's father 
and mother, 

" Let as take yonr daughter awty to the town 
of .Milan to be ednoated. We will pay all the 
expenses of her Instraotlon, and before maay 

years she will be the greatest singer in the 

" Bat how do we know that you will treat 
our child kindly ?" asked tbe mother. 

"You shall come with us now to Milan to 
see the ecbool," answered the stranger, " and 
every six months you shall go there to visit 
your little girl." So the mother consented. 

Poor Gemma 1 The change was very terrible 
to her at first. Instead of running barefoot on 
the mountain side, free as the winds of heaven, 
she was now shut up within tbe four walls of 
a boarding school. Her feet were oramped into 
shoes, her active young limbs ached for want 
of exercise. Study, too, was very hard work at 
first, and she often shed tears when she thought 
of her dear parents and her lovely mountains. 
But soon Gemma had a professor to teach her 
music, and this made her feel as though a ray 
of sunshine had entered her life, 'the pro- 
fessor was a nervous, cross old gentleman, who 
hated to hear children play or sing wrong 

He was In tbe habit of scolding all his other 
pupils roundly, bat he never once scolded 
Gemma. "The child is a genius," be wonld 
cry with delight; "she is the first pupil It has 
ever given me pleasure to teach." 

Sometimes the sister of the rich gentleman, 
who was paying Gemma's expenses, would in- 
vite tbe little girl to her boose to spend the 

The sister was a very fine lady indeed, 
and her house was so full of beautiful pictures 
and costly trifles that her poor little visitor was 
afraid to move about, for fear of overturning 

From the way in which the lady looked at 
her. Gemma felt that she was thinking, "What 
an awkward child you are, how big yonr feet 
are, and how red and snnburnt your hands." 

Perhaps the lady never thought this at all, 
but when Gemma saw her, all in silks and 
satins, her white hands gleaming with riogs, 
tbe poor child felt as nervous and terrified as a 
wild linnet would do If you asked it to make 
friends with a tame canary. As the months 
went by, however, the tan wore off Gemma's 
hands and they became white, she grew accus- 
tomed to wearing shois and learnt to move 
about as gracefully as any one. 

Then the lady treated her more kindly and 

'• My brother Is so extravagant," she would 
say, " He is always doing some foolish act of 
generosity;" and Gemma would blush, for she 
knew that her education was one of his acts of 

He himself, however, never hinted this; he 
was always very kind to the little girl, gave 
her boxes of candy, and praised her progress 
in singing. 

When Gemma was eighteen, her master said: 
"She must sing at a concert, for I am anxious 
to know what people will think of her," 

Tbe concert took place in a very large build- 
ing. All the great people of the town were 
there, and in tbe front row, sat Gemma's par 
ent?, and her kind friend, Alas ! no longer 
rioh, bat he never for a moment regretted the 
money he had spent on Gemma's education, for 
he said: " Think how many sorrowfal hearts 
will be lightened by hearing her sweet sing- 

"How yonng sho is, and how pretty," whis- 
pered the people as Gamma appeared. When 
shu sang, it sounded as if the sweetest-voiced 
nightingale the listeners had ever heard, were 
pouring forth a song, 

" Oh 1 brava ! sing again," tbey all cried. 
They got up from tbeir seats and waved their 
handkerchiefs, the people were all so delighted. 

L'uccello — the bird," was the name they all 
gave her. 

Of course the newspapers all spoke of "the 
bird's " wonderful singing. It was quite sur- 
prising how much money was offered Gemma 
to sing in other townf — enough, before long, to 
make her old parents rich, and enable her to 
save up a very large sum besides. 

Gemma had been traveling about for three 
years, singing in Germany and England, even 
an far away ns Russia, when she returned to 

Her first inquiry was for her friend. " He 
has become very poor," they told her, "and 
scarcely ever goes into society, as formerly 
There is a beautiful lady he wants to marry, 
but as she has very little money, and he has 
none, the wedding cannot be thought of." 

Gemma knew it was no use offering to pay 
him back all he had spent on her, in her child- 
hood, he was too proud to accept it, so she 
went to the lawyer, who had her benefactor's 
estate for sale, and though it cost a very large 
sum of money, she bought it. 

Then she visited the sister, who treated 
Gemma very affectionately, now that she had 
become celebrated. 

"I want you to hasten your brother's mar- 
riage, and give the bride this, as a wedding 
gift," said Gemma, presenting the title deeds of 
the estate. 

"Never say that it is not yourself who makes 
this present," 

Now, as the sister was very rich, and had 
not any children, no one was snrprised at her 
making her new sister-in-law a splendid pres- 
ent, and you may bo very sure that at the wed- 
din?, she took all the credit for great gener- 

Gemma's kind friend and his wife have lived 
very happily since the wedding. 

If yon ihonld ever chance to meet them, I 
hope yoa will never tell t-he secret of how they 
became rich again. 

Care of Flat-irons. 

It is so easy to keep the flat-irons in good 
condition that there is little excnse for any 
housewife neglecting them, no matter how busy 
she may be. Any woman can easily tell at a 
glance when these articles are well kept. Some 
housewives will have in their possession irons 
that have been tbeir mother's before them, and 
though tbey have been in constant use for 
years, are still as firm and smooth as any one 
could wish. Other women, with the same kind 
of irons, would, by neglect and carelessness, in 
a year or two, render them unfit to use. 

Where there are many starched clothes to be 
done t<p weekly, it Is a good plan to wash the 
irons once a week, but where plain clothes and 
only a few starched olothes are to be done, 
onoe a month is often enough Take some clean 
ammonia soapsuds, and with a cloth wash the 
Iron well, afterwards wiping with a dry olotb; 
then pat them on the back part of the stove to 
dry thoroughly. To clean the irons, always 
have a piece of coarse sandpaper or a handful 
of coarse table-salt or a pleoe of wrapping-pa- 
per In which to wrap them. Always have the 
top of tbe range perfectly clean before patting 
on the irons, and never allow them to get too 
hot. If ench a thing does happen, cool them 
by setting up on end on the hearth. Some 
women, when in a hurry, oool irons by plung- 
ing them into cold water, which will very soon 
spoil them. Don't keep the irons on the stove 
when not in use, for it is sure to harm the tem- 
per of the iron; and don't have irons on the 
stove when cooking, more particularly when 
the article cooking is one that Is apt to 
flow or boil over, or while frying. 
After taking an iron from the stove for 
immediate use, first rub it over with 
a pieoo of heavy wrapping-paper kept for that 
purposp, then rub tbe smooth part with a oloth 
In which Is encased a bit of wax. Rub the iron 
well over a clean cloth and then it is ready for 
the clothes. In Ironing starched olothes, if any 
of the starch sticks to the Iron, always eorane 
It off with a knife before placing it on the stove 
to beat. Irons i>hoald be kept in some closed, 
dry place. If kept on a shelf they are always 
dusty when wanted, — Houiekeeper, 

Grace Oranges. — Have the oranges per- 
fectly dry. Separate carefully each carpel 
without breaking the inner skin. Stand them 
in a warm place to dry. Put one pound of 
granulated sugar in a porcelain-lined kettle, 
add to it a half-onp of water and stand over 
the fire to boil. Do not stir after the sugar is 
dissolved. After the mixture has been boiling 
about ten minutes, hold the forefinger and 
thumb in ice-water for a minute, then quickly 
dip up a little of the boiling syrup with them; 
press the thumb and finger tightly together, 
then draw them apart; if the syrup forms a 
thread, it is at the second degree. Boil gently 
about three or four minutes longer until it 
reaches the sixth degree. This may be known 
by taking a small portion on the end of ajjspoon, 
then dipping it into oold water and breaking it 
off quickly; if it ia brittle without being at all 
sticky, it is just right. The syrup must never 
be stirred, or it will cause granulation. Now 
take it quickly from the fire, add a tablespoon- 
fnl of lemon juice, stand in a basin of boiling 
water, to keep the syrup from candying. 
Take the fruit on the point of a large skewer 
or with sugar tong?, dip into the syrup, lay on 
a piece of buttered paper and stand in a warm, 
dry place to dry, — MrB, Borer in Table Talk, 

Boiling Vegetables. — Now, what is there 
to say about boiling vegetables, except to pat 
them over the fire and let them boll until tbey 
are done ? That is the point — "until they are 
done," but not a minute longer. So general is 
tbe custom of overboiling vegetables, cooking 
them In a careless, haphazard kind of way, that 
few people realize their superiority when 
cooked just the right time and served as soon 
as done, A general rule to be observed is, that 
all vegetables must be put into fast-boiling 
water, brought to the boiling point again as 
soon as possible, and kept boiling until done. 
Potatoes, if of medium size, require 30 minutes 
to oook; of course, if they are small, 15 or 20 
minutes' boiling is sufficient. Care must be 
taken that all are of nearly the same size. Car- 
rots and turnips require 45 minutes when 
young and an honr in the winter. Beets, an 
hour in summer and an hour and a half in win- 
ter; or if very largo, two hours is not too long. 
Onions, If of medium size, will be done In one 
hour; when small and young, half an hoar Is 
sufficient. Cabbage and canllflower shonld not 
boll over 30 minuter. If onions, cabbage, cauli- 
flower or turnips are boiled in a large sanoepan 
with plenty of water, kept boiling rapidly and 
with no cover over them, the odor of these veg- 
etables will not be noticeable In the house, I 
did not believe this until I tried it. 

Vegetable Flannel.— Germany oontalns a 
number of establishments engaged in the mann- 
faoture of flannel and similar textiles from pine 
leaves, the articles made being used in hos- 
pitals, barracks, etc, owing to the fact that no 
vermin can lodge in them. When spun and 
woven, this material resembles hemp, and it 
may be employed in making many articles of 
wenring apparel, as the goods are comfortably 
warm and solid. 



[Jan. 16, 1892 

Office, 220 SJarkil St., N. E. cor. Front St., S.F. 
tSr Take the Elfvator, No. IS Front St. 

Our SubscrlDtlon Rates. 

OuB Annual Subsckh'Tion R.vte is Three Doi.lakh 
» year. While this notice appears, all Bubscribem paying S3 
In advauce will receive 15 uioutbs' (one year aud liJ weeks) 
credit. For %f2 in advance, 10 months. For $1 in advauce, 
five months. Trial sulxscriptioDS for three months, jtaid in 
advance, each 60 cents. All agents and clerks are re^iuired 
to adliere to these terms. No new names entered ou the list 
without payment In advance. Our premium offerings are 
subject to these terms. 

Advertlalng Kates. 

IWeek. Iliunth. 3 Motuhn. I Year. 

Per Line (agate) $ .25 $ .50 « 1.20 8 4.00 

Halt Inch (l8<iuare... l.OO 3.50 6.50 22.00 

One inch 1.50 5.00 13. UO 42.00 

Large advertisements at favorable rates. Special or read- 
log notices, legal advertisements, notices appearing In 
extraordinary type, or in particular parts of the paper, at 
special rates. Four Insertions are rated in a month. 

DEWEY ft CO., Patbht Souoitorb. 

A. T. DKWKT. W, B. BWIIR. 8. H. STR0H8. 

Our lalfsl forma go to prtss Wednesday evening. 
Registered at S. F. Post OtClce as second-class mall matter. 


Saturday, January i6, 1892, 


BDITOBIALiS. — A Great Aqueduct for Irrigation, 

45. The Week; The Issue on the Peach Yellows; 

The Evil of Grain-Oamblinu; Greatest Money Ever Paid 

for a Horse; Miscellaneous, 52. 
ILLOSTKATIONS The Nadrai Aijueduct, India, 


COBBKSPONDENCE.— The Paternal of Col- 

unization, 46- 
AQKlUUl.TUBAL fcNQINEEE — Drainage in 

IiriKuted Districts, 46 
HORTICULiTUKK The Lemon in California; The 

Uuava in C'a iforuia, 46. Points on Peanuts; Destroy 

iug Suriaro Koois on FigB, 47. 
THE FIELD. -The Hop Crop of the Pacific Coast; 

Su^ar Beet Growing In Pajaro Valley, 47. 

Desk; Co. perative Buying; Practical Topics Before 

Dix ,n Grange, 48. 
FARMERS' AIjLiIANOB. — The Truth Close 

Home; Executive Committee Meeting; Alliance and 

Union Meeting, 49. 
IHE HOME CIRCIiE.-Mothcr's Country Parlor; 

A Dream; Polly Frost Talks with Betsey Snow; The 

Farmer's W.fe as ^he is Nut, 50- Lessons in A'olapuk; 

Skill Runs iu the Family Line; ChaS, 51- 
YOUNO FOLKS' COLUMN-lhe Little Singing 

Girl, 51. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY. — Care ol Flat-Irons; 
Qraco Oranges; Boiling Vegetables, 51. 

THK IRr> .OATIONIS r.— An Irrigation Bureau; 
Another Plan for Reclamation; District and Other 
Work; Pumping lor Irrigilion; Irrigation in Arizona; 
Arizona's Water Laws; Forest'y and Irrigation; Work- 
ings ol the Wright Law, 53. Ten Years' Develop- 
ment, 18ba-1890; Public tAnds; A Plan to be Dis- 
cussed, 54. 

TRACK AND FARM.— The Claims of the Ameri- 
can Tiotter, 54. 

Plants, 54. 

Counties of California, 54. 

GOOD HEALTH.— .specks Before the Ejos; Crimi- 
nality as a Disease; Change of Action Better than Rest; 
R iblidr l oot Kover; Disease from Birds, 58. 

MISCELLANtoODS.— Cyclones in California and 
Elsewhere, 54. The Most Terrible Volcanic Eruption 
on Record; Fast Railroad Trains, 56. Robert Bon- 
ner's Start in Lif', 58- 

MARKrtT RtPuRTS — Market Review; Market 
Info'iuation; Domestic Produce; Dried Fruits; Fruits 
and Vegetables; Live Stock, 64. 

Business Annoanceinents. 


Carbon Bisulphide — J. U. Wheeler, Helrose. 
Cultivator Jensen & Lauritzen, Watsonville. 
Business College— W. C. Ramsey, Stockton. 
Seeds— L. L. Mar, SL Paul, Minn. 
Squirrel Kxtermiuator- 1'. K. Browne, Los Angeles. ' _ 
Seedj— John Lewis Childs, Flcral Park, N. Y. 
Seeds -Jchn A. Salzer, La Crosse, Wis. 
Pla its— E. Bonner S. Co., Xenia, Ohio. 
Seeds— Alueer Brof., Rockf ird. 111. 
Fruit Trees— D. B. Derby, V.caville. 
Gopher Traps— Ira F. Wiiite & Son, Pomona. 
Impoited <'lyde Stallions— II. P. Mobr, Mount Eden. 
Seeds- K. Batteldes & Co.' Lawrence, Kin. 
Setds— The Dingee & Cunard Co., Wett Grove, P«. 
Registered Shire Stallions— J. I. Parsons, Santa Rosa. 
tWSee Advertiaiwi GolumsM. 

The Week. 

The Cittas F«ir at Auburn is la progress as 
we write, and early reports are of the fall 
aacoesB of the fair as a meritorious display and 
as a recipient of public favor. Half a dozen 
oounties are represented by collective displays, 
the designers of which have been able to pro- 
duce quite unique and original effects. Be- 
sides these, there are a host of individnal ez> 
hibltors competing for the array of premiums 
which have been bung up. These are naturally 
in the main from Placer county, but not wholly 
so. The fair seems to be bringing oat the 
tohievements of the foothills splendidly, and 
that will be a grand service to the State. 
Rdral representatives are at the fair and will 
secure its salient features for the ttenefit of 

Congress is actively at work, and Cilifornla 

Congressmen are Introducing a host of pro- 
gressive measures, some of which we hope will 
get off the file before the adjournment. We 
notice that river improvement is urged by our 
State Board of Trade. It is a good thing. If 
Congress will give as something liberal and ad- 
equate in this direction, we will endure the 
pigeon-holeing of a good many other things. 

The Issue on the Peach Yellows. 

There Is no more important item in our local 
agricultural affairs just at present than the is- 
sue which is being forced on the practical ex- 
clusion of Eastern-grown peach, plum and apri- 
cot trees, l>ecause of the ravages, east of the 
Rocky mountains, of the dread disease known 
as the "yellows." This issue interfering as it 
does with courses of trade, which have long pre- 
vailed, naturally excites opposition among 
Eastern tree growers and upsets the calcula- 
tions of local tree dealers who have hitherto 
relied, in whole or In part, upon the importa- 
tion of Eastern-grown trees. 

Probably no measure can be adopted without 
interference and hardship to some people. We 
sympathize with Eistern tree growers who have 
laid out their future upon sale of stook in Cali- 
fornia. Some of them have been very enter- 
prising in propagating the varieties our planters 
desire, and have undertaken, at large expense, 
to procure buds from California orchards. We 
do not wonder that they feei aggrieved and 
that they protest against the position now 
taken by California fruit growers at their pub- 
lic meetings and through the State and County 
Baards of Horticultaral Commissioners. We 
have received a number of communications on 
this subject from Eastern parties, which en- 
large upon the grievousness of the situation In 
which they are placed, and we sincerely regret 
that they have to suffer in the ways described. 

And yet what can California do otherwise 
than she has done ? Here we are with a vast 
and growing peach interest. It is by much the 
greatest deciduous fruit interest of the State at 
present. More than this, we are free from this 
terrible disease which destroys peach orchards 
almost with the rapidity of fire or tornado. 
One cannot read the most conservative reports 
on this subject, such as appear in the Govern- 
ment publications, without being appalled at 
the insidiousnesB, the swiftness and the effect- 
iveness of the scourge. There is no pest or 
pestilence among fruit trees which can compare 
with the little understood ^malady known as 
" peach yellows." 

In view of these things, what oan we do bat 
protect ourselves ? To weaken or to provide 
for fntare restriction may be to "look the door 
after the horse is stolen;" the animal Is now In 
the stall, vigorous and healthy and promising: 
let the doors be locked at onoe. 

Ik has been charged that this movement is at 
the instigation of the California nurserymen 
and is for the purpose of corralling locally, the 
trade in trees. This is not true on the whole, 
and in fact we believe they have had very little 
or nothing to do with it. Perhaps an indica- 
tion of this may be foand in the fact that many 
California nurserymen expected to handle con- 
siderable quantities of Eastern-grown peach 
and prune trees this year and had orders placed 
for them whioh they, in some oases at least, 
countermanded as soon as they knew of the 
stand taken at the Maryaville Fruit Orowers' 
Convention, The result will undoubtedly 
favor the looal growth of nursery trees, but un- 
less we are very much mistaken, our California 
nurserymen had very little to do with the in- 
cisive action whioh has amounted almost to a 
practical exclusion of Eastern trees. 

Again, the present California stand on this 
subject is not a local scare. It comes about 
through Eastern publications as to the charac- 
ter of the yellows and the intensity of its rav- 
ages. Current Etatern reports, backed np by 
the most carefully prepared statements by the 
Government investigators, must be charged 
with this protective action by the California 
fruit producers. Just as we write the mail 
brings us a new Government publication on 
this question in its most startling phases. It is 
entitled "Additional evidence on the Com- 
municability of Peach Yellows and Peach 
Roaettn," and is by Dr. E. F. Smith, the 
Specialist of the U. S. Department of Agri- 
culture, who has been engaged upon this par- 
ticular investigation'f or several years. Let the 
Californlan read the following quotation and 

see that his protective action is not too early \ 
nor too incisive, and the aggrieved Eastern 
nurserymen also read it and perceive that it is 
not an issue forced by local nurserymen npon 
selfish ground. We quote from Dr, Smith as 
follows : 

It is proper to state, however, that the 
losses continue in the infected districts; that 
the disease has appeared in new localities; and 
that regions now healthy are also threatened. 
The yellows is certainly as far south as south- 
ern Virginia and probably as far west as 
Arkansas and northeastern Texas. Peach 
growers are earnestly advised to stimp ont the 
disease upon its first appearance, and are warn- 
ed against the importation of trees from in- 
fected districts. These remarks apply with 
especial force to the Pacific coast, and in this 
connection it is well to remember that the 
apricot and almond are also subject to yellows. 
It would be much safer for the Califoraians to 
grow their own peach trees than to introduce 
any from the eastern United States, If trees 
are imported it shonld bs known beyond 
question that they are from regions where this 
disease does not occur. The mere fact that 
the nursery stock is healthy at the date of 
shipment is not a sufficient guaranty that it 
will continue so, 

This is warrant for all California fruit grow- 
ers are doing, and it shonld be sufficient to dis- 
arm oritlcism. This State cannot afford to pro- 
ceed longer in defiance of this disease, but is 
justified in the most stringent measures for its 

It is, perhaps, natural that the first thought 
of those who are temporarily troubled by the 
refusal of Californians to receive their trees 
should be retaliation. We are not surprised, 
then, to find one Eastern tree grower writing 
us in this way: 

Our only recourse will have to be to get 
similar laws oassed by this and adjoining States 
to exclude California fruit on account of its 
sanitary condition. We think, if we try, we 
can get laws that will operate as much against 
the fruit growers of California as they can by 
excluding onr stock. 

This is a heathenish threat, and none, per- 
haps, will be more ashamed of it in a little 
time than those who propose it. It is not to 
be feared on our part, for it is Idle and imprac- 
ticable. No Legislature could be made to 
adopt any such enactment nor could facts 
be shown which would justify it in the minds 
of any fair-minded men. Our Eastern friends 
In the nursery line, before any snch venture 
could be undertaken by them, would remember 
that such action would be against their own 
customers and friends, and in many cases 
against their own investments. We look upon 
the threat as merely a manifestation of chagrin 
resulting from misapprehension of the motives 
which prevail in excluding trees from doubtful 
or infested localities. Usually the ill-temper 
whioh arises upon misapprehension quickly 
passes away. 

Greatest Money Ever Paid lor a Horse. 

The Call is authority for the statement that 
an agreement was perfected Tuesday, by which 
J. Malcolm Forbes of Boston will pay Senator 
Stanford $150,000 for the two-year-old oolt 
ArioD. This is the highest price ever paid for 
horseflesh, the next highest being Axtell, who 
brought $100,000. Arion is a bay colt, 15 2 
hands high, and was foaled March 13, 1889. 
His sire was the illustrious Electioneer and 
his dam Nanette, a sister to Woodnut (2:16^). 
A few months ago, he made a record of 2:10j 
at Stockton. Mr. Forbes seems to be boring 
with a bigger auger than Bonner in the horse 

Arion leads now an lllastriona line of high- 
priced horses which California has furnished to 
Eastern fanciers. Among them are the follow- 
ing: Anteeo, who reached a price of $65,000; 
Bell Bjy, who sold for $51,000; Maeoot for 
$'20,000, Alcazar for close to the same amount, 
Woodnut for $20,000, Nerval for $15,000, and 
a dozen other stallions, young in years, that 
went over $10,000. 

Rattling a Cross Boll —Mr, R. G. Sne»th 
tells as of an early observation of his in the 
subduing of a vicious bull, as practiced by a 
San Mateo county butcher. The butcher was 
called upon to bid npon a cross Jersey bull, 
who was so ugly that no one could enter the 
field with him. The butcher made the bid and 
was given the bull, being cantloned of his dan- 
gerous character. He scouted danger, and as 
the bail came bellowing and pawing before 
him, he began rattling back and forth between 
the horns with a piece of a fork handle, strik- 

ing quick, sharp blows on the horns as near 
the points as possible. The bull began to back 
away, and finally started on a run, and the 
batcher after him. After that the mere sight 
of the stick intimidated him. Try it; bnt take 
onr advice and stay on the safe side of the 
fence autll yon see how it works. 

The Evil of Grain-Gambling 

A measure is again before Congress to put an 
end if possible to grain-gambling. This, of 
course, does not mean the sale of futures where 
it is expected that grain will actually be han- 
dled, but the wholly fictitious gaming which 
has no grain in it, except the words printed on 
the contracts. The evil in this sort of dealing 
is so great that we have frequently attempted 
to characterize it and to depict its evil infla- 
ences. So long as the practice exists, there 
will be occasion to strike it in the interest of 
legitimate producers and dealers. 

We are glad to find in current telegrams 
some expressions from Senator Washburn of 
Minnesota, who as a resident of so great a 
wheat-growing and milling State, knows well 
the influences of the gamblers' practices. He 
is quoted as saying : 

I want to stop the pernicious, de- 
moralizing practice known as "short-selling," 
where a man can go on a board without a ker- 
nel of grain, real or prospective, and sell a 
million bushels, depressing the market the 
same as if so much grain had been dumped on 
it. Mr. Pillsbary, the largest bnyer of real 
wheat in the world, tells me there are men in 
Minneapolis with their offices in their hats, 
who sell more wheat In a year than he buys. 

A very interesting table I came across the 
other day selects ten days from April to 
October, 1890, and shows that in those days, 
while the actual sales of wheat amounted to 
437,800 bushels, the optional sales of fictitious 
wheat amounted to 125.720,000 bushels. On 
the 14th of April, 1S90, New York speculators 
sold 44,000,000 bushels of fiat wheat, probably 
more than twice as much as reached that city 
daring the year, and the actual sales of that 
day were but 6000 bushels. 

This shows how wholly unreal the trade is 
and how hollow are the reports of markets 
which are based upon such manipulations. Nor 
is this the whole of ,the trouble. If it were, 
possibly, the people could stand quietly and 
watch the spectacle of men driving each other 
to the lunatic asylums or to suicide. The worst 
of it all is that the gaming unsettles values and 
gives both producer and dealer no sound ground 
upon which to proceed. It also makes game of 
a world's food — a most vicious proceeding. 

A still more direct and present effect of the 
gambling Is shown by Senator Washburn in 
this way: 

" Were it not for Bsard of Trade methods, I 
think every bushel of wheat would be worth 
20 cents more to-day. In fact, all Europe is 
astonished that it is getting our wheat to-day 
for such a ridiculously low price, considering 
all the circumstances. They expected to pay 
more, and it is an outrage npon the producer 
that he shonld be a sacrifice to the relentless 
greed and disreputable deals of the short seller 
on our Bjards of Trade. In my opinion some 
kind of relief will be granted the producer in a 
restrictive law that will preserve all the good 
features in future-dealings, and eliminate the 

Snch a law is now before Congress. Now 
enact it and enforce it ! 

From Hawaii. — We had a pleasant call on 
Wednesday from H. J. Rhodes of Carpinteria, 
who was on his homeward way from a year's 
sojourn in the Sandwich Islands. Mr. Rhodes 
reports that the McKinley bill seems to be 
working something of a transformation in 
Hawaiian industries, leading to a diversity of 
production, and will result, probably, in mak- 
ing the islands more self-reliant industrially. 
There is also quite a sentiment springing np in 
favor of annexation, and generally a progres- 
sive spirit discernible. Mr. Rhodes brings 
back with him many rare and desirable plants, 
and on his return to the islands next month, 
will take quite a shipment of orange and other 
trees for planting. 

More Kite Shapes. — It is reported that San 
Francisco horsemen propose to construct a kite- 
shaped track near Pleasanton, Alameda Co., • 
five minute*' walk from the town, and adjoin- 
ing the Pleasanton Stock Farm, on the road to 
Dublin. At least 160 acres will be secured, 
and about $125,000 will be expended on the 
grounds, including the grand stand and build- 
ings and stables for the aooummodation of a 
large number of horses. 

Jaw. 16, 1892.] 

f ACIFie I^URAlo f RESS. 



Under this heading the Rural Press will publish th 
latest and most accurate information upon the proerets 
of irrigation enterprise on the Pac fic coast. Contribu 
tiong upon the subject are earnestly requested, in oide 
that the public may be kept fully informed. 

An Irrigation Bureau. 

Banator Peffsr of Kinsas evidently under 
stands the benefits of irrigation even as far Eist 
as that State, and one of tbe first tlilags tie did 
after Congress opened was to introduce a bill 
providing for the creation of a Barean of Irri 
gation. Tbe details of his plan have not come 
to hand, it being evident that tbe wise new 
paper correspondents at Washington do not 
understand tbe growing importance of irriga 
tion, and look apon tbe proposition as one o 
those vagaries which they asanme are to be ex 
pected from the long-bearded representative of 
the farmers. Too many people fanoy that all 
tbe wisdom in the country is bound up in the 
representatives of one or two Eistero cities 
and interests and look with a good-natured 
patronlzlog sort of air upon anything that is 
evolved in may other quarter. Particularly do 
they affect to despise any ideas that have their 
origin In what they are pleased to refer to as 
the wild and woolly West. 

But the irrigation question is bound to create 
more and more disoussion at each suoosediDg 
session of Congress, and it will be the Western 
rdpreaentatives who will have to bear tbe bur 
den of educating their Eistern contemporaries 
npon tbe importance of an adjunct by which 
good deal more than half of tbe agriculture of 
the world is carried on, Heretofore, if they 
have given the matter a tbonght, it baa been to 
dismiss it in airy fashion as a snbjeot in which 
tbey bad no interest. 

Bat the wants of the great arid region are too 
pressing to be longer treated in tbia cavalier 
fashion, and the time is now at hand when na 
tional legislation must be bad npon tbe subject 
of irrigation, water rights and water laws. The 
demand for such legislation is urgent, and it 
oannnt be muob longer deferred. 

If Senator Peffer's bill for the establishment 
of an Irrigation Barean means the creation of 
an organization which shall grasp the subject 
IntelligeDtly and pursue a line of action that 
shall be for the good of tbe people, and notsim 
ply to provide a lot of sinecure positions for 
politicians, then it should have the support of 
every intelligent man in the country. There is 
a vast amount of work waiting to be done by 
■nob a Bureau, and which can best be perform 
ed under the auspices of tbe National Govern 

Another Plan for Reclamation. 

The telegraphic dispatches at the date of 
writing (January 9.b) tiave given but a meager 
account of the proceediogs of the Irrigation 
Convention, made up of delegates from Mon- 
tana, that was called ta meet at Helena on tbe 
7ch, The only information yet received is to 
tbe effect that there was a good attendance, 
and that, after considerable discussion, the 
convention put itself on record as recommend- 
ing that the Gsneral Government devote the 
money realized from tbe sale of arid lands in 
the West to providing meins for reel timing tbe 
same through irrigation. The Salt Lake Uon- 
veution, It will be recolleoted, recommended 
that the General Government cede all these 
lands to the States and Territories in which 
tbey lie, and that it also expend a portion of 
tbe money already received from tbe sale of 
such lands in their reclimation. 

Toe Montana CoDvention has done a good 
thing in thus proposiog another solution of the 
arid land problem. Before any plan of aotion 
can be crystallized and decided upon, i*^ is es- 
sential that the sabj'ot in all its bearings shall 
be fully discussed. Conventions should be held 
in each State and Territory, jast as has been 
done in Montana, and the tullest and freest 
discussion should be encouraged. Then, out of 
the multitude of plans certain to be proposed, 
some one can be evolved which will represent 
the best sentiment of tbe entire country in re- 
gard to one of tbe most Important economic 
subjects that has come up for diacasslon in a 
long time. 

By another issae, the Rubal PaEsa will be 
able to present its readers with a full account 
of the proceedings of tbe Muntana Convention, 
and the entire plan there evolved can then be 

ture, which is the strongeat proof of the Bub- 
stantial character of the work. 

It has beea decided to lay steel pipes for 
laterals in tbe Perris district instead of those of 
vitrified clay, as was at first proposed. A pipe 
factory will be erected on the spot. Contracts 
for laying them have been let, and the work 
will be done as quickly aa possible. 

Ejcondido district is happy in the receipt of 
newH tb«t the louf delayed oontraot with tbe 
Mcffit, Hodgkina & Clark Company has been 
signed and that work on tbe San Luis Rey 
water system will soon be commenced. 

At the last meeting rf the Board of Directors 
of the Selma district, S. B. Hr^lton took . bis 
olace aa Director of District No. 2. J. H. 
Siyre was elected President of the Board. Tae 
cfiioere have taken steps to oppose tbe move- 
ment made to have the district dissolved, which 
it will be recollected has been set on foot by 
those who bate so far prevented active opera- 
tions from being undertaken, and who allege 
the results of their own work as reasons for in- 
terference by the courts. 

The oroceedlngs in tbe organizttion of the 
Linda Vinta district in San Diego county have 
been confirmed by the Superior Cour*:. and tbe 
right to issue bonds to the amount of $1,000,000 
has been affirmed. At the next meeting of the 
Directors, atepa will be taken to at once issue a 
portion of the bonds voted. Three prominent 
engineers have made a thorough examination 
of tbe proposed source of supply and the works 
to be constructed, and agree that the plan is 
feasible and the estimated cost is witv<in bounds 
Tbe San Jacinto and Pleasant Valley dis 
trlct is actively at work in endeavoring to de- 
cide which of several sources of supply shall be 
utilized. The directors are determined to 
make no mistake, but will take every preoau 
tion to secure thn best terms and largest sup- 
ply that can be obtained. 

At tbe last meeetlng of the directors of the 
Alta district, the regular routine business was 
transacted '>nrl tbe A. B. Clark ditch was pur 
chased for $1180. 

A petition will be presented to the Board of 
Supervisors of San Bernardino countv on Feb. 
1, asking for the organization of the Riverside 
Heights Irrigation district. This district in- 
cludes aome 4000 acres of land adjoining River- 
side, and lying above the present canil systems. 
It la probftble that arrangementa will be made 
with the Bear Valley Irrigation Company. 

A oondeonnation suit has been brought to ob- 
tain tbe land for tbe const'-notion of an exten- 
ive storage reservoir near Covina, Los Angeles 
county. A large dam will be erected across 
San Dlmas canyon and several thousand acres 
of land near Poente will be irrigated. 

The Tulare Lake Canal Company is erecting 
dam across the Tula river by which a canal 
60 feet wide will be supplied with water suffi- 
cient to irrigate 50,000 acres of fertile land. 

The opposition to tbe formation of an irriga- 
tion district to complete the Oakdale canal has 
stimulated the stockholders of that concern, 
nd it is said that an effort will be made to re- 
sume work on tbat enterprise. 

The Inyo and Kern Canal Company has been 
nocrporatnd in this city to construct a canal 
in Owens River vall'iy, Inyo county. 
The Orr Water Ditch Company of Nevada 
as made its annual renort to the stockholders, 
e shows that the company's aff.iirs have been 
bly managed. It cirr>es about 2500 inches of 
water, and sells it at $4 per Inch, and tbe ex- 
penses are less than $1 per inch. It is a fine 
property. Charles Galling is its secretary, and 
tbe trusters are J. J. Broker, D. Paul, James 
Gaalt, F. L'mmon and M. Galling. The ditch 
valued at $50,000, or $200 a share. 

Irrigation in Arizona. 

Many readers of tbe Rueal Press will be 
surprised to learn the great extent of the irri- 
gation enterprises of Ariz na. In a recent re- 
port made to tbe Secretary of the Interior, 
Acting Governor Murphy made the following 
statement in tbia connection : 

" Maricopa county is tbe most important ag- 
ricultural district of Arizona, and at present 
has irrigating canals and acreage of reclaimed 
land as follows : 

Length, Reclm'd 

Canals. milts. acres. 

Arizona 41 60,000 

Grand 27 

Maricopa 2fl 46,000 

Salt River Valley 26 

Tt mpe 19 26,000 

Highland 22 18,000 

Mesa ■. 9 13,000 

Utah 6 10.000 

Farmers' 5 21,000 

Total 181 

Increase current yecr 

182 ore 


Qrand total 

The foregoiog canals are in the Salt River 
Valley and have been operated for aeveral 
years, although their extent and capacity are 
being enlarged with the increased settlement of 
the lands under ♦beiri. 


Lenjfth, Rec'm'd 

r'anals. miles. acres. 

Buckeye 30 20,000 

Palmer 22 

Enterprise .12 

fitrua 14 

Gila River b 

Total ; 88 48,000 

While these canals are already in operation, 
another on a very large scale and more im 
Dortant than all the others in operation on the 
Gila, is now being oonstrncted by the Gila 
B^nd Reservoir and Irrigation Company, When 
completed, this oanM will carry wafer enough 
to irrigate about 175,000 acres of land 

Another very impottint irrigation enterprise 
ban bean inaugo rated about 35 miles northwest 
of Phoeaix, in Mjricopa county, on the Agua 
Fria, by which it is proposed to reclaim at least 
100,000 acres nf land. The property is owned 
by the Agua Fria Land and Water Company, 
and the prospects are favorable to the early 
and auocessful operation of the projected reser 
voir and canal." 

To th-i above we are now able to add. says 
tbe Phoeaix Herald, the canal now prcjaoted 
and being surveyed and tbe construction of 
which will be immediately undertaken by the 
Rio Verde Canal Co., which will be in tbe 
nnlgbborbood of 50 miles long and will cover 
150,000 acres of land. 

quia, no one shall be bound to pay damage 
Buob land, as all peraoos interested in the ci>. 
etruction of said acequia are to be benefited 

Daring years when a scarcity of water shall 
exist, owners of fields shall have precedenoe of 
the water for irrigation, according to the dates 
of their respective titles or their occupation of 
the lands, either by them'ielves or their grant- 
ors. Tbe oldest titles shall have precedence 

It shall be tbe duty of each of the owners 
and proprietors to furnish the number of labor- 
ers required by the overseer, at tbe time and 
place he may designate, for the purposes men- 
tioned in tbe foregoing section, and for the 
time he may deem necessary. 

If any owner or proprietor of land irrigated 
by such acequia shall neglect or refuse to fur- 
nish tbe number of laborers required by tbe 
overseer, as required in the 18. h section of this 
chapter, after having been duly notified by the 
overseer, he shall be fined for each ofiFanse in a 
sum not exoeeding tsn dollars, for tbe benefit 
of said acequia, which shall be recovered by 
the overseer before any jastice of the peace in 
the county; and, in suoh oaaep, the overseer 
shsll be a competent witness to prove the 
cff-^nse or any fact that may serve to constitute 
the same. 

If any person shall in any manner interfere 
with, impede or obstruct any of said acequias, 
or nse tbe water from it without the consent of 
the overseer, except as provided in aection 
seven of this chapter, during the time of culti- 
vation, he shall pay for each offense a sum not 
exoeeding ten dollars, which shall be recover- 
able in the manner prescribed in the foregoing 
aeotlon for the benefit of said acequia; and he 
shall further pay all damages that may have 
occurred to tbe injured parties; and. if suoh 
person has not wherewith to pay said fioe and 
damages, he shall be sentenced to 15 days' 
labor on said public acequia. 

All plants and trees of any description grow, 
ing on the banks of any acequia shall belong to 
tbe owners of the land through which said ace- 
quia may ran. 

Any person owning lands which may include 
a spring or stream of runniog water, or owning 
lands UDon a river where there is not popula- 
tion sufficient to form a publio acequia, may 
construct a private acequia for bis own uses, 
subject to his own regulations, provided it does 
not interfere with the rights of others. 

Forestry and Irrigation. 

Arizona's Water Laws. 

District and Other Work. 

News comes from the Poso district, in Kern 
oonnty, that arrangements have been made by 
the district cffioers with the Portland Construc- 
tion Company to complete the canals in that 
district for tbe sum of $150,000, payment to be 
made in tbe bonds of the district. The neces- 
sary papers have been signed, and work will be 
commenced at once. 

During the recent rain storm, the dam now 
nnder constraction across tbe Tuolumne river 
by tbe Modesto and Turlook districts withstood 
a severe test. A great flood came down, which 
the waateways were unable to carry off. Tbe 
water accordingly accumulated behind the dam 
and soon began pouring over the top, which it 
oontinued to do in great volume for some time. 
When it receded, it waa fonud that no damage 
whatever bad reialted tothe inoomplete itrno* 

Pumping for Irrigation. 

W. S. Green, the sturdy champion of irriga- 
tion for tbe Sicramento valley, has taken up 
be subject of pumping water from that river 
to supply the adjacent territory, and is pnrsu- 
g the matter with bis usual force and per 
sistence. Last week we quoted what he had to 
say upon the subj ;ct, and again have an inter- 
sting article npon the same lines. Ue says : 
The margin of the Sicramento river from 
Butte Slough to Knight's Landing, on the east 
side, is absolutely nnfit for grain-growing, but 
is the finest grass, orchard and vegetable 
land in tbe world. These things cannot be 
grown to perfection without water atcommand. 
On the west side of the river, protection works 
have made grain-growing possible, but the few 
who have tried alfalfa say that it is almost a 
waste of land to sow it to wheat, because the 
grass is so usncb more profitable. Mr. G. P. 
Wilson has 60 acres of alfalfa, on which he 
pumps the water from the river, and he says 
that it pays five times as much as any other 60 
aores be has. Above Colusa the high land ex- 
tends farther back from tbe river, but there is 
not an acre of the river land that will not 
yield four or five times as much money if put 
In some crop that will employ water at any 
season. We have figured on the pump business, 
and find if there is any kind of nnanimity in 
agreeing to take the water for a term of years, 
it can be thrown over the land at the rate of 
15.000 gallons for 10 cents. It does not seem 
chat an argument is necessary to induce men to 
enter into such an agreement. If It la not a 
sacoeis it will cott nothiug." 

Mr, Green then quotes aome statements 
made by the Rural Press in regard to a pro- 
posed irrigation enterprise in Placer county, by 
which be demonstrates that the cost of pump- 
ing is far less than that of water purchased 
from a oompaoy. 

California irrigators may be interested in 
learning the salient features of the water laws 
of Arizona. They differ considerably from 
those of this State, and partionlarly In the 
declaration made at the outset that the com 
mon law doctrine of riparian rights shall not 
be enforced in that territory. 

Tbe principal features of the laws referred to 
are as follows: 

The common law doctrine of riparian water 
rights, shall not obtain or be of any force or 
effect in this territory. 

All livers, creeks and streams of running 
water in the territory of Arizona are hereby 
declared public, and applicable to the purposes 
of irrigation and mining, as hereinafter pro 

All rights in acequias, or irrigating canals, 
heretofore established shall not be disturbed, 
nor shall the course of such acequias be changed 
without the consent of the proprietors of suoh 
established rights. 

All the inhabitants of this territory, who own 
or possess arable and irrigable lands, shall have 
the right to construct public or private aceq uias, 
and obtain the necessary water for the same 
from any convenient river, creek or stream of 
running water. 

Whenever such pnblio or private acequias 
shall necessarily run through the lands of any 
private individual not benefited by said ace 
quias, the damages resulting to suoh private In- 
dividuals, on the tbe application of the party 
interested, shall be assessed by the probate 
judge of the proper county In a aammary 

When any ditch or acequia shall be taken 
out for agricultural purposes, the person or 
persons so taking out such ditch or acequia 
shall have the exclusive right to the water, or 
so much thereof as shall be necessary for said 
purposes, and if at any time the water so re- 
quired shall be taken for mining operations, 
the person or persons owning said water shall 
be entitled to damages, to be assessed in the 
manner provided in section six of this chapter. 

All owners and proprietors of arable and irri- 
gable land bordering on, or irrigable by, any 
pnblio acequia, shall labor on such publio ace- 
quia, whether such owners or proprietors culti- 
vate the land or not. 

All persons interested In a publio acequia, 
whether owners or lessees of land, shall labor 
thereon in proportion to the amount of land 
owned or held by them, and which may be irri- 
gated or subject to irrigation. 

In case a community or people desire to con- 
struct an acequia in any part of this territory, 
and tbe persons desiring to construct the same 
are the owners or proprietors of the land upon 
which they design oonBtrnotiog tbe said aoe- 

The Phoeoix Oazette is cordially welcomed to 
the racks of those who see an intimate relation 
between forestry and tbe supply of water for 
irrigation. The proposition is so self-evident 
that it would seem aa though no aenslble man 
could be found, at all events in a region de- 
pendent upon irrigation for prosperity, to com- 
bat it. Bat such men exist, in Arizona, doubt- 
I, as well as in California, and for iheir 
behoof the position taken by the Oasetle will 
stand quoting. That journal says: 

"The question of irrigating the arid lands 
of the Southwest is one which is attracting 
much attention at this time. It is undoubtedly 
necessary to do something to m%ke suoh land 
productive, if we are to provide for the hun- 
dreds of millions of people who, in tbe next 
hundred years, will exist within our bounda- 
ries. But while we are considering this ques- 
tion, we should also look to means which will 
increase tbe rainfall upon these lands. It ia 
proven that the forests have a great influence 
on the rainfall of a country, and we should 
protect these from the destrnolion which is 
now threateniug them. These forests should 
be protected from fires, and the cutting of trees 
for lumber and wood should be eo regulated 
that the ruinous effects which have followed 
the destruction of forests elsewhere may not 
be left here. Those who cut down trees should 
not be allowed to take any leas than one foot 
in diameter. Saoh a law, properly enforced, 
would preserve our forests, and thus prevent 
any diminution in tbe raiufall, and drouths 
will be less frequent than they surely will be if 
tbe wholesale destruction of our forests is aon< 

Workings of the Wright Law. 

There are one or two papers in this State 
that seem to be using their utmost power to 
destroy the confidence of the people of the 
State in the irrigation system given un by the 
Wright law, says the Traver Advocate. Why 
this sbonld be is more than we can corjeoture, 
unless it is that they are either paid for their 
services by aome pettifogging attorneya who 
can not make a living ont of a legitimate prao- 
tice and are desirous of stirring up some lit- 
igation iu the districts that those attorneys 
may make a few dollars in fees, or they do not 
understand tbe Irrigation question. Prior to 
the organization of the Alta Irrigation Distriot, 
"hile the 76 country was dependent upon the 
76 company for water, the people had to pur- 
chase a wftter right, which could not be had for 
lesn than 40 aores at the rata of $10 per acre, 
or $400 for a water right, and pay an annual 
assessment of one dollar per acre, and npon 
the failure to pay said assessment tbe water 
right would bn cancelled. The interest on the 
original sum ($400) paid for the water right at 
one per cent, would be four dolUra per year or 
ten cents an acre, making an annual assras- 
meet equivalent to $1.10 per acre under the 
old system. We simply bring these facts be- 
fore oar re«dera beoaase the parties referred to 



[Jan. 16, 1892 

have oalled the attention of the pablio to the 
AHa District atatlog that oar aeseaament ia 
$50,000 which, Id their ininda, is aomething enor- 
mona, bat when our acreage is taken into conaid- 
eration and compared with the old system it is a 
comparatively small item. We have in this 
district over 130,000 acres of land which will 
make the aaaeaament per acre at lens than 40 
cents. How does that compare with $1,10 
par acre ? and if $50,000 la an enormoas tigare 
how wonld $143,000 appear ? It ia plain to be 
seen by anyone who will take a little paina to 
look into the matter, that the district system 
costs bat a little more than one-third that of 
the old plan, while there are hundreds of 
people who can now Irrigate and improve their 
lands that otherwise oonld not do so. We are 
plad to say that the dissatisfaction in the Alta 
District is among a few sore heads who pay no 
taxes and that all car people who derive any 
benefit from the prodacta of the soil are satis- 
fied with the district system, for without 
watar oar coantry is a desert. 

Ten Years' Development, 1880-1890. 

It is a matter of conaiderable interest to 
compare the capacity of irrigating systems in 
this great interior valley, in ISSO, with the 
oapacities of the same in 1890, We present 
herewith a table showing this contrast. It Is 
not absolately correct, for a correct table can- 
not be formed. No one knows jast what the 
capacities for irrigating in 1880 were. Some of 
the systems allowed one inch to foar acres, and 
others one inch to ten acres. In fact, in 1880, 
there was no real fixed data, these ralea of a 
given amonnt of water to the acre having all 
been formulated daring the past decade. 

Again, the estimates given for 1890 are not 
kbaolately correct. Pomona, for instance, is 
pat down at 12,000 acres. It only requires 
1200 inches of water to irrigate that much land 
at Pomona, while Riverside will use three 
times aa much water fcr the same area. 

Half of the aystems on the list to-day had no 
existence tsn yeara ago, and those which had 
an existence ten yeara ago have been improved 
and extended, and the water wasted then haa 
been largely saved and utilized. The follow- 
iug table ahows the capacity to irrigate land in 
1880 and 1890. In most oases the waters have 
not as yet baen fully utilized: 

Water Systems. ISSO. 1890. 

Riverside 5,000 10,000 

Gage Canal I.'i.OOO 

South Riverside 6,000 

Pomooa 1,000 12.000 

Ontario , .'i.coo 

Etiwanda S.iOO 

Cu^amonua 2,000 10,000 

Lytle Creole 5 000 lo.ilOO 

Nortli Forls Ditch . 1,000 4,000 

South Foric Ditch 1,000 4,000 

Mill Creek 8,000 .SOOO 

North Riverside Canal 7 500 

Vlvienda Pipe Line 6,o00 

Rincon D\tc^ 3 000 4.000 

Chine Pipe Line ;i,500 

Citv Creek t,00 

Twin Creeks 600 3.000 

Binning 3,000 

ColtOD Terrao^ 2,0(^0 

Bear Valley KeEervoir 

Totals 17,000 130,700 

It will be notioad by this table that Bear 
Valley reservoir, with its present dam, can 
furnish more water for irrigation purposes than 
was being utilized ten years ago in all the irri- 
gation systems of this great valley. 

There are a few small systems not included 
in the above table, bat the principal ones are 
given. — Orange Belt. 

Public Lands. 

Following is the text of the bill introduced 
by Senator Power for the purpose of securing 
additional data in the eurveys of the pnblic 

A bill requiring elevations and additional 
topography to be taken in all surveys in arid 
or monntainons ooantry: Be it enacted by the 
Senate and House of Rspresentatives of the 
Uaited States of America in Congress assem- 
bled: That hereafter to the minatea seoured in 
progress of making linear sarveys of public 
lands in arid or mountainoui country, and to 
the township plata thereof, there be added the 
elevations above sea obtained by precise level- 
ing, of all the exterior corners on the lines of 
each townehip, including the section and quar- 
ter-section corners; in the eubdiviaion of said 
townships, the elevations of all the Interior 
corners to be established by an aneroid barom- 
eter, leveling without expense, save that in- 
carred in recording the notea; also that full 
description of the topographic and economic 
features, and the sarface formation of the 
country surveyed be added t3 the field notea to 
be entered in the records of such Government 
sarveye, thus enabling the location and selec- 
tion of pub'.Ic lands to be made from the maps 
and records in the land cffioes with greater 

A Plan to Be Discussed. 

Many schemes have been proposed for sap- 
plying water to irrigate the arid lands of the 
west side of the San Joaquia valley, bat none 
his as yet materialized into anythlag practi- 
cal. A correspondent of the Hanford <Sen<ine{, 
after pointing out the necessity for some com- 
prehensive syatem for reclaiming these lands, 
oonolades by recommending the following, 
which he believes to be perfectly feasible, 

]. Throw a strong embankment around Ta- 

lare lake, confining Its water within an area 
sufficient to receive and hold all the surplus 
water that shall be made to flow Into it during 
all ordinary floods. 

2. Make a cut at the natural ontlet of the 
lake (now filled up) of sufficient oapaolty to 
carry all the water flowing into the lake more 
than would be safe for the oonfiued limits of 
the lake to receive. 

3. Baild across this cut a strong headgate 
in the form of a navigable lock by means of 
which the outflow of water oan be regulated 
and make the navigation of the lake through 
the canal possible. 

4. Dig a canal through to tide-water large 
enough to use all the snrplus water that cannot 
be retained in the lake during the time of all 
winter and spring freshets. 

5. Open the channel of the main sloughs, 
oieeks and bayous through to the lake for 
drainage or navigation during the high water. 

6. Turn all the unappropriated and waste 
water of Kings river and other lake-finding 
streams back into the lake, so far as possible, 
through the above-opened channels where 
each water properly belongs. 

How the money is to be raised to carry Into 
effect so comprehensive a scheme is left for fu- 
ture consideration. The scheme ia practicable, 
and of an enduring nature. The navigable part 
of It will prove a teaser to the railroads and of 
incalculable advantage In the matter of freight 

It will permanently reclaim all that part of 
Tulare lake outside of the confining embank- 
ments, as well as the extensive overflowed lands 
lying between the lake and the San Joaquin 
river, or at least relieve the latter from the 
periodical overflow it suffers from. The water- 
logged land between the lake and the moun- 
tains will be relieved. The stagnant disease- 
breeding pools will be removed and this mag- 
nificent valley will remain for all time what it 
now Is, the most prosperous and healthful part 
of the State. 

The suffering, sun-burned West Side will get 
the water it so badly needs without the night- 
mare of damage suits for big embankments 
breaking, pipe lines collapsing, or a long, dry 
waiting for repairs. 

The Claims of the American Trotter. 

Akmona, Tulare Co., Jan. 6. 1S92. 

To THE Editor : — In your issue of Jan. 2d, 
I observe an article entitled " Batter Horses 
for California," to some parts of which I wish 
to offer a little friendly criticism, 

I qnite agree with the writer in his opinions 
regarding the snperlority of imported atook for 
draft purposes over that of our own production, 
as the old countries of Earope, with their many 
large cities, have found it necessary for cen- 
turies past, to produce the largest and best 
draft horses possible for home ase. While 
American breeders have, until within the 
last one or two decades, found the breeding of 
horses for the tarf, field and farm the most 
profitable, as there has until recently been a 
greater demand in this country for these classes 
of horses, than for those of heavy draft. Every 
farmer who haa tried bim knows that the woolly- 
legged horse of 1600 to 1800 lbs. Is not worth 
his feed in the plow or in the harvest field un- 
less It be to look at, but the draymen of onr 
large cities want him, there he Is in demand, 
and with the building np of so many large 
cities in onr country the demand for this class 
of stock is on the increase, and the Imported 
stock is no doubt best suited to these purposes. 

Bat I do deny that the Oerman coach, the 
French coach horse, or the Cleveland Bay, is 
the superior, or even the equal of the American- 
bred trotter, for anything, no matter what it is, 
tliat a horse is wanted for, whether it be the 
turf, the field, the farm, or the carriage. 

I do not mean the horse that Is bred for 
speed alone, regardless of other qualities, but 
the fine, noble animal which is bred to combine 
speed and endurance with size, beauty and do- 
cility of disposition. Here in the Laoerne vale, 
the coach horse and the Cleveland Biy have 
been introduced. Some of the best specimens 
from fine registered stock across the water 
were brought here at a great expense, and they 
have in every instance been compelled to give 
way to our American-bred trotter. They had 
neither the beauty, speed or endnrance of oar 
trotter; nor were they superior to bim in size 
and strength. 

We live in a fast osnntry, in a progreisive 
age, and every young and middle-aged man 
among as, when looking for a carriage horse 
wants one with these qualifications. Even a 
clodhopper of a farmer Is not at all satisfied to 
poke along with a European animal at the rate 
of six or eight miles an hour, when for less 
money and expense he can have a handsome, 
clean-limbed and spirited animal, strong and of 
good slz3, who oan take him 12 miles an boar 
with equal ease to itself, and far less fatigue to 
its driver. 

The American people, as a rule, are fond of 
new fads, but are too intelligent to be deceived 
long at'a time, and many of onr horse breed 
era have already discovered that the Cleveland 
Bay and the coach horses of Europe of what- 
ever kind are not destined to remain popular 
long in America. 

The American Standard Trotter posseises 
bone and muscle indicative of speed and power 
posseBsed by no other boree except the old-time 

thoroughbred from which he in most Instances 
sprang. OF all the brute species, he is the 
greatest blessing known to civillzad man, and 
will prtbtbly hold this place through succeed- 
ing centuries. A. F. Jewktt. 

Propagating Plants. 

iBy Miss H. M. Pratt, b f jre th« California State KlOfal 

The increasing of plant) from seeds, out- 
tinge, layers and grafting has been practiced as 
long as we have a history. At this season of 
the year, seeds of nearly all varieties of plants 
oan be sown to the best advantage, cut- 
tines and layers can be made, and, as no lover 
of flDwers ever has pets enough of some kind, 
all are interested in some aort of propagating. 
Growing plants from seed is one of the moat 
common ways, though many people, myself in- 
cluded, do not always snooeed. In reading 
over one of the latest books published on this 
subject, some bints given seemed worth trying. 
After providing shallow boxes with cracks or 
holes bored in them to allow drainage, a layer 
of broken pots or stones was used, and over 
this another layer of moss before potting the 
earth in. This mots is to help keep the soil 
moist without such frequent waterings as are 
usually reqaired. 

The soil should be light, and not one that 
will bake or crack. Ordinary garden soil, with 
as muoh more clean sand added, will usually 
answer. Sand enough should be need, so that 
when a handful ia taken np when moist and 
pressed, closely in the hand, it will fall apart 
readily when released, and not form a ball. 
Sift carefully to remove all lumps, then fill the 
boxes nearly fall, and sow the seeds evenly 
over the surface, sifting over them enough 
more soil to just cover them. Water carefully 
and keep away froan direct snnllght, or even in 
the dark, to prevent evaporation. Water when 
required. The principle diffioalty seems to be 
to regnlate the moisture, and to meet this, two 
flower pots are sometimes used, A pot of four 
or fire inches la filled like the boxes and placed 
inside one at least an inch larger, the space be- 
tween beine filled with mosa, and the moss only 
watered. Enongh moistnre is supplied through 
the sides of the inner pot to keep the soil in 
good condition. 

The opposite extreme of too much water 
must be avoided, and as soon as the plants have 
their second leaves, they should be transplant- 
ed to other boxes, prepared in the same way. 
Very fine eeed ahould be simoly pressed into 
the ground and not covered. For this purpose, 
a pane of glass or smooth board will do. Two 
pots are also uaed for growing soft-wood- 
cnttlngs, but in this case, the outer one has 
clean sand, and the smaller one is placed inside 
and filled with water, the hole in the bottom 
being firat!stopped with plaster of Paris or a 
cork, Such a contrivance would be very easy 
to manage, and would answer most of us very 
well for rooting heliotrope, pelargoniums, 
geraniums and nearly any soft-wood-plant. 

For hard-wood-cuttings of shrubs, roses, or 
other plants, nse wood of the last season's 
growth that has ripened. Older wood will 
grow, bat will not make so good a plant. Cut 
off square, leaving as little exposed surface as 
possible, and aboot five or six inches long. 
When convenient, plant where they are to re- 
main, otherwise make a catting bed of sand and 
put them in until rooted. Press the soil firmly 
around them. A Oalifornia writer advises 
planting four or five slips or cuttings of any de- 
sired shrub or vine where the plant ia wanted, 
and says his experience is, "they like com- 
pany," and most of them are almost sure to 
grow. The surplus plants, if any, cau be trans- 
planted. Many plants not usually grown from 
cuttings will take root when the oondltions are 
favorable, and it ia a good plan to try them 

One gentleman tells me he oan grow any- 
thing he has ever tried from cuttings. His 
way ia to make a hole about an inch in diam- 
eter and fonr or fire inches deep wUh a dibber 
or sharp-pointed stick. This he fills partly 
with sand, then puts the catting in, fills the 
space around it with morn saad, packing it firm- 
ly with another stick and a mallet. Of course, 
it would not do to pack soil In this way. From 
onr own experience I know that one of the 
most important items of success with hard- 
wood-cuttings is to have them so firmly planted 
that no air oan get to the bottom. From the 
book, mentioned before, came another hint in 
regard to growing obstinate cuttings. They 
are made in the usual way and buried wrong 
end np, being covered with two or three inches 
of earth. In thia manner bottom heat ia sap- 
plied, root action hastened and the tops are 
kept entirely dormant. We intend trying this 
plan rooting Baroness Rothschild, Mabel Mor- 
rison, Mad. Gabriel Luizet and several other 
varieties of roses that are, to say the least, 
troublesome in the usual way. 

Another way to deal with tbis class of roses 
is to root-graft them. Make a whip-graft tak- 
ing care that the bark joins nicely and tie firmly 
with a cotton string. By the time a callous 
has formed and the parts have grown together, 
the string will rot off. A piece of root three 
inches long is about right. Treat afterward 
like catlings. 

Layering is one of the surest and easiest ways 
of Increasing one's stock. It is usually done by 
taking a long shoot and beading it to the 

ground. A slanting cut ia made about half 
through the shoot from the top, and it is then 
bent a little to one side and pruned down to 
the ground. A piece of wire can be bent like 
a hairpin to fasten it in place. The lovely as- 
paragus plnmosus nanus, or olimbing aspara- 
gu«, oan be grown in this way, but takes time. 

Badding can be done whenever the bark will 
slip or lift readily. Make a straight cut length- 
wise of about an inch. Across the top make 
another at right angles with the firvt and oare- 
fnliy loosen and raise the bark. Then out a 
leaf bud from the variety yon wish to propa- 
gate, and, after removing any wood that may 
remain on it, slip the bud under the bark of 
the stock. Oat off the top of the bud so that 
the bark of bud and stock will join and tie 
firmly. In about two weeks, or when the bud 
shows signs of growth, cut the string on the 
opposite side from the bad. The top of the 
stock can be oat off or bent over, leaving two 
or more eyes to help draw np the sap and 
noarish the new bud. 

FruDlDg Rosea- 

Tbe praning of tea roses should be attended 
to now. Nearly all of the tea roses can be 
grown on their own roots in standard or tree 
form by selecting a strong, vigorous aboot and 
not allowing any others to grow. Whether 
grown lu this form, or as a bush, they usually 
need thinning out. Take ont the fine, small 
wood, leaving the strongest and bett branches. 
Many kinds will not bear cutting back muoh. 
Sach varieties as Mad. de Watteville, NIpbetos, 
Coquette de Lyon, Homer, Oels multiflora and 
many others will give lovely flowers if the fine 
wood Is removed, but are almost worthless If 
not properly cared for. Their disposition 
seems to be to give branches instead of flowers, 
or else too many buds are formed, and only by 
catting them off can we get perfect blossoms. 
Roses of stronger growth oan be cut back, but 
all sbonld be thinned enough to allow the air 
and sunshine to get through. Most of the 
Noisette roses are particularly sensitive abont 
being pruned, and Cloth of Gold, Gloire de 
D jon, Mareobal Niel will never bloom so well 
as when left entirely to themselves. I( they 
must be praned, do it after their apring blos- 

Cyclones in California and Elsewhere. 

Cyclones of grand dimensions are frequently 
generated in the zones where the trade wind of 
the opposite hemisphere penetrates. They are 
caused by an augmentation or swelling in vol- 
ume of air, proceeding from the opposite hemi- 
sphere, attending unequal distribution of the 
normal limits of the atmospheric ciroulation, 
and determined by the retardation which the 
trade wind or monsoon meets with in following 
the sun's movement. 

The recent little touch of a cyclone in this 
city by which a honse was demolished and two 
unfortunate lives lost, brings to the mind of 
the writer an incident which is said to have oc- 
curred near that same locality something over 
40 years ago, and before the discovery of gold 
at Sutter's mill. 

An American ship was riding at anchor off 
the Presidio, over which, at the time, the Mexi- 
can flag was flying. One morning, as a gentle- 
man — a passenger — was standing upon the 
quarter deck, he was surprised by a sudden 
atmospheric diaturbanoe which originated but 
a short distance from the ship and upon the 
water. It took the form of a tornado, or whirl- 
wind, and commenced a movement landward, 
with a violent whirling motion, and struck the 
land just west of the Presidio, increasing every 
instant in violence, nntil it passed on and over 
the high ground near what is now Lone Moun- 
tain. In its passage. It actually tore up the 
surface of the ground, filling the air with sand 
and brush. 

The circumstance was first made public by 
the observer, on a second visit to thia State 
about 15 years ago, through a letter published 
in one of the city dallies. That letter came 
under the notice of the writer of this paragraph, 
who clipped and filed it away. The narrator 
expressed the opinion that if thia city had been 
built up at the time, as it was at the time of 
his second visit, not a house oonld have stood 
in Its track of a hundred feet or so in width. 

This Incident, and others of a similar charac- 
ter, which have occurred In several localities on 
this coast within the last 20 years, should be a 
reminder that California is not altogether ez> 
empt from those terrible atmospheric distarb- 
ances which ocoaaionally work such havoc to 
life and property in our Eistarn States. One 
of these California torna'loes occurred near the 
city of Nevada some 15 or 20 years ago, and 
passed for some three miles or more through a 
dense forest. As we now recollect the account, 
it twisted huge trees as though they had been 
mere saplings, tearing others up by the roota 
and making a clean path through the forest, 
something like a hundred feet in width. Judg- 
ing from its destructive work, as no human eye 
saw it, no Kansas or D.kkota cyclone ever reached 
greater violence or destruotiveness. 

Photographs, in Colors, of Tinted Win. 
Dows. — It is said that a Swiss doctor has sno- 
oeeded, after a long series of experiments, in 
obtaining photographs of tinted windows In 
their original colors. His photographs contain 
red, violet, yellow, green and white. They 
were sent to Dnsseldorf, after passing from 
hand to hand on the way, and the photographic 
journals speak favorably of their retention of 
the colors. These samples were taken in 20 
aeoondt by Ute midday lun. 

Jan 16, 1892.] 

f ACIFie I^URAb f RESS. 




Expected Large Grain Crops — OrovUle 
Regiiter: Batte this ye»r ought to have the 
greatagt grain crop it has ever known, for the 
grain has been planted early, there ia an nn- 
Qsnal acreage seeded thia seaaon, the ralna have 
been timely and owing to the high price that is 
certain to prevail, every acre that will pay to 
out will be harvested for gr»in, so we look to 
see a very large crop, if the spring and early 
SQmmer are favorable. 


Wheat Statistics — Freeno Republican: The 
acreage la wnuat in Fresno county in 1891 ag- 
gregated about 400,000 acres. The average 
yield was about nine bushels to the acre, being 
BD off year, or 3,600,000 buahels. This was 
sold at an average price of 96 cents a bushel, 
or $1,60 a cental, though prices have been rul- 
ing 15 per cent higher later in the season. 
This wheat was not al! shipped. Only 
2,557,305 bushels have gone to the mar- 
ket, according to the report of the railroad com- 
pany. The mills of the county manufactured 
into flour for home consumption 450,000 bush- 
els of wheat and exported nearly 7,000,000 
pounds, or aboat 12,000 bushels. Thia would 
leave about 500,000 buihels on hand in the 
county. The splendid rains which have just 
fallen augur well for the wheat farmers next 
year, and there will be a conaiderable increase 
In the acreage. If ia quite safe to say that 
440,000 acres will be in wheat. This county 
raises also, much volunteer wheat. There are 
in this offioe specimens of third crop wheat 
from a ranch which yielded 20 bushels the first 
year, 16 bushels the second and 12 bushels the 
third year after sowing. The last two crops 
were raised without any expenee to the grower, 
and each year the stubble affords an Income in 
the way of pasturage for sheep and other 


Large Rabbit Drive. — Echo: The rabbit 
drive on New Year's day was a pronounced 
success, 2363 dead jacks evidenuiag the prowess 
of the migbty hunters of Bakerefield and Rooe- 
dale combined. 

Fruit Acreage. — Bakersfield Echo: lb is 
doubtful if any part of the State can show so 
large a proportionate increase in the area of 
fruit trees and vines set out within a year as in 
Kern county. The acreage planted and variety 
before 1891, and in 1891, are aa follows : 


1891. 1891. 

Almond 71 4 

Apple 44 50 

Apricot 2 116 

Cherry 4 6 

Fig lie 246 

Orange 30 4 

Peach 161 327 

Pear 4 140 

Prune 2B 221 

Walnut 35 22 

Grape 1,360 1,966 

ABSorted Fruit 137 140 

Totals 1,989 3,240 

Planted before 1891 I,9ti9 

Orand Total 5,229 

Los Angeles 
Tree Planting. — Los Angeles Express: The 
past year has been a notable one for tree-plant- 
ing in thia county. The fignrea are interesting. 
Cammiesioner Soott haa received returns from 
a number of points. The estimates are made 
by men who have gone over the ground and 
know what they figure on. Pomona is credit- 
ed with 3000 acres, as follows: Orange trees 
1250, lemon 250, prune 1000, apricot 300, peach 
200. At Piuitland 3500 trees were set out- 
walnut 500, citrus 1000 and deciduous 2000. 
Vernon set out 5000 trees aa follows: Oitrus 
2000, balance in deciduous. At Rivera the 
number of trees set out were as follows: Or- 
ange 24,000, lemon 800, walnut 2000, olive 
500, plum and prune 1100, other trees 1200. 
At Burbank the trees planted are as folio we: 
Apricot 18.000. prune 13,000, walnut 17,500, 
peach 1200, fig 4000, apple 8500, peir 12,000, 
orange and lemon 5000, olive 2000. Ac 
Azisa the following trees were set out: Orange 
43 682, lemon 8405, prune 9944, peach 
6669, aprioot 750; walnut 300, tig 200. At 
Sin Fernando 90 seres were set out to citrus 
trees and 400 to deciduous treea. Glecdale is 
credited to the following trees: Orange 6000, 
lemon 1500, walnut 5000, fig 1700, olive 700, 
peach 16,000, prune 1000, KeUey plum 
1200, aprioot 1500, apple 300, pear 400. 
M nrovia set out 230 acres to orange and 70 
acres to deciduous trees. Pasadena 250 acres 
— orange 100, lemon 50, deciduous 100. 
Sierra Madre acreage Is divided as follows: or- 
ange trees 44 acres, lemon 22 acres, olive 1^ 
acres, other fruits 10 acres. Daarte's acreage is 
divided thus: Orange trees 60, lemon 30, decid 
uouB 60 olive 2. 

The Orange Crop. — Express. Jan . 4 : Reports 
to the weather bureau indicate that the late cold 
weather was more severe and more protracted 
than any before recorded in this section of the 
State. Bat the injurious effects were confined 
almost entirely to certain belts or localities 
In some places — ap, for example, the hill dls 
triot of the city of Los Angeles — even tender 
flowers escaped unhurt, while on the low lands 
there was general havoc among the compara- 
tively hardy geraniums and other plants. The 
high lands, as a rule, are much more free from 
frost than those of valleys and plains, the cold 
air flowing downward, as water would, to the 

lower levels and depresaiona between the hilla. 
Some of the orange-producing districts suffered 
scarcely any loss of crop from the late cold 
snap, while in others there is a material reduc- 
tion in the estimates for the present season. 
The Citrograph haa cut down its estimates of 
the total orange crop to 3200 carloads. Early 
in the season the general estimate was that the 
shipment would exceed 5000 carloads. 

Utilizing Culls.— 8. F. Call: Dr. S. C. 
Woodbridge, of Los Angeles, has had in oper- 
ation at Los Angeles during the past year a 
manufactory which is proving to be an impor- 
tant adjunct to oitrus culture in Southern Cal- 
ifornia — the extraction of the essential oils 
from these fruits. Wind-storma, frosts and ac- 
cidents in picking and packing oranges and 
lemons reduce to the grade of culls a large por- 
tion of the annual product. For a long time 
there was no demand for fruit thus damaged, 
and for the lack of a market the orchardists 
were accustomed to bury the culls in the 
ground, using them as fertilizers. The estab- 
lishment of the citrns essence factory opened 
an avetaue for the aale of inferior fruit, at 
prices, which, though small, paid better than 
the burial process. The plant of the factory 
has a daily consumption of 5000 oranges or lem- 
ons. The latter are used in greater quantities 
than the former, lemon oil being in greater de- 
mand by druggists and grocers than any other 
essence. The essential oil is obtained by a pro- 
cess of distillation, and is taken only from the 
rind. Dr. Woodbridge ia now securing preee- 
ing machinery, which will give better and 
quicker results, and a larger daily consumption 
of fruit than by the process now in vogue, will 
also result. 

Fruit Pest Quarantine. — L. A. Times: 
The regulations tor the exclusi n of dlseaaed 
and infected nuraery stock, are being rigorous- 
ly enforced in the upper counties of this State, 
During the last week or two, consignments of 
young trees thus affected, to the value of $5000 
have been aelzad and condemned. At Auburn 
a carload which was found to harbor aeveral 
diseases new to thia coast, went by the board, 
and the consignor or consignee lost $2000 
thereby. At Mountain Vineyard 12 oasea were 
inspected and found to contain the Eastern cnr- 
culio, so deadly to plums and prunes. Two 
carloads of treea quarantined at San Joee have 
eince been condemned. While Eastern nur- 
serymen may think the Californis policy rather 
heroic and perhaps unjust, there is no doubt it 
ia the only measure ot self-protection left for 
cur large fruit interests. The State at large 
will loee nothing by excluding the foreign stock. 
We already have about every variety of tem- 
perate and subtropical fruit that is known, 
and it la only a question of a little time to 
propagate at home all the nursery stock re- 
quired. In this way we are reasonably secure 
against introducing new parasites and new dis 
eases, while our attention may be directed to 
ward exterminating those already here. The 
obanoes of wholesale losses to fruit growers 
from new enemies before we arrive at a proper 
underitinding of them are too great to be tam 
pered with. A consensus of opinion of those 
most interested would sustain the most rigor- 
ous quarantine measures. 

Success in Fig Packing.— Pomona Times. 
C. A. Loud has successfully packed bis figs 
this year. Others have done so. There are 
numerous reports of profits in figs. The diffi 
culty in making money out of figs has been 
much the same as in lemons, that is, not band 
ling them properly. In both cases our people 
have mastered all the points necessary to tuc 
c ss, and the fig orchards will hereafter be 
amrces of profit. 


Walker Valley.— Ukiah Republic: Nestled 
in the mountains aboat the center of the 
conn y, lies Walker Valley, truly a beauty spot 
in nature. No painter's brush or writer's pen 
can justly picture this little vale. A beautiful 
valley of several hundred acres of rich land, 
with thriving orchards and smiling fields of 
alfalfa and other crops, with the green hills 
stretoblDg away on every side, it is the picture 
of contentment and quiet beauty. Along 
through its center meanders Walker creek, a 
branch of Russian river. The valley, with 
some fifteen or sixteen thousand acres about it, 
was formerly the property of Ranch Angle, and 
now belongs to his estate. The soil is very 
productive and produces abundant crops of all 
kinds of cereals, alfalfa, vegetables and fruits 
It has some of the finest apple orchards in the 


Cold Weather and Red Scale. — Anaheim 
OaittU: It is said that the recent cold snap 
played havoc with the red scale. We aaw 
cluster of aeedlings last week that were perfect 
ly clean and bright, without a sign of scale on 
them, from an orchard that before the cold 
snap had been considered badly infested with 
the bugs. The frost had killed them and the 
subsequent rain had washed them off. The or 
chard is said to hav9 been entirely ridden of its 
scale by the frost. 

San Bernardino. 

Highland for Fruit.— S. B, Timet-Index 
Something like three thousand acres of land in 
Highland has been planted to orchards, prin 
cipally orange and lemon. Nothing oan be 
found anywhere surpassing the beauty and pro 
ductiveness of the orchards of Highland. About 
1000 acres of new orchards were planted last 
season, and the annual growth ia steady and 
promises to continue for many years. Several 
, hundred thonsand dollars have been expended 

in building cement ditches for the distribution 
of water for irrigating and domestic purposes, 
and not a year passes without additions baing 
made to the water system by the enterprising 

A Pineapple Ranch. — Mentone Cor. Pomo- 
na Times: Hon. C. F. BIcknell has sold his 
fine 16-acre ranch at Mentone to Mr. W. Ssott 
Way, of San Joee. The place has a large variety 
of fruits growing upon it, and ia in a fine atate 
of cultivation. Mr, Way intends to engage 
extenaively in the culture of pineapples. He 
has selected Mentone as the place which from 
his experience he believes will be best suited to 
his enterprise, and ia confident that this fruit 
can bs grown here successfully. He will also 
make experiments in growing other kinds of 
troplo and semitroplc fruits that have not yet 
been grown in S3uth California.. 

Injury by Frost Exaqoerated. — Telegram 
to S, F. Examiner, Jan. 12: F. M. Keaoh, an 
orange expert, returned from a three days' vis- 
it to Pomona, Riverside, Golton and Santa 
Ana, where he made thorough inspections of 
the orange orchards with a view to determining 
the extent of damage by the recent frost. "The 
thermometer," he says, "went below 32 de- 
grees in a number of places, and on the whole, 
the weather was colder than on the famous cold 
spell of 1886. That came, however, in Novem- 
ber and December, at which time the juice had 
not gone into the orange, The frame and the 
pulp were there, but the juice was not in the 
meat, and the essential oil bad not permeated 
the rind. The frost affected the little stem and 
prevented the juice from getting into the 
orange, and for ttiat reason the fruit remained 
juiceless and cottony. The recent cold spell, 
coming as it did at Chrstmas time, was too 
late to shnt off the juice and oil which had al- 
ready filled the orange, and that this fact will 
result in showing that no damage has been 
done appaara to be a reasonable idea, and it ia 
a fact that ao far the fruit shows no indication 
of being frozen. One thing ia known and that 
is that after the orange has filled with juice 
and the eaeential oils are in the rind, it requires 
a lower tempature than 18 degrees to freeze 
the fruit." 

Sugar Beets.— Interview with E. F. Dyer in 
A, Herald: I have been through the Ca- 
huenga valley and took a good look at the land. 
The soil there ia of a light. loamy nature; just 
what the beet requires. The land is much bet- 
ter than that of the majority of the beet-grow- 
ing districts for the reason that the soil is of 
groater depth. The sugar beet could be cul- 
tivated to the highest degree on such soil, and 
the mildness of the climate gives the advan- 
tage of long aeaaona. I have been in France 
and Germany and studied their methods 
thoroughly. The industry sprang up in 
France, where it was fostered by Napoleon III, 
and extended from there to Germany. The ex- 
cise laws in the latter country being more fav- 
orable to the industry, it grew to greater pro- 
portions than in France. In the countries I 
mentioned, they have to get the beets in the 
ground in about six weeks, and have about the 
same length of time to dig them after matu- 
rity. At Lehi, which is near Salt Lake City, 
where we have just completed a factory, the 
planting must be done in about thirty days. 
In this country the farmer oan plant at any 
season of the year, and he need not hurry 
about taking the crop out. The factory at 
Alvarado, which waa built by us and in which 
we are large stockholders was the first one in 
this country that operated in a satisfactory 
manner. Since It began running the prio8 of 
land increased very materially, and is now 
worth from $300 to $400 per acre. Land close 
to the factory cannot be had for less than $400 
per acre. There are now nearly 2000 acres un- 
der cultivation, and many owners rent their 
property at from $20 to $50 per acre. The 
average production is about twenty tons per 
acre. That means 4000 pounds of sugar. In 
Germany they figure it at twelve to fifteen tons 
per acre, but In this State there is no reason 
why the average should not be twenty tons 
and over. The sugar beet will grow with 
less moisture than any other crop. The plant 
has a tap root that goes down about six feet 
and finds moisture. The loose soil Is there- 
fore advantageous. The land surrounding the 
Lehi factory is dry and arid, and every acre 
must be irrigated. There is an idea that the 
beet is exhaustive to the sol). If properly cul- 
t.vatei It ii not EG, Moat of the mineral con. 
stituenta of the aoU taken up by the beet are la 
the crown and the leaves. When the crop is 
cut these are left on the ground, and the min- 
eral matter is therefore returned. The sac- 
charine matter in a beet varies from 12 to 20 
per cent. Beets of 14 per cent sugar, native 
purity, will give a yield of 10 per cent whita 
sugar. This can be produced where fuel can be 
had at a reasonable price at from 3^ to 4 cents 
per pound. My visit is primarily tor the pur- 
pose of starting a factory. I desire to see just 
what the opportunity is. Oar attention was 
called to this s* ction, principally by newspaper 
articles regarding the meetings which have 
been held." 

San Dleeo. 

Acreage in Grain Last Year.— San 'Die- 
gan: During the year 1891, crops were reaped 
from the following acreage: Wheat, 26 038; 
oata, 5109; barley, 41,086; hay cut, 18,762; 
corn, 2635. The estimated crop of the season 
is 1,000,000 sacks of grain, as against 750,000 
laat season. 

Horticultural Statistics.— Son Diegan: 
The acres of bearing grapes were as follows: 
Table, 679; raisins, 4702; wine, 1022. The 

crop of raisins for 1891 was 200 carloads, as 
against 150 in 1890. Fruit Inspector Jones, in 
the course of his duties, has begun the taking 
of a thorough tree census of the county. From 
the figures at hand, and careful estimates, he 
places the total number of fruit trees in the 
county, aa planted in orchard form, at 1,800,- 
000 — an iacrea'^e over the Assessor's figures of 
738,000. The Fruit Inspector further reports, 
from the actual figures furnished him by his 
assistantB, an addition of 1,000,000 orange trees 
one year old and over, but still standing in 
nursery rows. The number atill in the seed 
bed is estimated at from three to five millions. 
Grand total of trees as returned by Assessor, 
1,062,745; total reported by Fruit Inspector, 
1,800,000. The orange crop of the county last 
year was 68 carloads. A conservative estimate 
of this season's crop is 150 carloads. 

San Luis Obispo. 
A Large Grain Grower. — Santa Maria 
Times: William Smith is managing over 1200 
acres this year and will seed it all to wheat and 
barley. He has for many years farmed a por- 
tion of the Keifer tract but this year he ob- 
tained a lease for a portion of the Suey valley 
land which has been resting from grain for the 
paet three years and should bring an extra 
yield this year. He will also farm the Miller 
place west of town and his home place of 160 
acres three miles to the southeast where he has 
lived since 1875. He has never claimed to be 
anything but a grain farmer, still he waa one 
of the first to plant fruit trees in this valley 
and has for many years produced the prize ap- 
ples of hia neighborhood. He also has a young 
prune orchard jaat coming into bearing, 


How the Levee was Built. — Barnhardt Cor. 
Dixon Tribune: The ranch now has one of the 
best levee systems in the State. It ia 11 miles 
in length. It is 14 feet in height and oorre- 
spondlngly broad. A level waa run from the 
mound on which the buildings stand, and 
which is the highest point on the ranch, to the 
east levee, which Is supposed to be the lowest 
point, and the levee was found to be two and a 
half feet higher than the top of the mound. I 
have heard some criticisms from the old school 
farmers on our methods of leveeing, saying 
that levees built entirely with the Chicago 
grader would never stand the waah of the 
waves. They are correct in the laat atatement 
but if they would investigate the system thor* 
oughly they would see the error that they, in 
common with those who have given leveeing 
and drainage more study, have fallen into. 
Our levees are built up to the height of about 
five and a half feet with the scrapera. After 
this, earth is thrown up with the grader, and 
a team attached to a heavy harrow driven along 
the leveee. Another layer is piled on with the 
grader and is again harrowed. This process ia 
continued until the embankment reaches a 
height of 14 feet. I claim that a levee con- 
structed in this manner is aa near perfect as 
possible and will withstand any ordinary flood 
aa well as the choppy waves caused by high 
winds on the body of water in the tule basin. 


Planting Another Orchard. — Yuba City 
Farmer: 0. N. Tharsing has rented from M. 
Marcuse 83 acres of land known as the Schutz 
place, noith of the White House in this county, 
and lying slone; the river. The lease is for 
eight years. Part of the land is not cleared, 
but Mr. Tharsing will remove the trees and 
brush from the same and plant the entire farm 
to fruit. 

Increased Tree-Planting.- .far/ner.- The 
tree-planting season will soon begin, and from 
the low prices received last season for fruit, 
one would be led to believe that there would 
be somewhat of a halt cilled in the planting of 
more trees and vines. This is not the case 
here, at least, aa there will be a large acreage 
set out this winter. There ia hardly a nursery 
in the county but what has the greater portion 
of the stock engaged, and aa there are several 
extensive ones here, it represents no small 
showing as to the amount to be planted. Many 
of the large fruit growers will extend their 
orchards, and others will start in thia year by 
planting extenaively. They have full confi- 
dence in the future of the fruit industry, espe- 
cially that fruit produced or to be produced 
here. Oar fruits stand in the foremost ranks 
in exoollency, and the question of overproduc- 
tion cannot cut any figure in the case. The 
vigorous manner in which the people are now 
taking hold of the pest question and the active 
measures being instituted to prevent the spread 
of diseases, injurious to the fruit industry, has 
given the growers encouragement and they 
know now that their business is fully under 
the protection of the law in regard to sach 
matters. More care is being exercised each 
year In the selection of varieties, preparation 
of soil, etc., which more fully insures the grow- 
er in his work against loss, and in the end les- 
sens the expense largely. Our horticultural in- 
terest will show a large increase In the coming 
12 months, 


To Preserve Fruit.— Vlsalla Times: As 
the time for the opening of the World's Fair Is 
not so very far off, it would be well for parties 
wishing to exhibit fruits or vegetables preserved 
to make the necessary preparations this year. 
Special care should be taken to use the proper 
liquid, so that the fruit will not spoil, as it did 
in some of the jare exhibited by Tulare 
county fruit growers at the State Board of 
Trade exhibit in San Francisco. I. H. Thomas, 


f ACfFie I^URAlo PRESS. 

[Jah. 16, 1892 

the Viaalia iroit man, ig dow experimeotlng 
with a preierviog flaid, the invention of Prof, 
Wfcker«helmer of the Uoivejrsity of Barlin, 
Germany, The German Government, for a 
valnable cODBideration, induced the Profeeaor 
to abandon hU patent and has made pnblio a 
deicriptton of the procesa. The followine is a 
correct recipe : In 3300 grammes of boiling 
water are dissolved 100 grammes of alam, 25 
grammes of cooking salt, 12 grammes of salt- 
peter, 69 grammes of potash, and 10 grammes 
of arsenio acid. When cool it is filtered. To 
10 litres of this liquid 4 litres of glycerine and 
1 litre of methyllc alcohol are added, 

Fine Fowls — Ventura Free Preu: Ohas. 
Sswell has received a trio of white Indian 
games which are the best table fowls yet pro- 
dnced. They are imported from England and 
have only been oat some three or four years, 
Abant seven years sg? the breeder received a 
trio from India ani tound them so fine that a 
great many were bred. 


T0LE Farming — Tale farmer in Woodland 
Mcul : Tnere is more tale land in cultivation 
this winter than I have ever linown of before 
In one year, and we only ask for a few moder- 
ate rains. Tben, if prices remain as good as 
they are now, some of ns fellows who have 
been Btrnggling along so many years in poverty 
and ridicule, will be on our feet again in first- 
olasa shape, I don't believe we are going to 
have a very heavy rainfall this winter. The 
indications, as I read them, are good for enough 
to insure a good crop on the high lands, and 
that means all the water we need in the tnle 
region. To tell yon the truth, a whole lot of 
ns fellows have got to raise a crop this year or 
we will go busted; but jistgive ns the right 
kind of a season and yoa will see the liveliest 
times around here that yoa have seen for many 
a day. 

Favorable Outlook. — Woodland Democrat: 
Farmers wbo have been in Woodland inforai 
nt that tha effect of the late warm and gentle 
rains has been to sprout summer-fallowed 
grain and start it on a healthy growth. There 
has been less rotting of seed in the ground 
than usnal, and in nearly every instance a good 
stand is assured. The farmers are well satis- 
fied with the prospects. If the Jinnary rains 
fulfill the Signal Service prediotiocs, there ie 
bat little doubt that the spring showers 
will maturfl one of the largest crops ever har- 
vested in Yolo oonnty. 

Farmer.? Safe from Floops — Woodland 
Demoerat: Oivll Eigineer M. A. Nurse, who 
has charge of the oonstrnctinn of the new levee 
in Reo'itm tion District Ns. 539, says that 
about 8^ miles of the levee has been oompletod, 
and the tarmars are now safe from the floods. 
The new levee is 12 feet in width on top, has a 
three to one slope on each side, and is 29 feet 
high, which is 2 feet above the high-water 
mark. The entire levee will be completed by 
March 1st, and a large tract of fine land re- 
claimed. The farmers encb'aopd in the district 
will pay an assessment of $12 50 per acre on all 
lands in the district, which will aggregite $40,- 
000. The value of the land has been IncreiBcd 
by reason of the levee from $4J to $100 per 


Hop Notes. — Wheatland Four Uorneri: J aha 
Logan of Brownsville Is delivt^ring several oar- 
loads of trellis poles. The Redden Brothers 
are planting about 20 acres of new hops and 
are patting up a new trellis cn 60 acres. All 
the Bear river hops have been shipped, and all 
but a few carloads which Daret has in Lindon 
have been sold. The last of the Rodden Broth- 
ers' crop was sold about Cbristmaa day, and the 
last lo of Wood's consisting of 270 bales, was 
■old to Mebias & Dresoher this week. The 
prices received for the last sales have been 
very good, ranging from 18 to 20 cents. Wheat- 
land is rapidly being spoken of as a hop coan- 
try. Mendocino, Russian river and Sacramen- 
to are synonyms for hop culture. Wheatland 
has produced a good hop for over seven years, 
but the other localities named have produced 
the hop many years more. It is bat of late 
years that our growers made any effort to ex> 
oel, and they have succeeded so well that Bear 
river hops command the attention of the buy- 
ers. We predict that in a few years it will be 
the Bear river hops firBt, 8}noma next and 
others following, 


Laroe Creameries — Rono Journal: Arti 
olea of Incorporation have been fiied for the es- 
tablishment of thr.e creameries in Mason Val- 
ley. Tbe largost will bi located at Greenfield. 
Tbe milk of 6000 cnws will be naed daily in the 
manafactnre of cheese and bitter. The hay 
crop of Mason Valley has heretofore Ii3en 
largely in exoess of the demand for it, and this 
excess will hereafter be fed to the Creamery 
Oo.'a stock. 


market rate of interest on approved security in Farm- 
ing Lands. A. SCHULLER, Room 8, 420 Cali- 
fornia St., San Francisco. 



real e-tatR below market rates. HOWE, BAND- 
MANN & CO.. 508 California St., 5. F. 

Tie Most Terrible Volcanic Eruption on 

(By Prof. Granvills F. FosrRR.l 
Before tbe year 1883 pbyslcal Keographera in 
speaking of the most disastrous volcanic ernp 
tion on record, referred first, in point of time, to 
the celtbratad eruption of Vesuvius, in A. D 
79, when the cities of Hercalaneam, Pompeii 
and several smaller towns on the slope of the 
moantain were destroyed by lava or buried nn 
der a mass of pumice stones and ashes; second 
to that of Hacla and Skaptar JokuU, contigu 
ous mountains in Iceland, in 1783, when two 
enormous lava streams, one fifteen miles wid 
and over 100 feet deep and the other scarcely 
inferior, flowed, the first, fifty miles and the 
other forty, till they reached the sea, pouring a 
flood of white hot lava into the ocean 
destroying everything in their paths and kill, 
ing in the waters of the ocean the fiib, the 
maiostay of the inhabitants, who were rednced 
by the disaster, directly or indirectly, to less 
than five-sixths of their former strength, and 
third to that of Galangang, in 1822, which de 
vastated such an immense area in Java, but all 
the eruptions known besides were as mere 
child's play to tbe terrible one of Krakatoa in 

If the reader will examine the map of th 
Etst Indies he will find represented in the 
straits of Sanda, which lie between Sumatra 
and J iva, the little Island of Krakatoa. In 
maps made before 1883 he will hunt In vain for 
the name, for like Ball Run before 1861 it was 
then anknown to fame, though navigators who 
passed through tbe straits knew it as a beanti 
ful tropical isle, with an extinct volcanic cone 
in the centre. In the beginning of 1883, how 
ever, the little well-behaved Island showed 
symptoms of wrath that boded no good to the 
larger islands in the vicinity. Noted for the 
tine fruits with which it abounded, it was 
f imouii picnic ground for towns and cities even 
a hundred miles away, and when the snbter 
rau>fan rnmbliog^ and mntterings of wrath be- 
came conspicuous the people of the capital of 
Java, Bttavia, put a steamboat into requisition 
and vibited tbe island in large numbers. For 
a time the island was constantly in a alight 
tremor, and the subterranean roar was like the 
continued, but distant mntterings of thunder 
but the orltis was reached August 23.-d, at 10 
o'clock, A. M. It was a b^aatifal Sunday 
morning and the waters of the straits of Sun 
da were like that aea of glata, as clear »i crystal, 
of which John in his apocalyptic vision speaks 
The beauty that morning was enhanced by 
the extraordinary transparency of the tropical 
air, for distant mountain ranges seemed so near 
that it seemed possible to strike them with a 
stone cast from the hand. Ojly the mysterious 
rumblings and mntterings of the pent up forces 
beneath the ieland, disturbed the breathless 
calm and silence that lay on nature — the calm 
before the terrible storm — the mightiest, the 
most awfnl on record! It burst forthl Sud- 
den night snatched away day from the eyee of the 
terrified beholders on the mainland, but the vlv 
id play of lightnings aronnd tbe ascending col 
nmn of dust penetrated even the deep ob^carity 
to a distance of eighty miles. This awful dark- 
ness Ftretohed within a circle whose diameter 
was 400 miles, while more or less darkness 
reigned within a circle with a diameter three 
times as great. Witbin this latter area (just fell 
like snow from the sky, breaking off limbs of 
trees by its weight miles diutant, while 
in Bitavia, 100 milea away from the scene of the 
disaster, it fell to the depth of several inches. 
The explosions were so loud as to be distinctly 
heard in Hindostan, 1800 miles away, and at 
Bitavia, tbe sound was like the constant roar of 
cannon in a field of battle. Finally the whole 
island was blown to pieces and now came the 
most awful contest of nature— a battle of death 
between Neptune and Vulcan — the sea poured 
down into the chasm millions of tons only to 
be at first converted Into vspor by the millions 
of tons of aeetbing white-hot lava be- 
neath, Over the shores thirty miles away, 
waves over one hundred feet high rolled with 
such a fury that everything, even to a part of 
the bedrock, was swept away. Blocks of stone 
of 50 tons weight were carried two miles in- 
land. On tbe Sumatra side of the straits a large 
vessel was carried three miles inland. The 
wave, of coarre growing less in intensity, trav- 
eled across the whole Indian 0:ean, 5000 miles, 
to the Cape of Good Hope and aronnd it Into the 
Atlantic. The waves in the atmosphere trav- 
eled around the globe three times at the rate of 
700 mihs per hour. The dust from the volcino 
was carried up Into the atmosphere fully twen 
ty miles and the finest of it was distribatsd 
through the whole body of air. The reader 
doubtleea remembers the beautlfal reddish or 
purple glow at snnrlse and sanset for fally six 
months after August 1883— that glow was 
caused by volcanic dust in the atmosphere in- 
terfering with tbe passage of the sun's rays of 
the upper part of the solar spectrum, more 
manifest at sun-rising and setting tbad at other 
times during the day, because at these periods 
the sun's rays have to travel obliquely through 
the atmosphere and consequently penetrating 
a very deep layer, were deprived of all their 
colors except the red. 

The loss of life was appalling. The last sight 
on earth to 35 000 people was that of the awfnl 
ernption. E jgulftd in the ocean or covered with 
heaps of ashes, a few hours after the ernption 
commenced the awful work was done, and that 
vast maltltnde bad vanished from off the face 
of tbe earth. The faot that in the neighbor- 

hood of the mountain there was a sparse popa- 
lation accounts for there not being even a far 
greater loss of life. 

Notwithstanding the awfulness of volcanic 
and earthquake phenomena, there is some sil- 
ver lining to the dark clouds. They prove 
that the earth ia yet a living planet. Centu- 
ries must pass away before it will become like 
the moon — a dead planet — without water, air 
or life. Our satellite is a prophecy indeed of 
what the earth mnst eventnally become when 
all its life forces, its internal energies, are dis- 
sipated into apac?. 

ArUioeh, Cal., Jan. 4, 189!. 

Fast Railroad Trains. 

London Engineer, in commenting on the per- 
formance ot tue fast train on the New York 
Central road, says : Taking the American run 
as a whole, it constitates a distinct departure 
in railway wbrk. Not the least remarkable 
feature about it is that it shows that it is pos- 
sible to attain very high speeds with compar- 
tively small ooapled wheels. It by no means 
follows, however, that it is advisable to retain 
them for very fast trains. On the other hand, 
we believe that very high wheels are equally 
ont of place if very long runs are to be made, 
because on such runs it is oertiia that more or 
less steep inclinna will have to be sarmounted. 
If the average speed of a train is to be about 
60 tt 55 miles an hour, then banks may be 
ascended at 40 miles an hour, or even less, and 
descended at 60 to 65 miles an honr. 

But when an average speed of 60 miles an 
hour must be made, we cannot rely on descents 
to compensate for asoente, bscanse enormous 
velocities would be reqalred, and the cost and 
wear and tear would bd out of all proportion to 
the advantage gained, Tbe engine must, there- 
fore, be competent to maintain a high speed 
when ranning uphill, and this is almost Impoc- 
aibie if very high wheels are nsed, unless the 
cylinders are too large for the rest of the road 

As these high-speed, long distance trains can 
not be heavy, it appears to us that the best 
type of engine would be one with 18 inches 
cylinders, 26 inches stroke, 1400 square feet of 
heating snrtaoe, 20 square feet ot grate, and 
single drivers carrying about 18 tons, and 6 
feet 8 inohes in diameter, provided with the 
sand-blast. Sach an engine would be an ad- 
mirable hlil-climbcr, and would run about as 
fast as any locomotive made. When the runs 
are over comparatively level roads, then a b'g 
wheel, snob as Mr, Stirling proposes, is no 
doabt good, because its use redaoes wear and 

Whether any extremely fa«t running will b 
done in this country remains to be seen. Any 
speed that can be attained in the Uaited States 
can, of course, be got here on our better roade; 
but it is mere than questionable that thes 
excessive speeds pay. Whether they do or not 
ie really the whole question. The problem is 
not one for the locomotive snperintendent, but 
for the general manager. 



Cheap, Darable and Kn'ectire. 
Pickets colored red bv hoilln); in a clicmical paiot to 
preserve tlie wood. We in>ke it -J. ft., 21 ft , 4 ft. and 4t 
It. hizn. Send for circulars and price ;i»t to 


14 & 16 Fremont 8t San Kranrisco. 

The above cut shows a section ..1 ii.t- .Imi^o n li-ft, 
lUbbit-Proot Fence Bv stretcbini; barbeil wires on the 
posts above It, it will turn any stuck whatever. 

Advertisement for Proposals ! 

Directors of the Be»r Valley Irrigation Company at 
Red anda, CiIiforrii>, until March let, 1IS92, for the cjn- 
struction of a Tunnel about BflOO feet in lenifth through 
rock, in accordance with the plans and tp ciflcatlons on 
file in the r ffl -e of the undersigned. Bidders may pr'.pose 
1 1 furnish tli Ir own rlan-, to use a c mplete power- 
drilling, hauling and ventiUtinir plant to be (urnisheil by 
the Coinpiny. Each bid must ba accompanied by a 
cerMBed check f 'r not less than T/. of the amount ot the 
iroposal. The Directors reserve the rigrt (o reject 
any or all proposals. EDWARD M. BOOOS, Engineer, 
Banning, California. 


No. 6 and 9 Bsst Quality Steel Wire in 
Long Lengths. 

We have a \ery large Stock and will sell low. 

A Large ImportatiODOf Shiopsliire Sheep. 

Mr. H. Mecham of Petaluma has just received a 
flock of 78 head of Shropshire sheep selected from 
the most noted families of England. Tbey were 
personally selec'ed by his son, who made an ex- 
tended visit to England last summer, and under or- 
ders of Mr. Mecham, his father, selected from the 
most noted families, the best that could be bought, 
without regard to price. 

Mr. Mecham has been a breeder and importer of 
fine b'ooded stock of sheep tor over 20 years, and 
his success in this Hue has been without parallel in 
this State. 

The prices paid for individual members of this 
flock would seem exorbitant to those unacquainted 
with the values placed on this new family of sheep. 
Mr. Mecham has found by experience that by the 
infusion of new blood and sagacious crossing, price 
was no object in comparison to results that followed 
jadicious breeding. He therefore determined with- 
out regard to price, to select the best that could be 
bought in the known world; and it is sufhcient to 
say that, after looking over the selection m<ide by 
his son, he believes that he has the best flack of 
Shropshire sheep that ever crossed the Rocky moun- 

We have not been able to see this flock, but will 
take occasion to inspect them soon, and give a more 
detailed description of this very valuable importa- 
tion to the sheep interests of California. 


No. 9 Fremont St. San Francisco Oal 


Tone, Touch, Workmansliip and Dnrablllty. 

liiLTiMuRK, 2-2 a-id 24 V.afii B .Itioiore Jitreet. 
New Vork, Uj urth Ave. Washington. 817 Market Spacs 

"Deadlock" GOPHER TRAPS. 

Never fail. Fish - hook Jaws. 
Douhle trigger". No loose 
J Jints to bo repaired. Anycrjlld 
lan set them. 26 cts. eac i or 
iZ a doz. 
Ask or 
write for 


takfl no other. Wo also mai>e the .Si « ly . u n; DuUBI.E- 
END THAI'. Price 30 cts. each. The only trap which 
catches coming f.oni either tnd. Send for boih traps 
IKA F. WtilTK & SON, Pomona. CaliforuU. 

Skillman's Importation of Horses. 

In last week's issue of the RURAL, we noticed the 
arrival of Mr. Skillman's latest importation of thor- 
oughbred horses from England. This stock con- 
sists of five Suffolk Punch and two Shire stallions, 
all young horses. Four out of the seven head have 
taken first premiums in the Show Ring. Mr. Skill- 
man has been a regular importer for the last ten 
ears, and his large experience and knowledge of the 
best families in France and England has enabled 
him to bring into our State the best that could be 
had. It has been bis policy to select from the best 
strains of blood without regard to price. Gocd 
judges have spoken very highly of his latest im- 
portation as one of the best ever made by him. 
ny one interested in this class of slock is cor- 
ially invited to make a visit to Reilly's Stables, 
taluma, and judge for themselves. Those who de- 
sire can have a catalogue sent on application. We 
will make a more extended notice of these grand 
young horses soon. 



Before Buying a Sewing Machine. 
It is the leader In practical progress. Send for price list 

J. w. EVANS, ae Poet St., a. r. 

Unitarian Literatore 

Sent free by tbe Channing Auxiliary of the First 
Unitarian Church, cor. Geary and Franklin Sts., San 
Francisco. Address Mrs. B. F. Giddings as above. 

The German Savings and Loan Society, 

&2e California Street. 

adivid nH h« b en declared at the rate of five and 
fourtenths (5 4-10) per cent per annum on Terra De- 
posits, and four aiid one-half (4 j) per cent per arnuiu on 
■ irdiuary D.'posits, payable on and after SATURDAY, 
January 1, 1892. 

QEOROE TOURNY, Secretary. 

Oldest Mu-sic U0U8C. 




a« «»'Farrell »U. H.W. 


r.ircoodhpnithcnreii all chronic diseasei. 

Hov. A. Altirn, I) !>., ftlca, N. Y., wrlt»»; " 0n» 
of tIieprtvit.-stbor*n8 to mankind In mn<t«rndayi." 
InUnlulv b"llor th^n ths UallSyaUjm. Qalf tlx 
pru-o. Scn.t r>r tcstlmoniali. 

iikaltii 81'rpuis ro., 710 nBOADHiy, ». r 

JOHN CAINE 369 El radnSt . Stockton. 

lfi»2-WhnlraKl<> mnd Retall-lSBa. 

Gcueral AK;' t Wioan.t' Tat CdrriaKe Uo., Mich.; alio 
Buffalo and Osborne Mowers, Rakea 
ooe ffuaranteei* 
Plowa, Farm ImplexneDtt, Hardware. 

BtrattoD Carr.age t;o., 
and Reapers. Every ooe guaranteed. Gang and Single 

JiN 16, 1892.1 


It Stands the Test! 



Mexican Phosphate & Sulphur Co., 

Now favorably known throughout the Citrus 
Growing Sections of the State, Stands Unrivaled 
as a True Fertilizer. 

Certain in its Action, Great in Results, it 
maintains a high standard of fertility without 
undue stimulation. 

Growers in San Bernardino County — notably 
Riversile — and Butte County — notably Paler- 
mo — can attest its merit. 

We guarantee uniformity in its analysis, and 
seek correspondence with bonafide purchasers 
of a reliable fertilizer. 

Mexican Pbospbate&Snipbnr Co., 

H. M. NEWHALL & CO., Agents, 

309-81 1 Sansome Street, San Francisco, Cnl. 

TiilM *:4»,>II*I.KTK HIT «»F T<»(>I..Ki 

Oxily- 925. 

Send for No 16 Illustrated Catalogue. 

TRUMAN, HOOKER & CO., San Francisco. 



Orcenbank" 98 degrreea POWDERED CAUSTIC 
SODA (tests 99 8 10 per cent) recommended by tbe 
highest authorities in the State. Also Common Caustic 
Soda and Potash, etc., for sale by 

Maoutacturers' A|;eDt3, 
104 Market St. and 8 California St.. S. F. 

J. F. HoDOHTON, President, J. L. N. Shkpard, Vice-Prea. 
Onxs. R. Stoby, Sec'y, K. H. Maoill, Gen. Ag't. 

Home Hatoal iDsnrance Company, 

It. R. Cor. Calirornln and Sanaome Htn,, 

INOORPORATEU A. D. 1864. Man Franclaoo. 

Losses Paid Since OrKanlzation 83,175,759 SI 

Assets, January 1, 1891 867,512 19 

Capital Paid Up in Uold 300,000 00 

NKT STIRPT-US n»er Kverythlng S78 901 10 

"DEAD LOCK" GOPHER ?5c.«c"a'p^?^; 

or IS p«r doi. dellTwed. L T. WHITS * SON, P»moiia,OiJ. 





Beat and Stronareat Rxploalrea In the World. 

CTTJiDsonsr ipo^w^tdei^. 

The only Reliable and Efficient Powder for Stump> and Bank Blasttne. Railroad Contractors and Farmers 
use no other. As ofliera I9IITATK our Ulant Powder, ao do tliey Jadaon, by mannractarine 
nn inferior article. 

The Giant Powder Oo. having bnilt B'aclt Powder Works, with all the latest improvements, at Ohpper Gap, Placer 
County, known as TIIK CI..IPPER DIILiLS, offer this powder and guarantee it the best. 

CAPH and FUSE at Kiowest Baten. 

THE GIANT POWDER COMPANY, 30 California St., San Francisco. 




Wareboaee and Wharf at Port Ooata. 


Money advanced on Strain in Store at lowest possible rates of interest. 
Fall Oargoes of Wbeat famished Shippers at short notice. 

ALSO ORDERS FOR GRAIN BAGS, Agricnltnral Implements, Waggons, Oroceriei 
and Merchandise of every description solicited. 

E. VAN EVERY, Manager. A. M. BELT, Assistant Manager. 


T0N6UELESS. Self Guiding. 


depending on size of plows 
and kind of work. 


instead of 
instead of three. 

One wheel landside resists 
pressure of three furrows. 
No bottom or side friction. 
LfiVArs and_f.urniri(j dovicG m easy reach. Can be turned in the 
t'lan any Gang in America. Adjustable 

Weight of furrows, 

frame and plowman 

carried on three greased spindles 
Draft reducfd to 

lowest possible limit. 
Foot brake prevents Gang runnmg on team. 

length of itself. Ka^ii'r Driving, IIPUTrD flRRCT' - ,, 

STKAKJ UTER I'lirrows. and LlunlCn UrlUr 1 I mine- -can be narrowed or widened at will. 
Made with stubble, sod and stubble, or breaker bottoms, in steel or chilled metal. Ten or twelve inch cut. 


tS~SpeeinI prices nnd time lor trinl given on first orders from points where we have no agents. 
Our book, "FUN ON THE FAR»1," sent Free to all who mention this paper. 

Be Happy While You Live, for 

You Will Be A Long 
Time Dead 

To Be Happy Buy a 



Dandy Steel Tower. 

with graphite boxes the 
Dandy Wind Mill Re- 
quires No Oil for Years. 

No More Climbing Towers 
No IWore Tilting Towers 

to break down 
and Injure you or your cattle. 
Needs uo attention and is 
wai'raiited to last longer than 
other mills that are oiled, and 
Will Be Sent to Cood Par- 
ties on 30 Days Test Trial 
If notsatiafactoi-T freight will be 
aid both ways. The Dandy 
Jleel Tower Is a Fonr 
Coi-ner Tower, the corners 
being made out of heavy angle 
steel. The girts and braces 
are very strong and substan- 
tial, and of the very best steel 
made. It Is the most graceful, 
strong and durable tower on 
the market, and can be erected 
In one-half the time of a 
wooden tower. We will not 
allow om-selves to be under- 

Challenge Wind Mill 

& Feed Mill Co., 
Batavia, Kane Co., ill. 



They make the great Ball Hangers whicli make the 


The WONDER of all practical Farm People. 

The same device which makes the Bicycle run 
easy, enables our Harrow to save one horse power in 
use, beside cost for repairs. It conquers toughesi sod 
— fits uneven ground. ExamUie it you7'sel/. Where 
time and horse-flesh are thought worth saving, the 
*'Keystone" go es to s tsy, ^ 

Kev<;tone ^1^^ f ¥ ^^^nches : 

iveybiune W if St. Louis. Mo. 

Mfg. Co., \|| if /Kansas City. Mo, 
C4-.»^i:.^^ Ill W ■ /Council Bluffs, la. 

sterling. 111. jf / coiumbus.ohio. 


Hetal Engraving, Electrotyping aod Stereotyping 
done kt tbe offie. of tliii paper. 

^BELQilT.\/^l^'2< _ 


Manufacturer of the Kcse Deep Well Pump. No. 
1111 Ninth Street, SACRAMENTO, Cal. Catalogues Free. 



PISTOLS 75( n AIuaKb.£ictuL£s.^. ClQalimatl.Ohlo< 

kinds cheaper 
,tbao elsewhere, {be- 
fore jou buy, lend 
tamp for llluitrated 
Calalnnue to Tb* 
ISa Bain Streat, 

Sharpies Improved 


Twenty per cent cheaper than any other Separator. 

It 18 recommended by all commlseion houses. 

Heeler & Johnson, Wm. Hatton and J. Warren Button 
have adopted it in preference to all rivals. 

I now have on hand the small-sized Sharpies Improvjd 
Separator and the Russian Steam Separator. 

Second-hand De Lavals, good as new, for sale cheap. 

A. J. VAN DRAKE, Pacific Coast Agent, 

203 Fremont St., San PraoclBCO, Cal. 


IS THE BEST, because 
it combines simplicity 
of constiuction with 
power and economy in 
space. It can be run natural or maau- 
lactur' d gas or irasoline 
at a cost of 20 to 25 
cents per horse power 
per day. 

It can be used for 
pumpine purposes, as 
we 1 as for all purposes 
where a perfect engine 
is required, with the 
advantage of lessening 
the risk of explosions. 
Ne licensed engineer at 
a high Silary needed to 
operate it. 

Send fur circulars and 
prices it a good safe en- 
gine is wtiat you need. 

Tie Orieuhl Lamjcli is PerfectioD. 

Inventor and Maiiuractarer, 


Commipsion Dealer in 

Shingles, Posts. 
Pickets and Piling. 

Manufacturer & Pacific Coast Agent 
of the Popu'ar 


Sheathing Lath, 

A valuable invention but recently 
used 0.1 this t'oa«t. ."^end for Sam- 
plea, Circulars, Price Lists, Etc. 

42 Market Street, 


Cor. Jefferson ft First Sts., Oakland, Cal. 



Superior to anything of the kind in the marlcet for 


Unequaled for Submerged Timbers. Red and Brown 
Paints for Roofs, Warehouses, Stables, Fences, 
Etc., mixed Ready for Use. Also, 
Sheathing Paper, Portable Cal- 
ifornia Mastic Roofing, 
ttie Best in the 


Teredo-Proof Pile 

This Company also Manufactures a Ualtblne 
Compound for 



The same is a superior article for Preserving Harness 
rendering it Impervious to Moisture and 
keeping it always pliable and soft. 

Send to Factory, Jefferson anri First 8treets, 
Oakland, for .Samples and Prices. 


■ ■ ""The American Well Works, Aurora, III. 
Elm Street. DALLAS. TEXAS. I ' 

riinpi ir^ Aii Kinds. wator, ea*.on 


f ACIFie f^URAb f RESS. 

[Jam. 16, 1892 

G(00D JC^E/cLTH, 

Specks Betore the Eyes. 

Their Sudden Appearance— A Startling 
but Not SerlouB Affection. 

People are often frightened almost ont of 
their wits by the sadden appearance of flying 
specks before their eyes; sometimes they are 
only one or two, bnt often thousaDds of them 
can be seen, particularly when a person looks 
toward a white sorfaoe, as white clouds, white 
hontes, white pavements, or toward water sur- 
face. These flying epeoka are mostly small 
points, oonneoted one with another by fine 
lines, and the points often preeent a beaded ap- 
pearance. At first, persons are likely to try to 
knock them away, thinking it is eomething be- 
fore their eyes. They come usually in both 
eyes at the lame time. They may diminish or 
Increase in numbers at times, but rarely ever 
disappear entirely. They never interfere with 
vision by settling over objects looked at. 

Dr. A. D. Williams explains, in the St. 
Louis Medical Journal, that the nature of the 
flying specks here described is not well under- 
stood, but bddly focused eyes are most likely 
to be troubled with them. He says that they 
signify nothing serious so long as they are 
mere points connected with fine lines, and do 
not interfere with the acuteness of vision. 
Treatment Is more than uselesi. If the eyes 
are out of focus, proper glasses should be se- 
lected. It is important tbat the patient should 
ignore their presence entirely; should avoid 
seeing them as much as possible and let them 
alone. L trge floating masses before the eyes, 
which swim around and often obscnre vision, 
are the result of serious disease, and should be 
promi<tly looked after. 

Criminality as a Disease. — "It is my 
opiolon that the lime will come when crimi- 
nality will be recognized as an inherited dis- 
ease and treated accordingly, " said a man who 
has reo?ntly been studying this subject some- 
what carefnlly from a medical standpoint. 
" Those persona who display in yonth a ten- 
dency to commit crimes will then be placed in 
iastltntioDS very different In character from 
prisons, where they will bs coostantly watched 
and encouraged to employ ;:heir abilities in 
those kinds of labor for which they are best 
fitted. In this way society will be saved from 
the oonseqnenoe of the viclons instincts of these 
people. In many oases careful treatment will 
doubtless cure criminals of their disease and 
enable them to return to the world and become 
nseful citizens. In others, they will have to 
remain nnder survpillance during the whole of 
their lives. Oi course, men and women not 
afflicted with vicious tendencies at birth will 
still he subject to temptations, and the law 
will be obliged to Inflict penalties upon them 
for irregular prooeedings; but the large class 
of inveterate lawbreakers will be recognized 
as irresponsible for their ill-behavlor, just as 
people tfHicted with hereditary diseases are 
never blamed for misdeeds. 

Chanob of AcTiOiV Better than Rest. — 
A3 for Che feeling tbat we need rest, rest, rest, 
it is often a fallacious one. It is action which 
makea muscle. The spirit of life enters into us 
when we tske a vital part in to-day. Often we 
snff--r from rest. A change of oocapatlon is 
what we most need, as a rule, and the relief 
hours of an active person turn cat to be very 
intelligent, says a contemporary. We must 
rest, but we must not lose car electricity, which 
the will, the thought oan command at ail times, 
and which ought to be on guard like an orderly, 
to luinmon us when we should become alert. 
Headaches evaporate if we must exert ourselves 
for those we love, or we almost forget the pain, 
which is the same thing; and ill-temper cannot 
flonrish unless we have idleness in which to re- 
flect upon the motes belonging to some one else. 
With energy leading the way, ennni lifts from 
the horizon, and we see color and distance 
again. There are women who labor day by day 
in hunger and despair. It seems as if others 
might labor in comfort and health, Instead of 
sitting down to lassitude and sighs. — Ex 

RrsBER Foot Fever. — If a man has a corn, 
says ibu India Rubber World, It can be re- 
moved, but If he is aufl'ering from rubber foot 
fever, no chiropodist can help him, and the only 
thing to prescribe is liberal bathing of the feet 
and removal of the cause. Rubbers should only 
be worn to keep wet ont, and they should be 
removed the moment the wearer gets indoors. 
Fiilnre to note this gives a man wet feet in a 
far worse sense than If he had waded through 
mud ankle deep. It was the trouble resulting 
from forcing the perspiration to soak the stock- 
ings and keep the feet perpetually damp that 
drove rubber-!0led boots ont of the market. 
Even loose rubbers are a source of danger and 
the cause of many more aerloas colds than they 

Disease from Birds.— One of the latest dis- 
coveries of the Eotcncists is that the germs of 
yellow fever may be conveyed from tropical 
couDtties in the plumage of birds. 

A New Fire Extinguisher is composed of a 
mixture of water and liquid carbonic acid gas, 
which, upon being discharged through pipes at 
high pressnre, causes the rapid expansion of the 
gaa, converting the mixtare into a spray more 
or less frozen. 

Robert Bonner's Start in Life. 

"At the age of 15 I was an apprentice in the 
oflSoe of the Hartford Conrant. The first year 
I received $25 and was advanced $10 a year 
daring the fire years I remained in the office. 
The paper was printed In the morning. 
There was a railroad between New York and 
New Haven (this was from 1839 to 1844), but 
there was no railroad between Hartford and 
New Haven. The type of the newspaper was 
set up the previons day for the morning's 
paper, leaving a spaoe of foar or five inches for 
a postscript in case somebody's barn burned 
down, or there was a meeting of the Cammon 
Council. During the evening the editor would 
write np a few paragraphs to fill this space. 
Two men were in the habit of getting at the 
office in the morning at 4 o'clock, setting up 
this matter, and, at 5 o'clock, they would put 
the paper to press and work oS the edition. 
These men were paid a Yankee shilling (16} 
cents) an hoar. They arrived at the office at 4 
o'clock in the morning and worked extra time 
until seven. 

"As a boy, tbat was the only opportunity 
I had to get overwork. I was rather am- 
bitious and I would get up early and go to the 
office in the morning. I was not paid any- 
thing for it, but I wanted to see the men work 
at the press and so get some knowledge of the 

" One of the men would lay to me: Wont 
yoa go and get a pail of water T' I would 
answer : Yes, I will get a pail of water for 
yon if you will show me how to lock ap a 
form.' 'Robert will yoa wash that roller for 
me ?' ' Yes, if yoa will show me how to feed 
the press.' 

" When I was quite young I read two lines 
written by Ralph Waldo Emerson, and I can 
say that they have had their efi'ect on my char- 
acter all through life : ' Oh, discontented man, 
whatever you want pay the price and take it.' 
(He, of oonrse, referred to virtue and character 
more than to dollars.) I wanted to get a knowl- 
edge of the printing business, and 1 was willing 
to pay a price for the information, I would 
wash the roller for one, and for another get a 
pail of water at the pnmp outside on the side- 

" After awhile one of these men (Wildman 
was his name) was going to leave and go to his 
brother's office in New Haven; his brother was 
one of the publishers of the Palladium. The 
proprietor of the Courant said to him: * Henry, 
you cannot go until you get some one to take 
your place. You know that there is no one 
else but you that understands the press work.' 
Henry said to him: 'Robert understands it as 
well as I do.' The proprietor wanted to know 
how that could be, saying: 'He (Robert) never 
got any pay for doing such work.' Then Henry 
told him the circumstance of my being np there 
early every morning. 

" The proprietor then sent for me and asked 
me if I would like to have the job and get a 
shilling an hour for extra time? As a matter 
of course I was delighted. In that way I conld 
make about $3 a week overwork. That was a 
great deal more to me than $3000 a week is 

"Thia is the way I came to leave the Gourant 
office: I could set type and make up the forms. 
One day the foreman said to me, 'Come, Rob- 
ert, let us hurry np or we will be late.' Tnat 
was the first word of fault-finding that had 
ever been offered to me. I turned to him and 
said: 'Mr. Wetmore, 1 oan set more type than 
yon can, and make up the forms besides. I 
have done it every day.' I went down to the 
proprietor and complained of the foreman find- 
ing fault with me. I was very sensitive about 
the matter. He said: 'Oh, Robert, I know yon 
are all right; you musn't mind.' 

"After my apprenticeship expired I worked 
for eight weeks as a journeyman. The foreman 
spoke to me again about something. The real 
secret of it was that he was a little jealous oi 
me. I then went down stairs and Informed the 
proprietor that I would not work any longer in 
the office, and then left for New York. 

'In New York I was assistant foreman and 
proof reader on the Evening Mirror. Here I 
became invaluable for the taste with which I 
set np the headings for the news columns and 
display advertising. The editors would spe- 
cially request me to do the first kind of work 
and the publisher was so well satisfied with the 
manner in which I set up the advertisements 
that when he left the paper to go on the Mer- 
chants' Ledger he induced the proprietor of that 
jDurnal to employ me at $4 a week more than 
be was paying the man that be then had. 

"Any success that has come to me has been 
due largely to the fact that I have always en- 
deavored strictly to attend to business. Let 
me give an illustration: When I was a boy in a 
printer's office and it came along 3 or 4 o'clock 
in the afternoon, I would say to myself, sup- 
pose the proprietor should come up to where 
we are at work and say, 'Robert, what have 
yon been doing to-dayT' what would I answer? 
He never did such a thing, but I used to reason 
to myself, 'suppose he were to do it.' If I 
could not, with pride and pleasure, point to 
what I had been doing, I would paok up at 6 
o'clock and leave the place. 

"I consider that kind of spirit is an element 
of sucoess, and there is always room for young 
men who show that kind of disposition. The 
indolent boy who shiftlessly goes through his 
day's work will never reach the goal of snoceM. 
The yonth who is continually watching the olook, 
waiting antil it shall strike 6, and tries to 'kill 

time'— well, it will not be long before time will 
kill him, so far as business is concerned. 

"And the business man must not bend his 
energies so much to the making of money as to 
making a sncoeai of the enterprises in which he 
is engaged. While I bad worked at the prin- 
ter's trade in Hartford and New York I had 
managed to save a little money. The proprietor 
of the Merchantt' Ledger, on which I was em- 
ployed in New York, became interested in a 
new kind of printing press, and I waa able to 
buy the paper from him and eventually trans- 
formed it from a class or mercantile journal 
into a great family paper. I have told people 
that I did not try to make money, bnt I tried 
to make a sucoess of my business. The miser 
who wants to clutch on every dollar be can lay 
bis bands on would not say to a publisher, 'I 
will take your whole paper for adveitleing pur- 
poses next Saturday.' The miser or mere 
money-maker could not do that; he oonld not 
find It in his heart to part with the price of the 
advertising. You must spend money if you 
want to make money." — N. Y, Voict, 


" I have ju3t made me a new dress lor street wejr," 
writes Jean Hunt in the Housekeeper, " out of what was 
once a mode colored traveline suit. The dress wai 
rather the worse for wear, but I carefully ripped It up, 
washed, and dyed it navy blue with Diamond dyes. 
After careful pressing the goods were like new. 

" I made it up with new dress lining, bOLea, and braid, 
and tbe whole cost waa only one dollar and s xty cents. 
Any woman can do as well it she uses the Diamond dyes. 
I have used many of their colors, and if the goods are 
properly washed after dyeing, they will not crock a 
particle. These dyes are fast colors, and I have found 
them so from years of experience." 


A.Ancbie GQDDingham.F.C.S.&c, 


14 Chronicle Bnildine. 

San Francisco. 

Prof, of Chemistry Hahnemann Hospital College, S. F. 
Evening Classes in Theorttical and Practical Chemistry. 
iDstructioD also given by mail. Terms on application. 

School of Practical, Civil, Mechanical, 
Electrical and Mining Engineering, 

Surveying, Architecture, Drawing and Assaying, 
Open All Year. 
A. VAN DEK NAILLEN, President. 
Assaying of Ores, $3fi; Bullion and Chlorlnatlon Assay, 
$2S; Blowpipe Assay, $10. Full course of assaying, KO. 
ESTABLISHED 18M Send for circular. 

Bowens Academy, 

Vniverslty Ave., Berkeley. 


For Boys and Young Men. 
Special university preparation, depending not on time, 

but on progress in studies. 
T. S. BOWENS. M. A Head Mastar. 

A New and U.sefdl Machine. — Ooe of the 
most Interesting practical inventions lately put 
npon the market, is from a knitting machine 
manufactory In Dresden, Germany, the appa- 
ratus In some respeota resembling an ordinary 
knitting machine in its make ap. It can be 
readily employed as such both oo round and 
flat work, but is especially adapted for varie- 
gated patterns in their usual diversity. It is 
capable of working variegated patterns — oardi- 
gan stitch, pnrl cardigan, two-and-two rib, and 
embodies the peculiarities of a striping machine, 
producing in one piece of goods single, colored, 
etriped and many-colored patterns, without 
changing the machine itself. By the simple 
placing in or oat of the back thread In the 
slotted thread conductor, it is claimed any de- 
sired number of colors and shadea can be pro- 
duced, the effect being such as to give the im- 
pression that the patterns are the result of em- 


0. G. Knight, Sup't above farm, remsrlis, " I have used 
Quinn's Oiniment on Blood Spavin, Curbs and Windpufia 
with great satisfaction. I consider it has but few If any 
aquals." Trial box 26 cents, silver or stamps Kegular 
size $1.60 delivered. Address W. B. Eddy & Co., White- 
hall, N. Y. 


No vejietable ever introduced has created such a sen- 
sation as the Mansfield Tree Tomato. 

It grows to a height of 12 or 14 feet and produces fine 
large fruit of a most delicious flivor. Many of the 
tomatoes weigh over three pounds each. The Tree 
Tomato is ornamental, and being useful as well, should 
be grown by every one. The true seed is baing offered 
in this issue by L. L. May & Co , St. Paul, Minn., wMo 
are headquarters for It. This firm is giv ng away 
$S,000.00 worth of valuable premiums this year and no 
one should fail to accept their offer and secure a pre- 
mium list, catalogue and package of this seed. 


24 POST ST., S. P. 

Collei;e Instructs In Shorthand, Typewriting, Book- 
keeping. Telegraphy, Penmanship, Drawing, all the 
I English branches, and everything pertaining to business 
for six full months. We have sixteen teachers, and give 
Individual instruction to all our pupils. Our school has 
its graduates in every part of the State. 
or Sbnd for CiacDLAa. 

E. P. HEALD, President. 

C. a HALEY, Secretary. 

Ditson 's 



Music Books. 

Ne Plus Ultra Piano Collection. 

ISO pages Brilliant but ea»y pi' ces. 

Ne Plus Ultra Ballad Collection. 

160 pa^es. Latest and best sung^ 

Nc Plus Ultra Sojiq and Chorus Collection. 

Eich song has » i inning chorus. 

Ne Plus Ultra Dance Collection. 

Every style ol dance music; not difBcolt. 
All these bookH are large sheet mnslo slae. 




Chicn(To, IlL 
I was confined to bed ; could not 
walk from lame back; suffered 5 
months; doctors did not help; 2 
bottles of 


cured me. No return in 5 years. FRANCIS M AURER. 


Stockton -Fresno Business College. 

CD § 
O C» 

CO z 




TnltlOD One Year (5« Weeks), fTB. 
Sixteen Regvdar Teachers and Over Three Hundred Studeots attending. Courses Thorough, Rates Lowest 
instruction the Best, and School the Most Reliable. Address W. O. BAM8BT. 

Jan. 16, 1892] 



Paciic Irsery. 


Fruit Trees, Olives, Grapes, 

Ornamental Trees and Plants, 

Roses, Magrnollas, Palms. 


'Azaleas Indica and Mollis;, 

Camellias and Rhododendron, 

Send for New Price Lii-t. 
Baker and Lombard Streets, San Franrlgco, 

100,000 EXTRA PIjnE 


Apple, Pear, Plum, Cherry. Peach, Apricot, 
Nectarine, Quince. Grape Vines 
and Small Fruits. 

500,000 FRUIT TREES. 

Orange, Lemon, Lime, Olive, Japan Persim- 
mon, and all binds of Nut-Bej.rlnK 
Trees. Sbade and Ornamental 
Trees, Shrubs, Ktc. 


Ask for Prices. 

James T. Bogue, Marysvilie, Cal. 







Pomona, Los Angeles County, Oal. 

Write and get Prices. 



Price List mailed free. Address 






Prices and a Paiplilet oa tbe Olive Mailed Free. 


John S. Calkins' Nurseries. 

Pomona, Lo8 Angeles Co., Cat. 



ALFRED WRIGHT, Pomona, Cal. 

p. O. Box 382. 
Uanzanlllo and Nevadillo Blanco Trees, 

One and Two Years Old. 
Every tree warranted true to label and free from scale. 
All orders will be carefully packed and delivered at S. P. 
Depot, Pomona, and Santa Fe, North Pomona, without 
extra charge. 


Texas Thia Shell 


Growinir the Texas Thin 
Shell Pecjn pajs better 
than Banl<lng, Re%\ Estate, 
Bonds or Stocks. One acre 
earns more than 10 acres 
most farm products. 
Send for f^irnular. 

Pacific H eights N ursery 

Nurserymen and Florists, Attention ! 

We have on hand and constantly arriving from Japrin 
and Cbioa: 

Camf>lllas, Azaleas, Iri* Kaempferl (over 150 
varieties), Ferns, Palms, Cycag Revoluta, Zamirt, 
Japan Orange, Pergimmon and other Prnlt 
Trees, LlUleg, Nerine Japonlca, Ohryganthe- 
mnms. New and Rare Evergrren and De- 
cldnoag Treeg, New and Bare Plants, Shrnb 
and Palm Seeds. 

AH plants acclimated. Send us your Business Card 
and we will quote Trade Prices for 1000, 100, 10 or single 


9X2B Jackson Street, 

San Francisco, Cal. 


Citrus Fruit Trees ! 

LEMONS— Eureka, Villa Franca, Lisbon and Sicily. 
ORANGE— Washington Navels, Mediterranean Sweet, 

St. Michaels Blood, &c.. Mandarin and Tangeriene. 
OLITES — Mission and the Foreign Varieties— Spanish 

Italian and French. 

With the largest collection of TROPICAL FRUIT 
TREES AND PALMS in the State. 
Send for Catalogue and Prica List to 


Hanta Barbara, Cal. 



We h a\ e the Largest Colle ction 

— OF— 

Frnits, Palms, Ferns. 

Economic Plants, 


From the FOUR CORNERS of the Karth, grown for 
sale in the U. S. No nursery like ours. Supply Cua- 
totnnrg all over the Whole Wor <l, by MAIL, 


Established 1883. 





HULBERT ft FITZGERALD, Proprietors, 

Growers and Dealers in 


Salesyard, Cor. Sd and Davis Sts. 

Please send for Price Lists. 

211 Third St., Santa Rosa, Sonoma Co., Cal, 


# SEEDS ^ 

P ' ; SEND TO, ---"^^^^ 







Cataloffues l^cat Free on Application. 

W.W. BARNARD & CO., Chicago, 111. 

Successors to IIIHAM SIBLBY Si CO. 



Dieman " Pf can, soft shell, grown by Col. Stuart. 
The Quest and lariie^t pecans grown. For terms, address 
MRS. J. HUTCHINSON, Fillmore, Ventura Co., Cal. 


ROOT Trees; see "Fruits andj^ 
Fralt Trees"— rrc«'. Ame 

Tezaa Pecan & Seed Co. , Fort Worth, Texas, 

Oiirdtns&ya. Novel, USEFUL, to the point. Ortiruff Juitdy 
rririm r: Ably written; gives trusty INFORMATION. (,'a^.( 
i')-uil Orotcer: Surprising LOW pricesl Apple. Pear.Cher-i 
ry, Plum, PKUNE, Peach, Ap't. Quince. Nut, Or. Trees, Grafts," 
ROSER—everijIhijii/. No larger stock in U S. No BETTER. VlX 
No cheaper. STARK BROS.,tCth St., Loiusiana,AY 
BZo.— Fooadea OLDEST. 1000 Aoru; LABaEBX AO 



French Prunes on Myrobolan, Peach and Aim nd 
Rrots; Early Crawford, Foster, Muir, Mary's Choice, anil 
Picque't'-i Late Peaches; Ap les, Chi-rrics, Fiss, i>nd 
everj thing in the nursery line Strictly firat class. 
Prices I'w. Correspondence solicited. Address 



Fine Small Fruits a Specialty. 


and luscious, stands travel finely, bears immens ly, 
and has two crops a year; 60 cents per d'izen; $3 per 100. 
Also Strawberries, blackberries, Gooseberries, Currants, 
etc., of the finest imported varieties. Prices on applica- 
tion. L. U. MoCANN, Santa Vrnz Cal. 

The^" Sower has^ 
No Second Chance. 


' have made and kept Ferry's Seed Business 
the largest in the world — Merit Tell 

Ferry's Seed Annual for 1892 

tells the whole Seed story — Sent free for the 
asking. Dou't sow Seeds till you get it. 

^D.M.FERRY&CO-,P etroit,Mich ^ 



Upon iK c ipt (if ■'ii-. in sf.lmj.s I will 
111,1 il lOihll, n iitl'liira. (nivseli'.Tion) 
nl inyi lu.H « .\ itrthei'il Oi owriFiirm 

I am the larei-xt (rrower of Farm Seeils in 
Atiierica— I nial;e tlii..; my specialty. Cultivate 
S.OOO Acres. Wonderful Wlieat, 
Oati., Barley, Patato&Clrass.<i»nrt« 
Ho more hard times if von plant Iheni. 
bend ;ic. for line Seed Catalog with , 
lonr colored plate..^, or Catalog and 
10 riiKN. Farm Seeds, 13c. 


This Kiner of Ornamentitl Plants, tlie Weeping or 
Filifera Palm, is stately and heautif ul beyond descrip- 
tion. It can be grown in any window as easily ns a 
Ueranium, and is a superb addition to any collection 
of plants. It is of a compact growth, with elegant 
large fan-shaped leaves from which hang long- 
thread-like tllaments giving the plant a most odd and 
beautiful appeai iuu-e. In tnct. there is nothing like iti 
in cultivation, and good specimens sell for enormous 
prices. Plants are easily raised, as the seeds are large, 
germinate quickly and grow rapidly. It is a plant 
whose grandeur an<l beiiuty will surprise yon. For 
5 Seeds of this lovely WEEPING FILIFERA PALM. 

1 pkt. JAPAN NEST EGG GOURD. Curious and valuable, 

1 pkt. SNOW aUEEN PANSY, pure satiny white. 


2 bulb OXALIS, white and pink. Splendid free bloomers. 

1 bulb CHARMING FAIRY LILY, and our Superb 
Bronze Blue Catalogue of 152 pages and 7 magnifi- 
cent large colored plates, and sample copy of the 
MAYFLOWER with grand colored plate. 
It' you already liiive our Cntaloeuo for 1893 uny 
no, niid we willficiid i»oinethiitir elne iiiittcud. These 
rare bulbs and seeds (worth $125) will ail flower this 
season, and we send them for 30c»% only to introduce 
our superior stock. Get your neighbors to send with 
you, and we will send four of these collections fortjll. 
4>rder nt once, an thin offer may not appear again. 

Our Bronze-Blue Catalogue for 1892 

(A superb wm ic ot ai t priiil rd in Pronze Blue) of 
PLANTS, AM> ItAUK FKl'ITS, is the finest ever 
issued. 1.32 pages, hundreds of elegant engravings, 
Stipple Lithograph Covers and 7 large colored plates. 
We offer the finest novelties in Flowers, Vegetables 
and Fruits, notably : Our great Jaiianese Wineberry, 
ButterHy Orchid, Star Phloxes, Water Plants, New 
Roses, Dalilias, Gladiolus, Chrysanthemums, etc. 
Also the greatest collection of rare Cacti and Flower- 
( ing shrubs. This elegant Catalogue will be sent for 
I ao cetiitt^ or if you order the articles here offered it 
i will be sent FREE. Wo want agents in every town to 
I cake subscribers for our beautiful l^Ionthly Horticul- 
1 tural Paper (24 pages). THE BIAYFroWEK, 5()c. per year, 
i Liberal premiums. Sample copy I ree, Address 


j Apple, Pear, Plum, Ktc. 

Peach, Apricot, Ktc. 




Complete Assortment. 

Order now for Spring Planting. 


PHOJNIX, Nur.'seryman, 


If you want Pur'F.r'h CAUC 

Sr-dKCIie.ip, direct from UH W C 
growers, send for our R'lniii/nl 
in„.\i Citt.ilosiu- mailed Free. 
Pkt's only 2 and 3 cts. Ihirkel 

W/tofcatf Price Ll^t. MONEY 

rnuil I riktwi lan, dormant two buds on each 
stock; French Prune and Peaches on Peach, 1-2 feet high, 
J6 ^ 100, S50 ^ lOOO; also Apples, 2-4 feet, standard vati- 
el iee; Bart'ett, Pears, 2 years, cheap. For simples address 
NURSERYMAN, P. O. B. 353, Sa rarnento. Cal. 

Alfalfa, Grass. Clover. Vegetable. Flower and 

Seeds of every variety. Trees and Nursery Stock. B F. 
WBXLINOTON, 425 Washington St.. San Francisco, Cal. 


It contairs description and price of GrasP, Clover and Field SEEDS, Australian Tr e and Shrub 
.SEEDS. Native California Tree, Shrub and Fkwer .«EBD.S (the largest ahsortmcnt of Vegetable and 
Flower .sEEuS, offered in the United States), new varieties of Forage Plants, Grasses and Clovers 
especially recommentJed for the Pacifiu Coast. Holland, Japan and California Bulbs Large assortment 
of Palm SEEDS, new and rare Plants, new Fruit. Our stock of Fruit Trees consists of the besl varieties 
of Prune, Plum, Apricot, Apple, Peach, Cherry, Olive, Fig and Nut Trees, Grape Vines and Small Fruits. 



Successors to THOMAS A. COX & CO., 

S S DE3 I> S IVC 3Nr, 

411, 413 & 415 Sansome St., 

San Francisco , Oal. 

s ! KANSAS S^ED HOUSE, Lawrence, Kan. 

ooS. ^eaJcll■.n^ter;^^(lr Air;iiri'.,.Iapan am\ Espcrsette Clover. Jerusalem and KafBr 
" SaCnrn Wllo Miil/c, Dourliii Cano im.l JliUct Scod; .lohnson, llermuda.and Tex. 
?■ S Blue'CrasiSci-cl Knnsns Stock J!i'lori3. Tree Seeds for Nurseries and Timber 

° f Catatowlis Mailed FREE. BAKTliLlHiB & CO., Lawrence, Kan. 

Seeds, Planis, Etc., Continued on Pages 65, 66 and 67, 


f ACIFie f?.URAlo PRESS. 

IJa». 16, 1892 




luctudintr the 




A Great Advantaged and Convenience. 

Also the 


Barrel Churns. 

Hade of sielected Oak 

Perfectly finished Inside 
and Out. A Gener»l Fav- 
orite Everywhere. Also 

Printers & Molds. 

Sand for Catalogue of Im 
Jroved Dairy Machinery. 



840 N. Uaia St., Los Aoireles. Ul Front St., Portland. 

PorteoDsImproYed Scraper 

Patented April 3, 1883. Patented April 17, 18S3. 

60 centB on the dollar. Button-hole twist, assorted 
assorted (3 black;, 03 cents dozen. Ladies' handkei 

f^tock-taklna: laH week has turned up a good many bar- 
g%i'8 where we have too much ^oods of a kind, or too little 
to keep it on the reg:ular ll:t, or out ol style and reduced to 
dote them out. 

Our stock must be kept all 0. K., at whatever sacriflce. 
1891 ?oo l8 and oversto'-k must give »av to n' w stock. 

Over 100,000 Blood's, Turney's, Warren's, or Baylis' best 
sewin); necdiFS at 2^ cents a pap:'r, 40 for $1.00. all a zes ex- 
cept 6; also 4 to 8, 1 to 6, 6 to 10, and 3 to 9 mixed darners or 
} am needles at same price. 

Lar.e or bmall coat, dre'e or other buttons, real value Is 
from IS centH to tl.OO per dozen, go now at 2i, 6, 10 per 
dozen, or 25 to 35 per gross, assorted to suit. Mostly black, 
late styles, but we have over 2000 gross an J shall let them go 
at anv price 

SWISS embroidery, 2, 2J, 3. .SJ inch edging, beautiful and 
cosily, has suld at 25 to 50 now 12^ cenis, and ua row ones at 
6 cent". Fancy linen splashers (3am,jles) and other linens at 
(8 black), 25 in a b x at 37 cents. Sewing siU, KO yard spools, 
chiefs, several 100 dozen at one-bait price, tine goods. 

10,000 articles we have not room to tell about. Order a few by mail or expresss if not ready for a large order 
by freight. Add for postage. Ask fur complete list. Address 






P&B Fruit Drying Paper. 


Manufactured by G. IISSENDEN. 

The attention cf I he public is cal'ed to this Scraper 
and the many varieties of work of which It is capable, 
such as R<llroad Work, Irrigation Ditches, Levee Baild^ 
lug. Leveling Land, Road Making, etc. 

This implement will .ake up snd carry Its load to any 
desire'l distance. It will distribute the dirt evenly or 
depo«it its load in bulk as desired. It will do the work 
of Scraptr, Grader, and Carrier. Thousands of these 
Scrapers are in use In all parts of the country. 

lar This Semper is all steel— the only one manufac- 
tured in the State. 

Price, all Steel, four-horse, • tO ; Steel two-horse, $3 1 
Address all orders to O. LISSENDKN, Stockton. 






Commission Merct^ants 



Qreen and Dried Fruits, 
Grain, Wool, Hides, Beans and Potatoes. 

Advances made on OonaigrnmeDts. 
308 A 310 Davis St., San Francisco 

[P. O. Box 1986.) 
JVConalgnmente Solicited. 


501, 60S, 505, 607 St 609 Front St., 
And 300 Washington St., SAN FRANCISCO. 







General Commission Mercliants, 

310 California St., S. P. 
Uembers of the San Francisco Produce Exchange. 

iVPer^onal atte;.tion given to sales and liberal advanoM 
made on cnn'ignments at low rates (f interest. 


Tbe Be»t. Slmpleat and Cbeapeftt Conpllnff for Tanic 

A sufficient lap of boop renders it UQnecePBvtry to r>vet tli>- houp It nili tit ibe ciiclu of auy tuiik, rt.^ardiL'Si uf oiiio. 

Made in sizes to fit any width of iron 
Prices. 91.00 (o 91-30 per Pair. For sale lo the trade, l^iberal dlseoont Id quantities. 




GominissioQ MercliaQts. 



413. 416 Ai 417 Washington St., 
(P. O. Box 2099.) SAN FRANCISCO. 


Nentl for C'alaloeue. 


■^^&%5i|or Prices 




Notary Publia 



Ko. SSO California Street, ' 

T<ll»p^>'^^■» Vn. iT^c. atK pnAvcTqon cat 

Engraving .SS 

Superior Wood and Metal EnfraT- 
Inc, Eleotrotrpinf and StereotrnlDi 
'doas *l tbs oSof of Ihk papai. 


To Scale Bug and all 
Insect Pests. 

Now is the time to effectnally cruard your 
Fniit Trees against the visita'ion of all 
INSECT PESTS by spraying thtm with the 

Ongerth Liquid Tree Protector, 

The only effectual remedy in the market. 
Indorsed \>y the University of California. 
Send for circular with tebtimonials to 

Ongertli GraftiDg Coiponnil Co, 

812 Davis Street, 






89 Olay Btruet ana tia Oommerolal StrMt 
lAi FaAHOisoe, Cal, 

BDann J. Ormokt. [Kstablished 186a.J Fsahe Ormort. 


Commission Merchants, 


126 and 128 J St., - Sacramento, Cal, 

San Franoisoo Office, 813 Dnvla 8t. 



And Dealers In Fruit, Prodace, Poultry, Game, %ngt 
Hides, PeltB, Tallow, etc., «2S Front St., and SSi, ns 
MSanH M7 W«ihlniffon It , '^an Fraodsco ' 


We carry a large variety of Spray Pampg. 

Our CELEBRATED CHAMPION excels all others. 

We also have the Eureka, Gould'a Star and 
CUmaz Spray Pumps. 

Send (or Spray Pump Catalo^e, mailed free. 


813 & 314 Marfcbt f-t., San Francisco. Oal. 

Whitewashing Machines STree Cleansers. 

Coniplettt OntfltH at prices from $3 to $50. 

The Pumps are all BRA.SS, with BRASS AN1> RUBBKK VALVES. 

For Orchardists, Florists, Stockmen, Poultry Raisers 


Pump Bi nt comph te as in cut (or $14. Send for Illustrated Catalogue. 


nontr»«<t« fi>k»a tnr T.Rreo .To»>» of Whl«:*wuhtnr. 


I. farni, by a married man with five years experience 
ingro-uigandpjckinKraUlns. W,fe can take charge 
of packing ('cpartment, belni: a firs'-clafs pacVer Pr<( r 
lakine position January 1, 1S92, but can come at any 
tmie de>.ired. Best ot reference given as to capacit/ 
mi^' P»rtioulars, address C. N., Box A 

Second Edition 

- — — • A« w n H » ^ Mm 1 ■ • 


yiovt Ready. 

y Prof. Edward 
A ., , \. . ' r F .» Wick<on. 

Aprnctlcal, eiplicit and comprihcusive book enibodyli K 
the oiperlince and nietho<is nf hunilreda of fucceasfiil 
growers, and constilutinK a trustworthy g lide by which ihe 
itiejpi;rienccd may successfiilh p'otluct the (ruiti f r whiih 
California la f . room 600 pagea. Fully ilMntrate I. Prlc««3 

Publlaheri, 230 Market Street, Ban Franeisoo, Cal 


lDCorp<>rated April, 1S74. 

Authorised Capital 91,000.000 

Capital paid up and Reaerve Fond 800.000 
OlTldenda paid to Htockholderi. . . 675,000 


A. D. LOGAN President 

I. C. STEELE Vice-Pre>ident 

ALBERT MONTPELUER Cashier and Uanaser 


General Banking Deposits received, Ooid and Silver 
Bills of Exching- tonght and sold. Loans on wheat and 
country produce a epeolalty. 

Jannarv 1. 1S91 A MONTPItr.T.reR. Kanairer 

On ■ II P r A practical treatise oy T. A. OiBn 
n H H U C. I?l^>"7 th" results ot long experi- 
ence in Sonthern C.'llfomU. IM 

CULTURE ^"''-^^^^i?*^^^:^ 

WWb* Milk DBWEY PUB.oa,!«!101Iark«t,.aF 

Jan. 16, 1892.] 



Dairy Progress at the North. 

There is probably no aectlon of the North- 
west more preeminently adapted to dairying 
purposes th»n the rich, fertile valleys of West- 
ern Washington. The climata and general 
topography of the oonntry seems designed for 
this purpose to » marked degree. The mild, 
open winters, coupled with the abundant range 
and luxuriant growth of grasses of all kinds, 
makes Wahkiakum county the ideal dairyman's 

In dairying, as In everything else, the most 
Improved labor-saving machinery that can be 
devised must be used in order to secure the 
highest Quality of product with a minimum of 
labor. The old system of constructing a large 
milk room, with innuooerable flat-bottomed 
pans^ placed around on shelves to allow the 
cream to rise in due season, and then be 
skimmed in a haphazard and wasteful manner, 
has been changed, and the housewife's labor 
materially reduced. The pan era in butter- 
making has gone and the separator age has 
taken its plaoe. It has been demonstrated to 
a certainty that butter made by a first class 
separator will produce a better article, and 
keep fresh longer than when made under the 
old plan. This is accounted for from the fact 
that all the impurities in the milk are carefully 
eliminated from the cream while undergoing 
the separating process. Another desirable fea- 
ture in this improved method of butter-making 
that is worthy of consideration consists in be- 
ing able to pass the milk directly through the 
separator after milking, and feeding while 
warm to young stock, which derive greater nour- 
ishment than when fed cold. Of late our 
prominent dairymen have come to the conolu- 
aion that the introduction of improved ma- 
chinery would not only lessen their labors bnt 
enhance the quality of their product, so as to 
secure the highest market price. 

A Oazelte reporter interviewed the three gen- 
tlemen in the county who use DeLa'val sep- 
arators in their dairies, in order to learn what 
they thought of these machines. The first 
man seen was Judge Baal, who said: 

" When 1 purchased the town site of Athens, 
it included a large dairy. Among the fixtures 
was a D<:Laval separator. I found from a by- 
gento standpoint it was a treasure, as it elim- 
inatea all the Impurities by centrifugal force." 

The next man Interviewed was Jacob Wilson, 
one of the old, successful dairymen of Skamo- 
kawa, who said: 

" I would not be without a DaLaval sep- 
arator for double the prioe of the machine, as 
it saves me about two hours work per day, and 
I think makes more butter to the same quan- 
tity of milk." 

A. J. Constable, of the West Valley, Ska- 
mokawa, who has a large dairy and uses a Da 
Ltval separator, said: 

" It performs more than I expected. It does 
good work, saves labor and makes better butter 
than I oan make by setting in pans," 

Wahkiakum county butter has always sold 
at the highest price in the market, and is noted 
for its pnrlty and excellence, and our dairymen 
would do well to maintain this high standard 
by surrounding themselves with all the modern 
adjuncts now used in the business. — Calhlamet 

Retain the Indian Names. — There should 
be a revision of many of the names of rivers, 
mountains, valleys, etc., in California. The 
outlandish names which have found their way 
by means of the early comers into this State, 
into our maps and books and talk, should be 
laid aside and a new nomenclature adopted, 
better suited to onr present and future civiliza- 
tion, There are many names now in nse 
which are unfit to be spoken or printed. We 
could probably do no better than to adopt the 
old Indian names. Whatever may have been 
the lack of taste and civilization in the aborig- 
ines of this State, and the entire country in 
fact, in their modes of life, they were certainly 
far in advance of the present inhabitants in 
their taste for nomenclature. Many of the 
names they employed may be lacking in 
euphony to Eaglish ears, bat they all had 
either a beautiful or most signifioant appro- 
priateness of meaning to the localities to which 
they were applied. The State of Georgia, 
more than any other State of the Union has re- 
tained the Indian names of its rivers and most 
of them have a musical sound, as, for example, 
the Oomulgee, the Ohopee, the Ogeeohee, the 
Cannonchee, the Ooonee, the Chattahoochee, 
Saltilla, the Altamaha aqd others. These ex 
•mplea might be multiplied indefinitely. 

Cox's Seed Annual. 

The Cox Seed and Plant Co, have just issued 
their Seed Annual for 1892, a handsome publi 
oation of 75 pages, closely printed and fully 
illustrated. The publication has many marks 
of progressiveness and enterprise, and the 
offering includes many interesting novelties, 
The firm handles all kinds of field, forest 
garden and flower seeds; also a full line of nur- 
sery trees, horticultural books and supplies, 
etc. Their large store at 411 to 415 Sansome 
street is well worth a visit, but distant planters 
oan get a good idea of the stock by sending for 
their " Seed Annual," 

Root Knots and Their Treatment. 

Campbell, Gal,, Jan. 11. 
To THE Editor :— The Campbell Horticul- 
tural Society held its regular monthly meet- 
ing at Campbell on Saturday evening, Jan. 
9tb. After transacting routine business, Col. 
E. P. McGlincy, President of the Society, 
called the attention of the members to a root 
covered with knots, which for want of a better 
name here is called black knot. The root was 
almond, upon which French prune had been 
grafted. There were probably a half dczan of 
these knots, and when first discovered, it was 
supposed that they were only to be found up- 
on myrobolan root, but examination of the or- 
chards show that almond, myrobolan, peach, 
walnut, chestnut and other varieties of root are 
affected. The knot can be removed with a 
sharp knife, but in all cases where they have 
been removed, they grow out again the next 
year. The inside of the knot is soft and 
spongy, and has the appearance of being rotten. 
We wish to know whether they are fatal to 
the trees. Some contend that they are, while 
others say not. In one or two oases where the 
trees are affected, the owner has dug them up. 
Does the Fbbss think this advisable ? Some of 
our orohardists say the knot is caused by a 
worm, and that the tree will not outgrow the 

Will the Pbess give us all the Information it 
can on the subject — cause, cure and effect upon 
the trees. So far, these knots have only ap- 
peared on young trees from one to four years 

At the next monthly meeting, we are to dis- 
cuss the question of "Marketing Fruit," and 
we look for some interesting remarks on that 

Oan any reader of the Press tell whethor any 
kind of a waih has been discovered that will 
destroy peach borers— that is, if the wash be 
placed around the body of the tree at or near 
its base ? 

We are eeekiog for knowledge, and hope 
some of our experienced horticulturists will un- 
bosom themselves. Uno. 

We shall be pleased to hear from readers on 
these subjects. 

Concerning the root knots mentioned, it may 
be said that their cause has not been demon- 
strated. Knots are formed by nematode worms, 
but t' ey are not the knots which are most com- 
monly seen in this State, which do nS'l have 
such origin. We have submitted ample speci- 
mens to specialists on nematodes at the Eist, 
and this is their verdict. 

These knots lometimes kill the trees, and 
sometimes they do not. Nursery stock with 
such roots should be burned, and nowadays it is 
usually burned — at least, by all nurserymen who 
are endowed with consciences. If young trees 
develop so much knot that the growth is notably 
lessened, we should pull out the tree and plant 
a healthy one. If knots have formed, but not 
in BufiScient extent to interfere with a good 
season's growth of the tree, we should pare off 
the knots clean and paint the wound. If trees 
have grown several years in orchard, and make 
good growth and bear well, we should do the 
same. It is known that trees which have borne 
for a long time, and have not been suspected of 
root knots, have been taken out for some reason 
and have been found with roots infested 
throughout with these excrescences. 

The above is in part personal observation and 
In part hearsay of the experience of others. It 
is a course the writer would adopt with his own 
trees. It Is not altogether satisfactory, Uotil 
it can be demonstrated what is the cacee of 
this diseased growth, a course of treatment oan 
hardly be rationally prescribed. 

Instruction in Entomology, — Both our 
great universities are doing good work In edu- 
cating students in entomology. At the State 
University, Mr. Woodworth has large olassas, 
and the interest in class work and field work 
is very gratifying. Some students will engage 
in horticulture, others are educating themselves 
for teaching entomology in the public schools. 
Public interest will pertain also to the an- 
nouncement of instruction in entomology at the 
Stanford University, which is made in another 
column of this issue. It will there be seen 
that Prof, Comstook, who has been doing such 
grand work at the Oornell University for a de- 
cade or more, will be this winter at Palo Alto. 
Prof. Comstock's services to this State while 
he was Eatomologist of the Department of Ag- 
riculture in 1880-81 will never be forgotten. 
He laid the foundation of accurate khowledge 
of our scale insect* upon which all our subse- 
quent progress has rested. Prof, Comstock 
will receive a warm welcome, and we hope he 
may attend our horticultural meetings as sup- 
plementary to his work at Palo Alto. 

Rain-Makers at Tulare. — It is reported 
that three of the Eastern school of rain-makers 
are at Tulare, and are under oontraot to pro- 
duce 3^ inches of rain In as many days for as 
many thousand dollars — no rain, no pay. 

A California Method of Egg 

During the late poultry show in Petalnma, 
which reflected much credit upon everyone 
who had anything to do with its management, 
one of the novelties which it brought forth 
was known to very few people. 

Dr. E. T. Bnrnette of Haywards has in- 
vented and patented a new and entirely original 
process for preserving the freshness and 
fertility of the fruit of the feathered tribe. 
He claims that by his process eggs may be pre- 
served for a period of eighteen months and 
their freshness and fertility kept in'.act. Dr. 
Burnette came up to our poultry show, bring- 
ing several dozen of bis treated eggs with him. 
They were packed in small pasteboard boxe^, 
bearing the affirmation and seal of a notary 
public who testified that they had been packed 
in his presence and sealed by him on the ISth 
of last May. 

The eggs were very carefully examined and 
tested by Messrs. Byce, Armstrong and a num- 
ber of other gentlemen, who were unable ti 
detect in them any difference from eggs laid 
the same day in the coops at the exhibition. 
The appearance was exactly the same, both as 
to shell and contents, and the taste was that 
of a perfectly fresh egg. 

In order to put the fertility of the eggs to a 
crucial test, Mr. Byce was given "a setting " 
of the eggs — in the origiual sealed packages, 
to keep three months longer and then put in- 
to one of his incubators for batching. They 
will be "set " March 10, by which time they 
will ba about ten months old. If even any con- 
siderable proportion of the eggs hatch, it will 
clearly demonstrate that a most wonderful and 
valuable new discovery has been made in the 
line of practical science, and the experiment 
will b^ watched with intense interest by a 
great many people, 

A process which should perfectly preserve 
the virtues of eggs for even three months 
would be of enormous bencfii:. If they can be 
preserved for ten months or a year, who can 
estimate the ailvantage which the new dis- 
covery shall confer upon the poultry interests ? 
Pelaluma Imprint. 

List of D. S. Patents for Pacific Coast 

Beported by Dewey & Co., Pioneer Patent 
Solicitors for Pacific Coast. 


466,319.— Glove Fastener— Wm. H. Bell, 
S. F. 

466.453. — Fruit-Cutting Machine — John 
Burns, Los Angeles, Cal. 

466,521.— Pipe Coupling — Wm. L. Fitt?, San 
Jose, Cal. 

466.674. — Weed Puller— Gatgens & Dowdin, 
Central Houre, Cal. 

466.675. — Vehicle Spring Brace -S. J. Gra 
ham, ColviUe, Wash. 

466,538.— Vehicle Spring -J. Heilratb, Ply- 
mouth, Ca\. 

466,526.— Gi;ain Agitator for Separator 
Shoes— C A. Kellev, Ripon, Cal. 

466,716. — Thill-Coupling— L. C. Rasroussen, 
S. F. 

466,378. — Ironing Table— G. N. Simra-ns 
Santa Cruz, Cal. 

466,471. — Co^DulT for Electric Railway.s, 
C. P. Tatro, Spokane. Wash. 

466,731. — Power Mechanism— G. O Vernon, 
Albany. Or. 

2r, 286.— Design for Water-Wheel Casing, 
A. P. Brayton Jr., S. F. 

The following brief list by telegraph, for Jan. 12, 
will appear more complete on receipt of mail advices 

Charles Buckner, San Francisco, zither; James J. 
CuUey, Sau Fraucisco, cuff holder; Robert H. Dixou, 
Santa Rosa, pruning implement; C. F. Oillett, Cotvallis, 
Oregon, potato planter; Samuel N. Goldy, Sau Francisco 
sash balance; Andrews. Hallidic, San Francisco, clip for 
rope tramways; Emery I. Nicholp, San Francisco, pulver- 
izing mill; r U. Elesphar and A Renard, Chebalis 
Wash., stump extractor; John R.Russell, San Francisco 
ore feeder; Augustus E. ScharfF, Tacoma, Wash., brake 
for children's carriage. 

NoiB.— Copies of U. S. and Foreign patents furnished 
by Dewey & Co. , In the shortest time possible (by mail 
for telegraphic order). American and Foreign patents 
obtained, and general patent business for Pacific Coast 
Inventors transacted with perfect security, at reasonable 
rates, and in the shortest possible time. 

Remarkable Skill at Stone "I hkowing — It 
is supposed that we have no men nowadays who 
could compete on even terms with the old arob- 
ers, A man named Uri Bailey, recently died 
in Pennsylvania, who was worthy of a place 
with the old-time soldiers, His skill in throw 
ing stones was said to be marvelous. He was 
mentally deficient, bnt a giant physically 
His aim with stones at any mark or game was 
as nnerring as that of the most skillful handler 
of the rifle. He annually bagged scores of 
small game, pheasants, rabbits, quails and 
squirrels, which he killed with stones. He 
oould kill a bird on the wing or a rabbit at 
full speed almost as easily as he oould kill it at 
rest. He had a large leather pouch attached 
to one side of his coat, on which he on all occa 
sions carried a good supply of carefully selected 
stones. An exhibition of his skill which was 
always a favorite with him, waa to set np a 
scythe blade, edge toward him, and at the die 
tanoe of 100 feet cut apples In halves by throwing 
them against the edge of the blade. He oould 
almost exactly halve two out of every three ap 
pies he threw, Robin Hood's great feat of 
skill was to set up a peeled sapling at a con 
slderable distance and split it with an arrow 
We do not see that this it more difficult than 
splitting the apple the aoythe blade, — Ex. 

A Typical Editor Gone. 

Elijah Porter, founder, in 1841, of the Wet 
field (Mass.) News Letter, died recently in 
Cambridgeport, in that State, at the residecce 
of his son. Linn Boyd Porter, known as "Al- 
bert Ross," the novelist. E. M. Wsite, nephew 
of Mr. Porter of Salem, Oregon, E. M. Dewey 
of Tulare, Cal., and A. T. Dawey of San Fran- 
oisco are among Mr, Porter's apprentices to the 
art preservative, the latter following Mr. 
Walte in the office in 1850, and to this coast in 
1856. Asahel Bush, the wealthy Oregon 
banker and founder of the Daily Statesman, in 
Salem, while quite young, published the Stand, 
ard, a Bamocratlc competitor of Mr. Poner's 
whig paper, ''Old Westfield " was a Demo* 
cratic town, "two to one," but owing to the 
newsy style of Bro. Porter's "make up," the 
News Letter well distanced its local cotempora- 
ries in circulation, until in the "Know Noth* 
ing " excitement of 1854. Then, the Wide 
Awake American, started by Dewey Brothers, 
attained a subscription list of over 2000, when 
the paper was moved to Springfield, changed to 
the Independent American, and finally merged 
with the Daily American, published by D. F. 

Elijah Porter was one of the truest, noblest- 
hearted and best-knnwu men Westtisld was 
ever blessed with. He waa ever true to hit 
family, his friends, bis town, his country and 
mankind. All those who knew him aright 
both loved and respected him. We would 
honor his name as our early benefactor, and 
sincerely sympathize with those who mourn his 
departure into, we trust, a batter and happier 
state. A, T. D. 

A CuEious Mineral,— Quits recently a large 
deposit of what is sometimes known as "fos- 
sil flour," has been discovered in the Stats of 
Maine, and that, too, of such purity as to 
arouse the wonder of the best analysts. In in- 
vestigating the properties of this new earth, 
one is impressed at once by its wonderful facul- 
ty for resisting the action of acids, alkalies, 
oils, and especially by its remarkable quality 
as a nonconductor of heat. A simple test of 
this latter quality, made by one interested in 
the company, was to take an inch ouba of the 
material and plaoe it on a bar of iron. The 
iron bar was then put in a blacksmith's forge 
and heated until it was melted away from the 
cube of earth. So little did the heat penetrate 
this cube that one could easily place the fin- 
gers upon the upper part of it without incon- 
venience from the heat. Fossil flour is almost 
as white as oxide of zinc. It is so light in 
weight that a flour barrel of it in its natural 
condition will not weigh over 50 pounds. It 
is, as we have already stated, absolutely unaf- 
fected or unchanged by any sort of mechanical 
manipulation, by acids, alkalies or heat. As 
it is mined, it comes out of the ground a pure 
white powder, so fine that it cannot be ground 
any finer. A careful analysis of it shows about 
95 per cent pure silica. This kind of earth has 
been used in Europe very largely for a variety 
of purposes; one of the most curious of which 
was In Sweden, where the poorer classes mined 
It and mixed it with wheat flour, in order to 
make bulky loaves of bread, not for sale, bnt 
for their own eating. — American Miller. 

The Floral SociEir. — The annual meeting 
of the State Floral Society was held Jan. 8, 
in the rooms of the State board of Horticul- 
ture, The principal business transacted was 
the election of officers, which resulted as fol- 
lows: E. J. Wickson, President; L. 0. Hodg- 
kins, Vice-President; Mrs. H, L. Cross, Trpas- 
nrer; E. E. Smith, Sactetary; Miss Carrie R x- 
ford. Accountant; Directore — Timothy Hop- 
kins, E. Kellner; Committee on Spring Ex- 
hibitions — W. S. Smythe of Berkeley, Mrs. 
Sperry, Mrs. B, Harris of San Frarciscc, Mrs. 
S. C. Ross of B3I nont, Mrs, E F. Bailey of 
Sin Franoisco. The papers read at the meet- 
ing will duly appear in our oolumna. 

NotaWe Sale ofjiotting Stock, 

We have received a copy of the sale catalogue of 
a fine lot of standard bred mares, fillies anrl colts, 
the property of Dr. M. W. Hicks of Sacramento, 
which are to be sold by Kiliip & Co. on Jan. 23d, 
as per advertisement which appears in another col- 
umn. Dr. Hicks has made a most valuable collec- 
tion of horses, which he is obliged to part with be- 
cause of ill health. 

The catalogue is notable because of the excellent 
introductory essay descriptive ol tbe stock, a pan of 
which is in the words of Dr. Hicks, We can 
earnestly commend this offering to-the attention of 
those seeking this valuable sort of blood. Cat- 
alogues can be bad of the auctioneers. 


"Ma," said a certain school-boy, " Can't Sarah always 
put up my lunchV She's got a better appetite than you, 
and she puts more in." 

The same sort of appreciation accounts for the won- 
derful "Koses by Mail" business of our advertisers, 
The Dingee & Conard Co. of West Grove, Pa. Flower 
lovers have large appetites, and like their orders filled 
where the best value is put io. This Company has long 
been recognized as the largest Rose Growers in America. 
Their handsome New Guide for 1892 describes upward of 
2000 of the Choi:est Kones, Bulbs, liardy Plants and 
Flower Seeds. They offer this book and a specimen 
copy of their Floral Magazine, " Success with Fiowers," 
to all our readers free on postal rti|uest. Mention this 
paper when you write. 

Housewives, Attention ! 

Two new first-class Sewmg Machines for sale 
cheap. Will be sent direct from warerooms if de- 
sired. Address, H. F. D., Box 2517. San Fran- 
cisco, Cal, 



[Jan. 16 1892 

fireeder3' directory. 

six lloee or leas In this Directory at 60c per line per monlb, 


T. PHILLIPS, 8iml, Ventura Co., C»l. 
FercheroD Horsca for eale. 

Pure Bred 

Station, 8. F. ft N. P. R. R. P. O., Penn'i Grove, 
Sonoma Co., Cal. Wilfred Page, Uanager. Breeder! 
cl Short Horn Cattle, English Draft Borget, Spanish 
tlerlno Sheep and Berkshire Swine. 

for Sale. BoDoIe Brae Cattle Co., Bolllster, Cat 

JOHN LTNOH, Petaluma, breeder of thoroughbred 
Shorthorng Young stock for sale. 

F. H. BORKB, 628 Market St., 8. F.; RejfiBtered 
Holsteins; a lnners of more first prizes, sweepstakes 
and special premiums than any nerd on the Coast 
Pure registered Berkshire Pigs. All strains. 

J. H. WHITB, Lakeville, Bonoma Co., CaL, breeder 
of Registered Holsteln Cattle. 

Cattle. H. A. Mayhew, Niles, Cal. 

P. H. MUBPHY , Perkins, Sac Co., CaL , Importer and 
Breeder of Shorthorn Cattle and Poland China Hogs, 

M. D. HOPKINS, Petaluma, Importer and dealer In 
Eastern registered Shorthorns, Red Polled Cattle, Hol- 
steins, Devons and Shropshire Sheep. 

H. P. MOHB, Mount Eden, Alameda Co., Cal., breeder 
and importer of Registered Clydesdale Horses, Hoi- 
stein-Friesian Cattle and Berkshire Pigs. Young stock 
always on hand and for sale. Correspondence solicited. 

PBTBR BAXK dl SON, Lick House, San Franolseo, 
Cal Importers and Breeders, for past 21 years, of 
every variety of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs. 

P. PETERSEN, Sites, ColusaCo., Importer&Breeder 
of registered Shorthorn Cattle. Young bulls for sale. 

A. Hellbron & Bro., Props., S»c. Breeders of thorough- 
bred strains and Cruikshank Shorthorns; also Registered 
Beretords; a floe let of young bulls in each herd for sale. 

CHARLES B. HUMBERT, Cloverdale, Cal., Im- 
porter and Breeder of Recorded Holstein-Friesian 
Cattle. Catalogues on application. 

PBRCHBRON HORSES.— Pure bred horses and 
marcs, all ages, and guaranteed breeders, for sale at 
my ranch near Lakeport, Lake Co., Cal. New cata- 
logue now ready. Wm. B. Collier. 

WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, CaL Thoroughbred 
Registered Holsteln and Jersey Cattle. None better. 


JAMES QUICK, Patterson, Cal., Breeder of Pure 
Bred Poultiy of Choicest Varieties and Best Blood. 

MADISON H. GRITUaBB, Santa Cruz. Santa 
Cruz Co., CaL Thoroughbred Poultry. Settings, tS. 

GALT POULTBY YABDS, Oalt, Sac. Co., Cal. 
Pure bred Fowls, Pekin Ducks, Belgian Hares, etc. 

JOHN McFABLINQ, Calistoga, CaL, Importer and 
Breeder of Choice Poultry. Send for Circular. Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire Pigs. 

R. Q. HEAD, Napa, Importer and Breeder of Land 
and Water Fowls. Send for New Catalogue. 

Box 283, St. Helena, Cal. S. C. White Leghorns, 
Toulouse Geese and Pekin Ducks. 

J A S. M ITOHELL, St. Helena. W. G. & S.Wyandottes. 

O. J. ALBBB, Lawrence, Cal. Pure bred poultry. 


Ferry, Cal. , breeders of Merino Sheep. Rams (or sale. 

R H. CBANB, Petaluma, Cal., breeder and Importer. 
South Down Sheep; also Fox Hounds from Missouri. 

FRANK BULLARD, Woodland, Cal. , Importer and 
breeder of thoroughbred Spanish Merino Sheep. Pre- 
mium band of the State. Choice rams and ewes for sale. 

ANDBBW SMITH, Redwood City, Cal.; see adv'L 


WILLIAM NILBS,L08 Angeles, Cal. Thoroughbred 
Poland-China and Berksnire Pigs. Circulars free. 

TYLBB BEACH, San Jose, Cal., breeder o( 
Itaoranghbred Berkshire and Essex Hogs. 

ANDREW SMITH, Redwood City, Cal.; see adv-t 


quarters, Wm. Styan, San Mateo, Cal. 

APIARIAN SUPPLIES f)r sale by Mrs. J. D. 

Enas, Napa City, Cal. 


Imp rtcisanil Dealers 
Direct fiom Kurope, 
English Shire Draft, 

Cleveland Bay 
and German Coach 
129 Kl«rh««c>nth St., 
Iao» • ognlea.OoIlfuraia 
Write for Catalogue. 

Imported Cljde Stallions, 

H. P. MOHB Mount Bden, 0ml. 

Palo Alto Stook Farm. 


Choice Brood Mares! 

DIUM, BENEFIT, CONTRACTOR and other noted staUions. These mares are stinted 
to Palo Alto, 2:081; Electricity, 2:17t; Azmoor, 2:20i; Whips, 2:27i; Amigo, 2:161; 
Alban. 2:24; Mac Benton, Benefit, Good Gift, etc., sons of Electioneer, Oen'l Benton, Etc. 


At 10 O'clock, on WEDNESDAY, FEB. 24, 1892. 

OataloKuee Ready JANUARY 6tb. Will be sent upon apollcatloa. 

IXjX-iIF c*3 OO., A.-ULctioii.©©rj3, 


Bine BDll79,BelDiODt64,6n;Wlll!es2867,TbeHoor870,Nntwood 600 


Brood Mares, Colts and Fillies. 



(.Sold on Account of 111 Health.) 

ON WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 27, 1892,-AT 10 A. M., AT 

Salesyard, Corner Van Ness AYenne and Market St., San Francisco. 

The continued ill-health of Dr. Hicks compels him, reluctantly, to permanently retire from the business of 
breeding standard-bred horses. He has leased his stallioS to parties in Indiana, and through tlie medium of the 
auctiou block proposes to dispose cf his broodmares and young horees His splendid array of broodmares, with 
their produce, collected and bred with such care and excellent judgment, will be placed unreservedly In the hands 
of the public, lie feeling confident their merit will be recognized and fair prices obtained. Ilis stock runs largely 
to the great speed lines of the country, and judicious crossing has produced broodmares which are invaluable to 
the breeding community. 

Full catalogues giving breeding, registry, etc , together with breeding of stallions, tor reference, may be had 
upon application to the undersigned, 22 Montiiomery street, San Francisco, Cal. 

XSLITiT iir* cfc? OO., ^tJLCt±OXXQGr&. 


Importer and Breeder of 

English Shire, Clydesdale, Percheron and Coach Horses. 

OUR STUD consists of a One lot of young Stallions an^Marea, combining Size, Quality 
of Bone and (;hoIce Breeding, being descendants of some of the most noted Prize- Wmning 
Strains in this country and Kurope. Particular attention given to the forming of Stock 
Companies and Ureeders' Assoi iations. Breeding Stock purchased in this way has invariably 
proved a success and a paying investment. Our Forms for their organization and manage- 
ment has proved one of the best. LOW PRICES AND EASY TERMS. 

Stable, Broadway and 32d Sti , Oakland, Cal. Address Box 86. 

Walnut Grove Herd of Poland China Hogs 




Strictly Bred 


At the head of the herd stands PERFECTION KING, No. 7579; KING OF THE WEST, No. 8921; 
HOOSIEK BOY 2d, No. 8923. Breeding Sows as fine individuals aud as strictly bred as any in the land; 
also recorded in the C. P. C. R. record with pedigrees full to standard. Breeders for sale at all times. 
I have first-clfu-s Pigs of both sexes at reasonable prices. Residence 1% miles northeast of DaTisvlUe, Cal. 
Personal inspection solicited. All inquiries promptly answered. Y'ours truly, JOSEPH MELVIN. 


Oenuloe only with RED 
BALL brand. 

Recommended by Oold> 
smith, Marvin, Gamble, 
Wells, Fargo & Co. , etc., etc. 

It keeps Uorses and Cattle 
healthy. For milch cnws; 
it increases and enriches 
their milk. 

69 S Howard St., San 
FranelMO, Oal. 


Ducks, Tarkeys, Oeese, Peacocks, Etc. 


Publisher of " Nlles' Pacific Ooast Poultry and Stook Book," 

a new book on subjects connected with successful poultry and stock raising on 
the Padfio Coast. Price 50 cents, post-paid. Inclose stamp for Information. 


Jersey and Holsteln Cattle. Also, Poland China and Berkshire Pigs. 

Addrssa, WILLIAM NILES, Los Angelas, Cal. 


Clyde and Shire Stallions, 

Just arrived from Australia. 
Inquire of JOHN SCOTT at the Race Track, 


C. I.. TAYLOR. 488 California Street. 



As Cheao as the Cheapest and as Good as the Best. 
Terms reasonable. Uortemeu, ilo not purchase elsewhere 
until you liave seen and Judged the recent importation 
ol Theo. skillman, Pet.lums, Cal. All chMce young 
Stal Ions, warranted Bound and foal-getters. 

Visitors cordially welcomed. Catalogue sent free oo 





One and a half miles northeast of San 
Leandro, Alameda County, 


Every Facility for Breaking Colts Properly. 

Rates Very Reasonable. 


P. O. Box 149 San Leandro, Cal. 

Short Horn Cattle and Draft Horses. 

Catalogues and Prices on application to 
Bsden station, Ssa Mstso Oo., 0»L 

Jan 16, 1891.] 



If yon expect to 


In the Chicken Buslneaa you 
need the 

Pacific Incubator and 

It ia Cheap, Reliable, Sub- 
stantial, Eabily Understood, 
and will ha'.ch ASY KIND OF 
BOOS better than a hsn. 

Gold Medal at San Fran- 
cisco and Sacramento State 

Send 8c stamps to pay 
I postage on our new 82-paEe 

' Illustrated catalogue of In- 

cnbatorg, Thoronghbred Fowls, Gal. Hex. Net- 
tings, Bone Mills, Poultry Supplies, etc. 

This book contains 30 full-sized colored cuts of Thor- 
onichbrad Fowls, and is replete with information. 


1817 Castro Street, Oakland, Gal 



r^J> I? r\^/ rw^ TP the besl and cheape t, 
OriiliUoUZiUlS XL remedy. When it is used on 
the roosts or in nest boxes, will kill all lice on the 
hens. Ask your dealer for it, or send direct to us. 
Price SOcts per quart 03*^, by express. Circulars free. 

Petaluma Inciibattj. Co., Petaluma, Cal. 



ISIS Hjr*!* Street, Osklnad, Cal. 

Send Stamp for Circular. 

Wellington's Improved Egg Food 

Gives a fortune in plenty of eggs when high in price. It 
cures and prevents every disease known to poultry. Ask 
any Grocer— or Proprietor, 486 Washington St., 
San Francisco, Cal. 


from the Hnest strains of blood from Kentucky. Cor- 
respondence solicited. L. U. SHIPPEE, Stockton, Cal. 


SPLIT ROCK, No. 2758, Wallace's Rcgiiter. 

Sired by Alcona (730) (Sire of Flora Belle 2:25, Clay 
Duke 2:2S\, Alcona Jr., and others; dam. Pansy l)y Oas- 
slu« M. Clay Jr.; 9 years old;15J hands high; weight 1100 
pounds; pel tectly sound, well proportioned, very hand- 
some and an active and spirited traveler. Has no record 
but can go fast if given a chance. Is a Sure breeder and 
colts are large, well framed, stylish and speedy and 
always of standard colors. 

For further particulars apply to 

Aptos, Santa Craz Co , Cal. 



ary Surgeons, Loudon, England. Late Veterinary 
Surgeon in the United States Army. Veterinary C m- 
tributor to the " Pacific Rural Press." 1 he diseases of 
all Domestic Animals treated on Scientific Principles 
Special attention given to Chronic Lameness and Surgical 
Calls to tba country promptly attended to. Telephone 
No. 4667. 

Veterinary Surgeon, 

Graduate of Ontario Veterinary College, Toronto, Canada. 

8S1 Golden Gate Avenue, San Francisco. 
Telephone 3069 

No risk in throwing Horses. Veterinary table 
on the premises. 

Golden Ital- 
ian Queens. 
- Tested, S2.00 


each; untested, $1.00 each. L Hives, $1.90 each. Root's V 
groove sections. $5.00 per 1000. DadaDl's comb fouudation, 
dBc and 65c a pound. Bruokers, $1.00 each. Globe veils, $1.00 
each, etc. WM. 8TYAN & SON. Sao Matoo. Oal. 

' necied with 

■occessful Poultry and Stook Raising on thePaciflc Coast 
A New Edition, over 100 pages, profusely Illustrated with 
handsome, life-like Illustrations of the different varieties 
otPonltry and LIve-Stock. Price, postpaid 60 ats, Ad* 
dr«M PACIFIC RDBAL PRESS Offloa, Sao Frandsoo, 0»L 

-5L !»■ 13 i=t. E snvriTH, 






Young Stock tor sale at reasonable prices. Every animal guaranteed, 
OfFICB-aiS California St., San Francisco. REDWOOD CITY, OAL. 


Importer and Breeder of ABERDEEN ANGUS CATTLE. Proprietor, J. E. CAMP, Sacramento, OaL 




What We Guarantee Carbolineum Avenarius to Do: 

1 — To preserve any kind of Wood above or under ground or water, and prolong Its life at least 100 per cent, 

2 — To prevent moisture from penetrating into brick or stone walls and preserve them same as wood. 

8— To keep oti all to ts of Insects, Vermin or other enemies to wood or objectionable and destructive agencies. 
4 — To prevent Rats and Mice gnawing wood coated wi^h Carbolineum Avenarius. 
6— To disinfect birnp, stables or residences and def trey Microbes. 

6— To force all moiaturo out ef the wool without cloting (he pores. 

7— To prevent shingles coated with Carbolinfum from r( ttlng, warping or cracking. 

8— To prevent Rope treated with Carbolineum from rotting, causing it to remain pliable and excelling Tar Coating. 

9— IMPORTANT t Tcredoes will not attack Timber coated with CarboVreum Avenariua. 
10 — It does not contain any acids or other poisonous ingredients injurious to fibers of wood. 
11— It 13 the cheapest and best wood preserver in the werld. 

All the above etatemeots are facts, and all our testimonials to that effect are genuine and Indisputable. 


MUECKE & CO., Pacific Coast Agents, 319 California St., San Francisco, Cat. 












Rooms and Board by the Day,$l to 1 1.60; by the Week, $6 to $10; by the *Ionth,$25 to $4 0. 

Good Rooms and Elegant Table. Meals, 25c Single Rooms, 50c. Free 'Bus. 

S. W. Corner Knmy and Montgomery Avenue, San Franciico. 
7rs« ooMb to sod flrom tba Heua*. J. W, BBOKBR, Proprietor. 




-TTT TTT -T"l- 


Horse Liniment 

Is certainly the best preparation of Its 
kind In the market. Ranchers, Stock 
Raisers and Horse Owners of every 
description will tell you that It does 
good work every time. 

MsssKS. H. H. MoORK & Sons, Stockton, Cal.— Gbitli- 
hbk: In answer to your inquiry, would state that I used 
your H. H H. Liniment on my Holland prize-winning 
cow, " Lena Menlo," for a wrenched shoulder, and it re- 
lieved her very much. She calved the next day, and while 
still suffering from the sprain gave the largest authen* 
ticated quantity ot milk ever given on this coast (lOJ 
gallons per day), showing conclusively the great relief 
received from your remedy. I consider it a necessity in 
my stables, and when away from home feel perfectly 
sale, as Inexperie nced men can do no barm with it, as 
they can with the more powerful hllaters. Respectfully 
yours, FRANK H. BURKE, 

Breeder of Registered Holsteins and Berkshires. 

Menlo Park, Cal., January 22d, 1889. 





We have the Flnent nnd I^argetit Carriage 
ReposUory on the Paclfl« <'oast. 

For prices and full particulars, address 


San Franclnco and Freano. 




0. H. EVANS & OO. 

(Successors to THOMSON & EVANS , 

110 and lis Beale Street, S. F. 

Steam Pumpt, Steam Engines 

aod all kinds of MACHINERY. 



iilustratsd Publications, with 

MAPS.<l<'Scribin;? Minnesota, 
North D ikota, Montatia.idaho, 
Washiiifttou and Oregon, the 


I Best Agricultural Graz- 
I ing and Timber Lnnds' 

Inow open to Bettlers. Hailed FREE. Addresi 

CUAS. e. LaUOBN, Lull Com, N. r. B. B., 81. rial, aiaa* 


f ACIFie f^URAio f RESS. 

[Jan. 16 1892 

Market Review. 


San Francisco, Jan. 13, 1892. 

Absence of rains the past week was taken advan- 
tage o( by farmers, orchardists and others to push 
outdoor work. Our advices from all parts of the 
coast are of a most cheerful character. With the 
usual spring rains, large crops of cereals and fruits 
are confidently looked for. In the local market, 
trading is generally light in farm products, owing to 
scant supplies. Money continues easy and in favor 
of borrowers having undoubted security. Silver 
is a fraction lower, which, of course, is against 
grain, owing to England being able to pay for her 
imports from India in the debased metal. Wheat 
would readily fetch two cents a pound in our mar- 
ket, if silver was par. The Eistern and European 
wheat markets have been settling. The following is 
to-day's cablegram: 

Liverpool, Jan. 13.— Wheat— Very heavy; Cali- 
fornia spot lots, 8s 4d; off coast, 41s gd; just 
shipped, 41S 6d; nearly due, 41s 3d; cargoes of! 
coast, inactive; on passage, very little demand; 
Mark Lane wheat, easier; French country markets, 

Forelen Qraln Review. 

London, Jan. 11. — The Mark Lane Express^ in 
its review of the grain trade for the past week, says: 
English wheats are in buyers' favor at an average 
decline of 6d; foreign wheats are dul'. At to-day's 
market English wheats were ste4dy; American fell 
6d and Indian gi; English and American flours 
dropped 6d; corn was 6d dearer, new American 
ran^ir g from 275 for immediate delivery to 24s for 
delivery within the month. 

Lilverpool Wbeat MarKei. 

The following are the closing prices paid for wbeat 
options per ctl. for the past week: 

Jan. Feb. Mar. Anrll. May 

Thursday 8'6} d S-6J d 8-61 d 8sa d Pse d 

Friday 89SJ d 8.5} d 8-54 d 8e4} d S 4M 

Saturday 885 d 8s6t d 8851 d 8 6} d KsJJ d 

Monday 886 d 8»4t d 834J d 8.4i d 

Tuesday SsS} d SsSj d SsS} d Ss4 d 

The following are the prices for California cargoes 
for off coast, nearly due and prompt shipments for 
the past week: 

0.0. P. S. N. D. Market for p. S. 

Thursday 43-;Sl 43-31 43-3d Firmer. 

Friday „ 43< 42a»J 4&9i (Quieter. 

Saturday 4-&ai 4296d 4-283il yuiot but 8fdy. 

Monday 4293d Very little inq'y. 

Taeeday 428 42^ 42j Depressed. 

Baatern Qraln Mar&eta. 

The following shows the closing prices of wheat 
at New York for the past week, per cental: 

Dar. Jan. F b March. April. May. 

Thuisday 171 173 175 178 172i 

Friday 171 172S 1743 177 174J 

Saturday 171 172t 174J .... 174 

Monday 169 170 172 .... I71J 

Tuesday 1668 183 170 172 169 

New York, Jan. 13. — Wheat— $1.02 for Febru- 
ary; $1.03 for March; $1.03)^ for April; $t.02H 
for May and $1.00^ for June. 

Chicago, Jan. 13.— Wheat— 91 He for May. 
Eastern (Wheat Statlstlca. 

New York, Jan. 11.— Bradzlreels: Exports of 
wheat, including flour, are increasing again, as per 
special advices to Bradstreets, amounting to 5.352,- 
000 bus. within a week, a gain of from 50 to 60 per 
cent over the two preceding weeks. The available 
stocks of wheal in the United States and Canada 
(both coasts) on Jan. ist were 78,006,000 bus., 
18,000,000 and 6.000,000 bus., respectively, more 
than were held Jan. i, 1891, and Jan. i, 1890. 
Five years ago, however, like stocks of wheat ag- 
gregated 18,000,000 bus. more than on Jan. i, 1892, 
the excess being chiefly of spring wheat. 


New Vork, Jan. 11. — The year opens with a 
hopeful selling movement, and the inferences are 
favorable to some recovery from a long rule of low 
prices, especially for unwashed. Prospective re- 
ceipts of foreign deadens high grade of domestic, 
but it is thought that at least the present rates will 
be sustained, if not improved in the event of a few 
active weeks. The sales here were 624,000 pounds 
of domestic and 327,000 pounds of foreign. New 
York's stock is smaller than a year ago, and is light 
in Texas wool. Samples of Montevideo are here. 
Boston reports a wholesome inquiry, but no better 
rates. The sales amounted to 1,869,000 lbs. of do- 
mestic and 529,000 tbs. of foreign. In Philadelphia 
trade is slow. 


New York, Jan. i.— Commercial Bulletin : If 
current report and general belief as to purchases 
made of late are not at fault, there is practically no 
'• headquarters " for California raisins at the present 
time. It would not be proper to mention names in 
this connection, and any remark calculated to create 
the impression that there is a corner will be greatly 
out of place, since all the goods in this city are not 
under one control, while New England and some 
Western distributing centers have more than a few 
pounds that might be spared in ca<ie of emergency. 
It is a fact, however, that a large proportion of the 
local supply is in a few hands, and held with confi- 
dence of a no uncertain character of a change for 
the belter in prices should nothing occur to disturb 
the general business. The various distributing 
centers are fairly well supplied, but all accounts go 
to show that the bulk of stock is in good hands, 
whence distribution may be made as trade wants 
require and forced sales thus avoided. It is not to 
be wondered at that some people in trade are in- 
clined to be bullish on the market since Valencia 
raisins of a desirable quality would have been let go 
for practically a song in the primary market to com- 
pete with California at the present prices, or a very 
fair advance on the same. 


New York, Jan, 12. — Hops are less active, but 
the situation is strong. The statistical position 
favors sellers. The English market is quiet, but is 
not shrinking. Common to best are quoted at 
19 to 23c. About 30,000 pounds of State are unsold 
in the interior. Option dealing in hops opens to- 
morrow. The classification is choice, prime, 
medium or good, brewing or common. The com- 

mission for buying or selling is 25c a bale to mem- 
bers and 50C to outside parties in car lots. Con- 
tracts, limit of weight from 11,000 to 13,000 pounds 
gross. Deliverable weight for bales, 165 to 215 Its., 
grades to be named at the exchange call, Stales of 
Washington or Oregon and California. 


New York, Jan. 10. — Honey — Several cars were 
placed at 7 V®7>ic, very little in receivers' hands. 
The light amtier market closes stronger. 

Lima Beans — There is a fair demand at $1.85 to 
$1.95, spot, bushel. 

Local MarKete. 


Bu\er Season. 

Friday. . . 
Saturday . 
Monday. . 
Tuesday . 







Bucer Season. Seller Season. 

1 12* 


Seller 1892 
Q. L 
15S| 152} 

160i 149j 

Buyer 1892. 
B. L. 

H. L. B. L 

Ttaursda .. 1141 114 107} 107} 

Fridav 114J 

Saturday .. 1143 
Monday . . . 113} 
Tuesday . 1121 

B.^GS — The market is stifiF, with holders firm at 
ground 7)^ cts for June-July delivery. 

BARLEY — The sample market is fairly firm, but 
futures are lower, owing to bears' persistent ham- 
mering. The following is to-day's reported sale on 

Morning session: Buyer season — 300 tons, 
$1.11; 600,^; 900, $i.ioKi 8ao $i.ioK; 
400, $i.ioH. Seller season — 200 tons, $1.05; 100, 
$t.osH ^ ctl. Afternoon session: Buyer season — 
500 tons, $i.ioyi; 100, $i.ioHl 300, $i.'oM; 
1000, $i.ioH- Seller, 1892 — 100 tons $1.04^ ^ ctl. 

BUTTER — The market is steady, but any in- 
crease in the demand will bring about lower prices. 
This opinion is grounded on the general informa- 
tion that buyers are ofiish and will not anticipate 
requirements. The market is virtually cleaned up 
of choice to gilt-edged pickled and Eistern cream- 
ery, which, of course, is in favor of fresh in round 
and square rolls. 

CHEESE — Receipts are increasing, and as buy- 
ers restrict their purchases, the market appears to 
have a weaker tone. 

EGGS - Free receipts and a falling off in the de- 
mand cau=e a weaker feeling, with some disposition 
to shade prices. 

FLOUR — The market is barely steady. Conces- 
sions are reported. 

WHEAT — The sample market begins to show 
more life, due to holders letting go. In futures, 
trading is light, with the number of bears increasing. 
Reported sales made on to-day's Call areas follows: 

Morning Session. — Buyer Season — 900 tons, 
$1.81^; 2000, si.8i>i ^ ctl. Afternoon Session-- 
Buyer Season — 100 tons, $1.81^; 800, $1.82; 500, 
S1.82H; 1300, $1.82. Seller 1892 — 100 tons, $1.50}^ 
^ ctl. 

Market Int'ormation. 

Produce Recelute. 

Receipts of produce at this port for the week end- 
ing Jan. II, '92, were as follows : 

Flour, qr. sk3 71,098 Bran, " 3,44J 

Wheat, ctls 232,718 Buekwhtat " 

Barley, "... . 17,704 MiddlioK^, sks 1,860 

Rye " C'icory, bbls 

Oats " 717 Hops, bU 9 

Corn " 2,921 Wm\, " 110 

"Butter ■' 393 Hay, ton 1,358 

do bxs 154 Straw •• 65 

do bbls Wine, gals 145,360 

do keg» 30 BraLdy, 50,540 

<o tubs , Ual'ins, bxs 40 

do i bxs 90Hone>,cs 161 

tChee e, ctls 278 Pe nuts, sks 190 

do bxs 70 Walnut», " 

Sgsia. doz 16,200 Almonds, ska 

do "Eastern .. 60,001 Mustard, «k8 

Beaiis, ctls 415 Flax, sks 

Potatoes, sks 20,632 PopucTn, sks 

Onions, " 1,195 Br->om coru, bbls 

•Ovcrl'd 314 ctla. tOverl' 327 oils. 
Deep Water BecelptH Outs de of Call- 

The receipts of certain articles of produce from 
Oregon, Washington and other distant points com- 
pare as follows : 

Julv 1, '90 to July 1, '91 to 
Jan. 10, '91. Jan. 10 '92 

Flour, 1 ska 143,956 283,400 

Wheat, ctls 685,913 J,0-24,615 

Barlev,ctls 120.1S4 27,905 

Oats, ctls 188 638 286,123 

Wool, bales 5,745 5,637 

Hops, bis 333 389 

Kye, sks 

PoUtoes, sks 16.814 



The local wheat market has ruled more in buyers' 
favor, due to speculative holdings coming on the 
market. Farmers who are still holding begin to 
show signs of letting go. The very large export 
movement at the Atlantic seaboard has an unfavor- 
able influence on the market. With this country's 
crop of 619,000,000 bushels of wheat and 2,000,- 
ooo,i>oo bushels of corn, a very large part of Eu- 
rope's requirements will be met before next crop 
season. The weather abroad is reported favorable 
for crops. 

In this State, Oregon and Washington, the out- 
look never before seemed so promising in the month 
of January as it now does. Rains have been not 
only quite liberal in the agricultural district, but 
they have come in such a way as to allow a very 
large increased acreage to be seeded. So far as our 
advices extend, there has been very little, if any, 
rotting of seeds, which is an unusual occurrence. 
The large deposits of snow on the mountain ranges 
not only promise an abundant supply of water for 
irrigation and other purposes, but it is calculated to 
give us cooler weather, and delay the time for 
decimating north winds until after harvest. 


Wheat, qrs. Flour, bbls. 

1891 340,000(a3«0,000 120,000@130,000 

1892 S60,000(»880;000 120,000(3180,000 

As will be seen by reference to tonnage move- 
ment, the disengaged tonnage in port is increasing. 
This is to be expected, with outward charters low 

and the bright prospects for a large wbeat crop this 

Barley has ruled fairly firm in the sample mar- 
ket, notwithstanding the pronounced raids on Call 
in futures. It looks as if very few transactions re- 
ported are legitimate. The call for feeding grades 
is quite strong, showing a continued large consump- 
tion. Brewery hands' troables keep brewing grades 
quiet, but as the supply in this Stale is light, holders 
do not exhibit any fears of a decline in prices. 

Oats are steady. Receipts are only fair, while the 
consumptive demand is fairly active. It is claimed 
that available supplies in Oregon and Washington 
are light. 

Rye continues to rule in buyer's favor. There is 
no demand for export, while the home demand is 
more or less nominal. 

Buckwheat is inactive. 


Bran and middlings are steady under lighter re" 
ceipts and a fair demand. Buyers are trying to get 
concessions on ground barley and feedmeal. 

Continued light receipts ol hay, combined with a 
growing impression that the available supplies in 
this Stale are light, cause a strong local market. 
The demand, both locally and otherwise, is quite 
free, considering that feed on the ranges and in 
pastures is growing rapidly and available for range 
stock and daiiy cows. 

Live StoolE. 

Bullocks are in fair supply. The demand is in- 
creasing, owing to the cool weather and higher 
prices lor mutton sheep. Improving range pasture 
has caused a falling cff in selling offers of range 
stock. Mutton sheep are a shade higher. The ad- 
vance is causing a lighter demand. Hogs are un- 
changed. Milch cows are fetching more money. 
The establishing of creameries is in favor of 


Grapes, pears and persimmons are hardly worth 
quoting, owing to light supplies and a nominal de- 

Judging from the large deposits of snow on the 
mountain ranges, it is only reasonable to conclude 
that the deciduous fruit season in this year will open 

Apples are in large supply. Only choice to extra 
choice Spitzenburg and Newtown pippin fetch out- 
side figures. Receipts from northern counties and 
Southern Oregon are quite heavy. Considerable 
are coming to hand from Reno, Nevada. The 
quality of the latter is said to be of the best, but the 
Iruit is small-sized. 

In dried fruits, there is nothing new to report. 
The feeling appears more bullish. It is quite gen- 
erally claimed that low prices have stimulated con- 
sumption to such an extent that the distributive 
centers are well cleaned up, which, if correct, ought 
to bring about a freer spring call. It is claimed that 
buyers have been and are still quietly looking 
around to find out when they can lay their hands 
on odd and end parcels, provided the spring trade 
justifies buying. Quotations are more or less nomi- 
nal in the absence of business. 

Raisins are inactive, with holders not disposed to 
press the market. 

Limes and lemons are unchanged. Receipts are 
light and so is the demand. 

The receipts of oranges are quite free. Some con- 
signees report the bulk of their receipts wind fall and 
more or less frost-bitten, while others again report 
very few in their consignments. The market is in 
buyers' favor, with much diflSculty met in placing 
consignments even in small jobbing parcels. The 
writer saw a sale made this morning of choice River- 
side Navels at $3 a box. For Duarte and Riverside 
Navels, the market is quoted at $3 to $3.50 for 
choice to something fancy, while fair to good run 
from $2.50 to $2.75 a box. 


Truck farming is being actively pushed. A large 
increased acreage is reported in several of the prin- 
cipal garden truck farming sections. The southern 
part of the State continues to send us small supplies 
of garden truck, but the high prices at which tbey 
are held restricts their sales. 

Onions ate firm at quotations. The available sup- 
plies up north, it is said, while not large, will, to- 
gether with ours, be ample to meet all requirements 
up to next season. 

Choice, good-keeping potatoes are fairly firm, but 
off qualities are still in buyers' favor. The con- 
sumption is very heavy. This is due to low piices 
and the higher cost of flour, etc. 


From reliable advices up to Jan. 13, the following 
summary tonnage movement is compiled: 

^In port.--^ 

1892. 1891 1802. 1891. 

San Francisco 240,802 578,816 •148,105 " 49,426 

Sau Diego 18,988 16,476 5,36S ) 

San Pedro 7,47s 3,841 4,712 ,19,966 

OrCKon 44,202 38,30« 37,639 ) 

Puget Sound 24,332 19,182 

Totals 195,824 69,392 

'Engaged lot wheat, 1892, 77,678 1891, 42,2-28 

The statistics of produce exports from this port 

compiled by the Commercial News, from July ist 

to Jan. 4, are as follows: 

1881 1890. 

Wheat, Otis 9,169,130 6,3v7,160 

Flour, bbls 629,523 542,000 

Barley, ctls 765,190 178,646 

In poultry there is nothing new to report. Choice 
conditioned large-sized are wanted. 

Beans continue to gain strength. The stronger 
tone to the market is largely due to quiet but persist- 
ent buying (or the East. The consumptive de- 
mand at the Blast is increasing. 

Honey is said to be scarce, which causes buyers 
of more choice grades to bid well up for their re- 

Hops are doing better with gilt-edged quite scarce 
and for which 25 cts. might be secured. Yester- 
day's Sew York telegrams report a sale of 150 bales 
of choice from this coast at 23 M cts. to arrive. 

In wool there is next to nothing doing. There 
are so many different influences bearing on wool, 
that it is very bard to report or quote the market 

Nuts are slow but the tone is steady. 

The Pacific Rceal Peess of San Fraooieco 
is as bright aa ever, even tboagh it baa attained 
the twenty-first anniveraary of ita Urtb.— Bed- 
lantU Facts. 

Domestic Prodaoe. 

Bxtra oholoe In good paokagea fetob an advanoe on %af %■ 
.jaoutiaus, wDlle yen poor grades kU leu thao the loww • 
duotatlouB. WiDNCSDAT, JaQuarf 13. 18^2. t' 


Bare, ctl 1 75 @ 2 

Butter 2 20 @ 2 

2 40 § 2 
2 00 ® 2 

1 75 @ 2 
S 25 1 2 

2 10 t* 2 
1 65 @ 2 

11 or 
14 @ 
18 @ 

30 a 

35 @ 
25 (8 
25 @ 




Small White . 
Large White. . . 

fid Pean.blkeye 1 50 @ 1 

Dacrrec 1 9a ^ 2 

Do Eastern do.. 2 60 ^ 2 

D> NLee 1 35 § 1 

Spilt 4 @ 

OaL Poor to tall, ft 15 18 
Do good to choice 3i\(a 
Do Oiltedged... - @ 
Do Creamery roUa — 
Do doOiltedge.. — <g 

Eaitem 20 O 

Cal, pickled 23}(» 

Oal. choice mild 13 @ 
Do fair to good 
Do gilt edged.. 
Vouug America 

Oal. ranch, doz. 
Dodo selected. . 

Do store 


Bran, ton 17 00 @19 

reedmeal 26 OO W 

Qr'd Barley.... 24 00 |t27 

Middlings 20 50 ta22 

Oil Oake Meal.. 25 00 SS? 
Mauhattaii Food V cwt. 7 

Wheat, per too. 14 00 # 

Do choice 15 5J @ 

Wheat and <Jatal3 00 n 

Wild Oats 12 00 @ 

Cultivated do.. 12 SO « 

Barley 11 00 § 

Alfalfa 10 00 @ 

Olover 12 00 « 

Straw bale 50 

Barley, feed, ctl 10!^^] 

Do Choice I 125a 

Do Brewing .... 1 13! d 
Da do Choice .. . 1 \'i\ a 
Do do Giltt-dge. . 1 i\\ a 
Do Chevalier... 
Dodo Giltedge 
Com, White... 
Yellow, large. . 

Do small 1 1 

Uats, milling. ... 1 43 ^ 
Feed, 'iboloe.... 1 42ii 

Dj good 1 35 a 

Djfalr I 3J M 

Surprise 1 EO ^ 

Black Ual 1 to r» 1 

Do U.igon 1 45 (C I 

Gray 1 32l*i 1 

Rye 1 55 « 

Wheat, milling. 
Gilt edged. .. I Vi @ 

Dj Oboioe 1 82 a 

Djfairtogood.. I 78 $ 
Hhipplng, cho'oe 1 78 s 

Do good I 76 g 

Do fair 1 733 a 

Oommou 1 7<i @ 

Uooora 1 711a 1 

1891 Choice to Ex. 21 & 
Pair to Good... 17il 


13 m 


13 Ca 

Bxtra, OityMllla 6 40 CO 5 
DoOouDtryMiUl 5 25 S S 
^upertine 3 40 ^ 3 


Walnuts, OaL ti 7 

DoOhoioe 8 (f 

Do paper shell.. 

DoOhlli 7 

Almonds, stt ahl. 

Paper •bell 

Hard Shea 


Pecans small. . . 

Do large IS 

Peanuts 3 n 

Filberts llii 

Hickory 7 S 

Chestnuts 1U@ 


Silver Skin 50 @ 1 

Early Bo.>e, ctl . 30 @ 

Peerless 35 

Burbauk Seedling, 40 (f< 
Dodo Salinas.. 95 @ 1 

Swoet's 2 00 ca 3 

Garnet OMlee.. . 40 @ 
River Reds 30 Ig 


Hens, doz iW> % 'j 

Eoo«ters.old.... b 00 S 7 

Do young 6 50 @ 

Brollen, small. . 4 50 fit 

Do large 6 5U @ 

FrywB 6 50 @ 

Ducks e 60 «li) 

OecK. pair 1 75 @ 2 

Turkeys, Oobl->. 12 & 
Turkeys, Hens.. 14 &, 
Do Dressed. ... IS <S 
Manhattan Egg 

Food y cwt... 11 SO @ 

Oal.Baoon,he'Ty,ti 939 

4S M 

65 L 
6S I 




1 15 (« 1 

, 1 481ioe 1 

^ 00 m 2 

1 35 ^ 

1 2>il d 1 

11 & 


10 m 


7 » 
10 @ 

J 50 r 

Oal. SmTc'dBw^ 
Hams, Cal salt'd 
do Eastern... 



Clover, Bed 



Hemp 3i^ 

Mustard, yellow 2 S> @ 3 
do Brown 3 1,0 (a 3 
Bpriko, 18!>1 
Homb't AUoo'cIdo 20 
Sac'to valley... . IC 
Piee Mountain . 19 1 
8 Joaquin valley 
do mountalu. 
Uala'v* rthll. 
Ur.^gon Eastern. 

do valley 

So'n Coast, def.. 
So'n Coast, free. 

Fall, 1891. 
^'au JnaqiUn — "f 

Mountain 10 

liumb'tft Meu'ciao 14 ^ 

WbiteOomb,2-tL 10 w 
dodol-tbfram:5 12 ' 
White extrsct'd €■ ' 
Amlur do '.\ ' 

Beeswax, lb.... tii u 



Dried Fruits. 

Tbe quotations given t>elow are for average priu< 
Something veiy fancy fetch an advance on tbe higlic^i i<.,> 
tatlona while poor sells slightly below the lowest iiuotatiout. 
Prices, unless otherwise spedti d, are for fruit in tacki:; adt> 
for 50-tt. boxes pvr lb., for 25-Ib boxef , {c to Ic per %, 

APl'LKS Dodo fancy 7 7J 

Sun-dried, i'a, com'on 3i 8uu-ur, pl'd, prlmc, lull 

Do do prime 3j^ 4 Do iio choice 11 'jil! 

Do do choice 4 ^ 41 Uu do fancy 1;; ia\i 

Do (diced, common .. . 3$^ 4 K</ap,pecled, in boxHs, 

Do do prime 4 <^ 4t choice. 1' (ft- 

Do do choice 4i § Si Do do fancy \6 (a 17 

Bvap hiKaclind. ring PEAB8. 

SO-lh bnxM 7 @ 8 Sau-dried, quiuteis. . . 3 4| 

APKICOT8. DosUced 4 cci J 

Sun-dried. unbL com. 3 @ 4 Efap, sliced, in boxes. >1 (<r — 

Do do prime 5 ftt 5i Do ring do ll>.^— 

Do do choice 6 @ CJ PLUMS. 

Do hloachijrt. prime... 7 O— Pitted, sun-dried i; a — 

Do do-choloe 7i@- Do evaii. h»ji«,3holce. — <.d — 

Do do fancy Sjcit 91 Do do do f »ncy — ^— 

Evap. choice, in boxes. 9i@l(< Uuplttod <g, M 10 «llOi PUI NES. 

FIGS. Oal. French, ungraded i (a tH 

Sun-dried, black 3 @ 31 Do (traded, 60 to 100. . SJijt 

Do white Jig Do do 40 to 60 Ha 1\ 

Do do washed <a FAnoy sell for mnn. money 

Do do fancy — «- RAISINS. 

Do do pressed — w — London Layers, 

Smyrna boxes — @— choice * bx tl 50« 

Do sack? — @ — I Do fancy, do 1 1h(t 

GRAPES. I Layers, # bi 1 25@ 

SuQ-dried. stcmless. .. 3 @ 3] Loose Muscatels, 

Do unrt.imiii.") 2i^ 3 oommon, V bx.. 1 M@ 

NECTARINES. Do ohoioe, do 1 2C@1 9 

Red. siunlried 3i(8 5 Do fancy, do 1 50(of - 

Do Evap., in boxes... 6 O— Unstem ed Musca- 

Whlte, sun-dried 5 (§ 6| tela. In sacks, Wlb 4(^ 6 

Do evaporate) . ...Q^ml Stemmed dodo bi<t S 

PEACHES. heedless do do ti(? - 

Sna-dried, unpeeled. Do do ^ SO-lb bx . . 115^ - 

oommon, bleached.. 3i@— -4ultanas,unbl, bxs 1 15(al 4 

Dodo prime, do Do bleached, in bxs 1 30<7l 6 

Do do choice, do Halves, quarters and eighth 

Do do fancy 6 @ l>i 25, 50 and 75 cents highci n 

Evap, unpe'l'd, choice. 6 @— spectively than whole bosei 

Fruits and Vegetables. 

Oholce selected. In good packages, fetch an advance ol th 
quotations, while very poor grades sell lees than the lowi 

Wedki8I>ay, January 13, 18'. 2. 

5 50 @ 6 50 Do choice 1 00 «i 1 21 

75 # 1 00 Do extra choice 1 50 3 01 
1 35 (» 3 50 Do Lady Apples » \ K 

5 50 ^ 7 00 Pears, box SO <<r 1 2! 

'" • a 1 01 

Limes, Mex . 

Do Ual 

Lemons, box. 
Do Sicily.... 

Granges, Winter Beets, sk 

small box £0 @ 1 00 Canrota, sk 

Do Seedlings Ukra, dry, lb 

Rivertide 1 35 @ 2 IjO Paimtps, ctL... 

Los Angeles.. 1 CO (a 1 50 Peppers, dry, lb 

Do Navels— Turnips, ctl 

Los Angeles. . 1 50 @ 3 SC Cabbage, 100 lbs 

Riverside .... 2 00 @ 3 SO Garlic lb 

Duarte 3 00 @ 3 SO Squa8h,Mrft, to. 7 00 (d 9 

Apples, box.... 40 ^ 76 Pumpkins, ton. 7 00 @ 

Live Stock. 


Stall fed 1)16* - Wethers 9 01 

Orats fed, extra 6 & - Ewes i\<H 

First quality fjtg -! Lam !>, yearling 9{a 

Seoonil nuality 4J® - Do Fall U4I?1 

Third quality 4^-1 nrmn 

Bulls and thin Cows. . 2 (8 3 HOU8. 

VEAL. _ lUght, Vib. eenu. 

Range, heavy 41i 

Do light 6 I 

Dairy 7 1 

Bi Heavy 4 « 

8 Feeders 5iA 

8 iStock Hogs. 3 

16 1892 




Ramie Decortication. — The new ohemioal 
{Ooess for oleaDiDf; the ramie plant is aboat to 
I introdaced in S*n Fraocisco by the inventor, 
r. Walter T. Forbes. On special invitation 
' the Department of Rimie Caltnre, this gen- 
jman has come to CiliforDia. He it is who 
troduoed a new process in Montzorango, 
cxico, last spring. A building has been rented 
18th and Folsom streets, in which the fiber 
ill be treated chemically in digestors. Sam- 
ea of fiber exhibited by this Department are 
le, strong and in a suitable condition for the 
inner. The experiment! made will be pnb- 
ibed by the State B}ard of Agricnlture, De- 
kftment of Rimie Caltare, in the forthcoming 
port for 1892. 

Ova Agents, 

O0R FuiinM okD do much In aid o( oar paper »od the 

ase of pnctlcal knowledge and science, oy aBslstlng 

i;eDt9 In their labors of canvassing, by lending tbeir In- 

lenoe and enconraglng favors. We Intend to send noD* 

it worthy men. 

.T. C. HoAO— San Francisco. 

R. G. Bailbt— San Francisco. 

Gko. Wilson— Sacramento Co. 

J. H. Crossman— Perrla, Cal. 

CiiAtJNCKTA. Dayton— San Lucas, Cal. 

G. R. GiLii — Cambria, Cat 

A. DDNIiAP— Hollister, Cal. 

J. T. AcsTiN— Tulare County. 

Wm. T. Heald— Cloverdale, Cal. 

Samubi, B. Cliff- Creston, Cal. 

S. A, DovLB— Santa Clara Co. 

W. W. Mason- Nevada. 

Snperyisors yersns_6roniiil Spirrels. 

The resnlt of the ordinanoea passed in Ala- 
jieds, Contra Costa and some other coanttes 
Ikst year, though not accomplishing all th<tt 
ras expected at first, stirred ap the farmer! to 
nusnal exertions and large numbers of ground 
:iairrel8 were slaughtered which would other- 
liae have been left alone to Increase and de- 
troy crops. Wheeler's Carbon BIsalphide — 
he remedy most extensively employed — was 
rawn npon to the ntmost capacity of the 
forks operating at Melrose, and a large in- 
reaee in the output was required. A material 
dvance wa« certainly made in western farming 
rhen the University of Oalifornia and the Dj- 
lartineot of Agriculture at Waabington dieoov- 
ired and called attention to this valuable de- 
troyer oi pests. 

New Price Catalosue of Fruit anfl 
Ornaiefltal Trees. 

Trumbull & Beebe have just issued a price list of 
ruit and ornamental trees, shrubbery, flowering 
>lants, etc. It will be found to cover pretty much 
:verything in these lines that is adapted to the soils 
ind climate of this coast. 

Those who are intending to add to their orchards, 
)r beautify their grounds this season, would do well 
O send for the new price list to Trumbull & Beebe, 
(19 and 421 Sansome St., S. F. 

Bebksbibe Meeting. — The 16th annnal 
neetlng of tbe American Berkshire Aasooiation 
vill be held in the Illinois National Bank, 
Springfield, III,, Wedntsday, .Tan, 20, 1892, at 
10 o'clock A. M. Among other important mat- 
ters to be conaidered at this meeting will be 
the exhibition of Berkshires, and the spi cial 
premiums to be offered by this Association at 
^be World's Colnmblan Exposition. This meet- 
ing promisee to be one of the moat important 
held by the Association. — Jno. G. Springbb, 

Newspaper Agents Wanted. 

Extra inducements will be oflered for a 
few active canvassers who will give their 
whole attention (for a while at least) to so- 
liciting subscriptions and advertisements 
for this journal. Apply soon, or address 
this office, giving address, age, experience 
and reference. Special inducements to old 
agents. Dewey & Co., Publishers, 
No. 220 Market St.. S. F 

Don't Fail to Write. 

Should this paper be received by any subBcriber who 
doee not want it, or beyond the time he intends to pay 
for it, let him not fail to write us direct to stop it. A 
postal card (costing one cent only) will suffice. We will 
not knowingly send the paper to any one who does not 
wish it, but If it is continued, through the failure of the 
■ubscriber to notify us to discontinue It, or some Irre- 
sponsible party requested to stop it, we shall positively 
demand payment for the time It is sent. Look carefully 





This is an apparatus for burnini; 
straw and sulpLur, and also forces 
the fumes down their hnles, which 
never fails to kill. I will g^lve $100 
in case the exterminator does not kill 
(If properly «pplied^ every ground 
squirrel that its deathly fumes 
comes in contact with. Thousands 
are in use. Price $3 00. Send for 
circulars to 


30 S. Main St., Los Angreles. 

Complimentary Samples. 

Personi reoeiring this paper nuirlced are re- 
quested to examine its contents, terms of snb- 
soription, and give It their own patronage, and 
as far as practicable, aid in oircnlating the 
journal, and making its valne more widely 
known to others, and extending its influence in 
the cause it faithfully serves. Subscription, 
paid in advance, 5 mos, $1; 10 mos., $2; 15 
mos., S3. Extra copies mailed for 10 cents, 
if ordered soon enough If already a *nb> 
acrlber, please show the paper tn otheri. 




All in the Wonderful Artesian Belt and the 
New Tulare Irrigation District. 

One ■ fourth mile outside of Tulare City limits, 
160 acres. Will be sold as a whole or in five-acre home- 
stead (or villa) lots. Also, 

Seven miles southwest of Tulare, 480 acres, principally 
good for grain, alfalfa, virie3ard, fruit, nuts, etc. 

A good, flowing, never-failing artesltn well of clear, 
healthful water; large reservoir; two-story, eight-room, 
well built house; large barn and other convenient build- 
ings; several acres of orchard and of alfalfi. 

Will sell as a whole or in lots to suit. Title perfect. 
All surrounded and fubdivided with wire fence. Resi- 
dence has a garden, shrubbery and p'enty of shade trees 
surrounding it. Terms, one-fourth cash ani balance in 
easy payments to suit pu chasers. 

Also, 160 acres less than two miles south of the 480 
acres, of equally good but uoimproved land, bound also 
to greatly advance in price. 

Examine this land and improvements and be ready to 
bid it off at a bargain 

Auction in Tulare City, Saturday, Feb. 27, 1892. Place 
and hour of sale to be announced later. 

Write or call on E. M. DEWEY, Tulare City, or A. T. 
DEWEY, No. 12 Front St., S. F. 

The Armstrong Antomatic 



The Best, Lightest, Cheapest 
Engine in the world. Can he 
arranged to Burn Wood, Coal, 
Straw or Petroleum. 5or8H.P. 
Mounted on skids or on wheels 
TRUMAN HOOKKR A CO Ran Fnanctfauto. 


fective Vision, Inflammation and all Diseases of the 
Eje Cured by Or. La Grange's New Treatment, which 
can be applied bv the patient without any inconven- 
ience. Sent to all parts of th» world. Price $10 and §20 
Testimonials to be had only from DR. LA GRANGE, 
1432 Geary St., San Francisco, Cal. 

For Sale— A Registered Shire Stallion. 

style, sound, and well broke to harness; weighed 
last Sept., 1600 lbs. Sevi ral younger StallioDS on h.^nd. 
J. I. PARSONS, Santa Rosa, Cal. 

A<ldrf-w. O R. ciRomT. Orcntt. naPfomla 





Positively Unequaled tor Baking Meats 
Fowls, Fish, Puddings, Etc. 

SELF-BASTING— Any article cooked in it RETAINS 
TENDER, than if cooked in any other wav- 

i^-NO PARBOILING. It bakes Bread, Cakes and 
Puddings. Try it thoroughly, and you will never use 
any other. 


No. 318 F1d« Street San Francisco, Cal. 

Sole Agent for the Pacific Coast. 

Write us (or prices and full particulars. Address 



The Kernel Without the Shell. 

If you want to keep posted on the established rules 

Without the trouble of sifting the information out of a 
mass of matter only suitable for study by professional 
legislators, get tbe 



The only publication on the subject that admits of easy 
and ready reference on all questions. 

Priie: Bound In flexible cloth covers, postpaid, ten 
cents. Address DEWEY PUBLISHING CO., 220 Market 
St., San Francisco 




COMPLETE EXTERMINATION can be effected only by means of this remedy. Sold by the trade and by the 
manufacturer, J. H. WHEUIjISR, Melrose, Alameda Co., Cal. 


WHEELER'S C. B. is of unvarying strength. Kills 
every occupant of the burrow, be they one or 100. 

Icjures nothing outside, but Is buried from sight; is 
safe to handle or have about. 

Has DO effect on the operator; is not poisonous nor 
I injurious to the skin or clothes and once applied is for- 
ever done. 

POISONED WHEAT, ETC., loses its effect If exposed 
any time. Kills, if any, only tbe first animal which finds 
it (perhaps a sheep, horse or cow). The poisoned animal 
will then poison the pet dog or cat and, decaying, be- 
comes offensive. Leaves always enough survivors to 
require repeating the work indefinitely. Is more expen- 
sive and of never-ceasing danger to ha . o about. 






Assoc. Prof. Agriculture, Horticulture and Entomology, 
University of California; Horticultural Editor Pacific 
Rural Press, San Francisco; Secretary California 
State Horticultural Society; President Cali- 
fornia State Floral Society; President 
San Francisco Microscopical Society. 


EmhodyiDK the Exiierience and Methods of Hundreds 
of Successful Growe'P, and Constituting a Trust- 
worthy Guide by which tbe luexiierienced 
may Successfully Produce the Fruits 
for w ivh California la Famous. 

Large Octavo-599 Pages, Fol 7 Illnstrateil. 



f UBLISHEES Pacific Rural, 

220 Market Street, Elevator 12 Front Street. 





The Hoit Grafter. 

For Top Grafting 

Rapid in Operation. Easily Handled. 

No orchardlst should do any budding or top grafting 
hefore seeiog our descriptive pamphlet of this great im. 
provement over all previous methods of grafting. 


HOIT, TAYLOR & 00 . 

724 J Street, 

Sacramento, Cal. 


200,000 MUSCAT. 
200 000 MALAGA. 

Warranted true to name and first-class. LOWEST 
MARKET RATB3. For particulars, address 


Box 165, Fresno, or 420 Oalifornia Street, 
San e rancf Hoo. 

The Dingee&Conard Go's 


Are on Their Own Roots, and Thrive 
where Others Fail. 

We are (and have been for years) the largest 
Rose growers in America. Mail trade is 
our great specialty. Wherever the mail goes, 
the Dingee & Conard Roses are at home. 
Our NEW GUIDE for 1892 isnow ready. 

Better and liandsoyttrr than ei'er. It describes up- 
wards of 2,000 Roses, Bulbs, Hardy Plants and 
Seeds ; ofTert many Exclusive Nox'elties^ andpoints 
the way to success with flowers. Free on request. 


Rost Growers and Sttdsmen, WEST GROUE. PiL 


fAciFie i^uraid press. 

Uais. 16 1892 

^eed?, t'lapts, tic. 



Su cesser to L- BURBANK. 


On Peach, Almuod and Ikljrobolan Roots, 

Everything in the Nursery Line. 

Ceotenntsl Cherries, Walnnts, Chestonta, 
Shade Trees and Small Fruits. 



A T.-g« AT.-ff A ! 

Onion Sets. Grass, OIoTer. Vegetable 
and Vlower Seeds. 



Illustrated Descriptive and Priced Seed Catalouue lor 
1S9^. the most elaburate and valuable ol its kind of any 
Pacific Coast publication, mailed free to all applicants. 
Add I ess 


815 & 817 Sangome Street, San Franolsco, 
or es Front Street, Portland, Or. 

B aRREN HitL N ursery. 





Strictly First-Class. 

Special Attention called to Mai;niflceiit Stock of 
FKKNCH PRONKS (Petite d'Agen), 

kobb de skrgent frdnb», 
Paper sbkll. knglish walnuts. 

Send for New Catalogue. 



One year transplanted, 6 to 6 inches, $4pi>rlO0, $16 per 
SOO, $30 per M. Other small stock for trausplanti g. 
Send for llbt. Address 

GEO. VE!iTAL, Little Rocb. Ark. 




The Largest and Finest Collection of 


To be found in the United States and 
excelled nowhere in Europe. 


Prceparturiens, or Fertile Walnut, 

Introduced into California in 1871 by Felix GiKet; and 
also of the ^reat market walnuts of the world, 

Mayette, Franquette and 

The "HARDIEST" walnut varieties known, and which 
render walnut culture poB:ible ai far north as the State 
of Washington. 





APRIL CHERRIES, (our varieties, the earlieel kinds. 

ever introduced in California. 


By FELIX GILLET, of Nevada City, Cal , an Essay on the 
Different Modes of Budding and Grafting the Walnut; 
illustrated with eight cut^ made a'ter nature. 

Will be srnt with descriptive catalogue to any address 
on receipt of 25 cents in postage stamps. 

California Dessert Prunes, 


Prepared by Felix Glllet's Process Elegantly paoked in 
two-pound sugar pine bix' s. 76 bents per box, by ex- 
press to any part of Califoroia ard Oregon f^ee of charge. 
80 cents by luall tu all pans of the United State-;. 

plement" containing chapters on Walnuts and Prunes, 
illustrated with 20 cuts, and Price List, sent Ires on 





Oldest and Most Reliable Seed House on the Pacific Coast. 

In no businejs in existence is there a greater room (or fraud and de'^ption thai in the SEED BUSINESS. In 
nothing should more care he exercised than in the purchase of Seed.-i Many Gardeners both professional and 
amateur, have louud oat wha: i. juy SEEDS Irom IRRESPONSIBLE SKEUaMEM. 

We do not believe that people want to be HUMBUGGED when they buv S- eds, cooerquently we believe in 
sending out only the best wbinh we can grow or procure. HONEST SEIuOS AT MOMBST PRICES. 
Thsee not already purchasers of our SEEDS are respectly invited to make a trial ol them. 


We mail free on application our beautifully Illustrated Catalogue, containing description and prices of Grass, 
Vegetable and Flower Seeds of all descriptions. Fruit Trees, Plants, etc. 








Wew Descriptive Catalogue and Pamphlet on Fig Culture mailed Free on application. 

C orrcspundence .SolicitoJ. Aiidress 



FREE by mail, coinpribiug the 'ollowin^- list; 
ROSES— (ipn. Jacqtieminot, Hennosn, Marie Lambert, 

I iotliilde Soupert, Papa Gontier. 
GERANIUMS— White Swan, J. P. Kirtland, Bruantii, 

Iiihci.s iiiid I'erlc. 
CHRYSANTHEMUMS- leopard, Clara Rieman, 
\l rv I :. 1 1. ( oli-iiiiin. < iToriosum and Fair Maid of (luemsey. 
BEGONIAS- l>iii'li.i;»i, Clementina, Alba Pieta, lierthe 
< halrfturoeher ari<l I'cwDrop. 
Or we oflcr IQ line named Hybrid Perpetual, and |0 named 
> verblooiniiig KoneN for (tl.OO. Oiirselertion froobymail. 
Send name and we will innil you niir new entalogne lif 1TO2, 
with 1ate!it Dovellirs of RoseN, OcraniiimN, i'hr.vMiii- 
lltrmnmN, BPiroiiiaN iiml CariialioiiM 'it hotinin [>rices. 



R 8c CO 



m «nd INTo Plus TJlti-«,. 


^milN'OH 3E»:FI.XT^J"US on Myrobolan, Peach and Almond Roots. 


Growers of Fruit and Ornamental Trees, Vegetable, Flower and Farm Seeds, 



Fruit and Ornamental Trees ! 

FOR SEASON 1891-92. 

We are the heaviest groweis of FIO TREES AND ROOTED TINES on the Coast. 
FIG AND GRAPE CUTTINGS (including Thompson Seedless) for sale. 




JUS anJ prolific. You have often seen eoine ui) fiic-klv ami wtak, with not 
nougli life to produce a crop. That wasn't ^alzer'fi 8eedn. They don't act that 
w»y. They arc full of life and vigozt When y<-u sow you expect to reap. That's 
ftcrnaliy ritrhr. If yon wish to reap bip crops, cooa ~ 
seeii must be ."own. That's why I wont you to send for 
my Ciitalup, I am the Only --eedsman makint; Farm 
SeedH :\ •'pcfialty. Cse 6,lKH) acres. New WhoHt, Jlor- 
ley, Oatn. C orn, etc. Largest jrrowcr of t»eed 

PQ'T/^'yOES '"'•'eWorld. 

fS^iO samples Farm Steds for 8c postage! 

'=°''I2 cts. 

Sreds or- 


to introduce mv .Vorth. 
t r\ w liiTi-. I I'tfer iHjstp;ud: 
1 i'Ue. Melon, 
1 J*k|r. KudUh, 
I Pkc Lettuce, 
1 Pkfc* Tomato, 
5 Viitzn. Klecnnt 
Klower Seed, 
Eletrunt Seed Catalog 5c,with 9 pkgs 17c. 

Srkgn. lioted in 
no Catalog in 
America under 
5«e, ^ 

(JOHN A.SALZER- lagrosse.wis 


I _ , _ CvAA 150 patrea describing one of the 
^^aLdlO^UC r mostcomplete stocks lu the U. S. 






For Over Thirty Years 

.we have always had very pleasant dealings together, the 
public and myself, and I again have the pleasure of 
resenting to them my Annual Vegetable and 
lower beed Catalogue. It contains. the usual 
immense variety of seed, with such new kmds added 
ashavt provedto bcri-'alaciiuisitions, Raisingmany 
of these varieties myself, on my four seed farms, 
and testing others, I am able to warrant their fresh- 
ness and purity, under such reasonable conditions as are con- 
tained in my Catalogue. Having been their original mtro- 
ducer. I am headquarters for choice Cory Corn . M iller Melon, 
Eclipse Beet. Hubbard .Squ.ish. Ikep Head. All Seasons and 
Warren Cabbage. Kic.-I'Uc. Cat.iU^ucKKi:!: to all 
J. J. n. OBEeubT <& SON, Marblehesd, Mm*. 



For !>yg2 is a beautiful book of one hundred pages, elegantly printed, 
with friie Photo-EnRravuigs. Colored Plates and plain, reasonable 
dc?.eiii.tiuiis ol nil subjects indicated bv its name. It is a Mirror of 
American Hortivulturt- to date relkcting the very complete supply 
ol Seeds, Plants and Flowers ol our stores and Greenhouses. 

Urn- rr 'riii,i.» xhe whole: storv -m 

tor the Garden Lawn and Farm with all additions to date 
For 24c. (12 2-cent stamps) we mail one bulb cacli Jacobian Scarlet 

Lily and new Tuberous Begonia. Our BOOK with each of these offers. 
For 40c. w e mail one plant Grand Chrysanthemum Waban. (see cut) 

the sensation of this season's flower shows, mammoth pink flowers ten 

inches in diameter, mention THIS PAPER, writk now. 


Jan. 16, 1892J 

f ACiFie i^uraid press. 


geeds, Wants, tie. 




New Stock. 


Northern Seed Co., 

(Succcssois to WESTCOTT & CO.) 


Raspberry, Strawbtrry and Blackberry Plants. Price 
on application. L. D. BUTT, Penryn. Placer Co., Cal. 


«0,000 Bartlett Pear. 

16,000 Tellow Cling; and Free Peaches. 

Leading Varieties. 

Royal A prlcot. New White Nectarine, French 

JAPAN PLUMS In Variety. 

D. W. LEWIS, Nurseryman. 



Is for sale by Agents at bookstores In San Diego, River- 
side, Los Angeles, Bakeisfleld, Visalla, Hanford, Fresno, 
Merced, Sacramento and Marysville; also, by Dewey & 
Co., 220 Market St., and the H. S. Crocker Company, 216 
Busb St., San Francisco. Price, Three Dollars. Send 






New American Grape, "The Pierce." 

Olives, Oranges, Lemons and Figs. 

New California Orange, "The Joppa." 

Shade Trees, Evergreens, Shrubs, Roses, Climbing Plants, Etc. 

Send or our New Catalogue. 

CALIFORNIA NURSERY CO., "'^^^hn uocrM^?ater*^" 




Largest and Most Complete Stock of Fruit, Shade and Ornamental Trees on the Paciflc Coast. 

<4pples, Almonds, Apricot, P«ar, Prune, Plum, Peach and Cherry. 
Also Fine StocK Olives, Urangeg, I^emons, Not Trees and Entail Fruits; Magnolias, 
Camellias, Palms ; Large Stock of Rnses, Clematis, £tc.. Etc. 


Catalogaes Mailed Free. Address 





FOR SEASON OF 1891 AND 1898. 




Address CENTRAL NURSERY CO., Acampo or Sacramento. 


Med. Sweet, R. W. Navel, Malta Blood, P. E. St. Michael, Satsnma, 

And other new and old varieties. 

Villa Franca , Lisbon and Eureka Lemons. Shamrock Orange for Hedges. 

ALOHA NURSERIES, Penryn, Placer Co., California. 

Wu \A/nnn rn commission merchants, 


ALFALFA SBBDIH^ to i26 j street, 



I. H. THOMAS & SON, Proprietors. 



The Famous Early Imperial Peach a Specialty, 





4 TO 6 FT.; 2 TO 3i FT.; 1 TO 2 FT. 


These trees have an extra fine lot ot roots, and are truaranteed to be the genuine French Prune, the well known 
variety which is grown and dried so successfully in California. 

White Adriatic Pigs, 2 to 4 Feet, 

Oor Stock is all of Our Own Raising. We use no Eastern Stock whatever. 


P. W. Treat, Davisville Nurseries, Davisville, California. 



Oaio. lae 33ell-^ex-ec3. froxxx Fresxxo ox- Stools. to xi. 

Special Prices on Lots of 60,000 or more. 

White Adriatic and San Pedro Figs 

A Full Line of Fruit and Ornamental Trees, Shrubs, Vines, Palms, Roses & Small Fruit!). 


£> tools, ton . a a a • • OAllforxxlA. 



fl PeFfeet lilarvel 


Mfar iln Ifl This ia the only viiriety that can 
UNCI nUi lUi lay claim to tlio title o£ "Trf.e 

HEIGHT OF 10 or 12 FEET, 

and produces fruit of an immense size nnd of the 
FDTEST FLAVOii. At an enormous price we pur- 
chased the true stock of this tomato from the 
originator, and this seed can be peocubed only 
FEOM US. It is ornamental as well as useful. 
Iwo or three of the^e plants will make a wonderful 
display, and if cared for, will produce all the 
tomatoes one family can use. Single specimens 
often measure over 6 inches in diame- 
ter and weig-h over 3 lbs. The demand for 
this rare novelty last season was greater than the 
supply, Send in your order early this year. 


In order to in<luce every reader of this paper to 
test Northern Grown Seeds, wo mil give, free ot 
charge to every person who sends us iij cents in 
silver or postal note for a packet of this rare to- 
mato, and names this paper and number of oiler, n 
i.OUPON that entitles them to a collection of 
either flower or vegetable seeds, which at our cata- 
loKue prices amounts to 73 cents. We make this 
liberal offer simply to introduce Northern 
Grown Seeds inio nil sections. The seeds will be 
to > ou [)Ost-piiid on return of the coui)on to us. 


and thousands of valuable premiums 

Will he tlistributed among our patrons this year. 
Our catalogue will tell you how to ^et them. 
OUR CATALOGUE for this seiuson in by far 
the moat corai)l*^te ever published, containing 
colored plates and hundrednof illustnitions. It is 
a thoroughly reliable Kuide, and a book that no 
person who uses seeds or plants should be with- 
out,^ Price, '-ij cents. This book will be sent 
1 KKE to all who order a package of the 

Mansfield Tomato. 

The Cuicago Inteb-Ocean " says : 
We are in receipt of a basket of Tree 
Tomatoesinotone weighed less than, 
a pound. The fruit is solid, tlavor 
delicious. Many weigh 2 lbs. 

BROMUS INERM IS— The grass for drouth stricken districtsand dry soils. 
EARLY BUTLER CORN— The earliest yellow dent variety ia cultivation. 



f ACIFie f^URAIo f RESS. 

[Jan. 16 1892 

( Formerly Called " TRIUMPH." ) 



style ** A 

Greatest Pulverizer of the Age. 


(Copy.) TCLARK, Cai.., Nov. 27, 1S91. 

H. C. SHAW PLOW WORKS, Stockton, C»I.— Dtar Sir: Repl.ving to yours o( the 25rh coDcerninK the 
Hor)!:an Spading: Hairow would 8sy, first we bouj;ht one on trial. It gave such perfect satisfaction that we bought 
two more. This number not being suflBcient, we borrowed a fourth one from our neiehbor. We take pleasure iu 
sayinf; that as an orchard and vineyard cultivator, as well as a pulverizer, we have seen noth'ni; to equal it, it do- 
iog the work cheaper and nicer than any other cultivator we have had. We have laid all others aside, and next 
year will use nothing bat the " Morgan Spading Harrow." Yours truly, PAIGE & MORTON. 


Sacraminto, Cal., Dec. 31, 1S91. 
H. C. SHAW PLOW WORKS, Stockton, C»l.— Gents: In reply to your inquiry concerning the Morgan Spad 
Ing Harrow purf^hased by me last spring, would, say that I ordered it for the purpose of experimenting in my 
orchard to ascertain whether or not I could get an implement that would combine the qualities of the disc and 
cult vator. I find upon trial that the harrow above referred to is the most complete tool that can he used in ao 
orchard. As a pulverizer, leveler, and cultivator, I do not hesitate to say it is the best I have ever seen. It thor- 
ousrbly stirs the ground beneath the surface without opening it to the sun's rays and keeps the grouad loose of 
sufficient depth to retain necesearv surface moisture. 1 do not hesitate in recommending It. Very trulv, 


We are Sole Agents for the Coaet. 


361, 363, 365, 367, 370, 389 and 390 El Dorado Street, 


FiRKBAUOB, Cal. (Poso Farm), November 8, 18S9. 
Mr. Jas. PoRTloug, Fresno, Cal.— Dbar Sir: In answer to yours of eth Inst, will say that I have found 
your new style four-horse Scraper the best all-round Scraper I have yet tried. Respectfully yours, 

J. W. SCHMITZ, Supt. Miller & Lux. 








Etc, Etc 


TRUMAN. HOOKER & CO.. San Francisco -ntl Fresno. Asrents for the Paclflc Coast. 

Absolutely Guaranteed. 

Illustrated Circular eent Pre& 
(Mention thU paper.) 

Three Rivers, Mich„ 


K\er} practical f.armeris ppcnall y interested in any implement that will tend to lessen 
the ainount of his labor and ineriiise the production of hi.s crops and is < onstantlv on the 
outlook for such implements. Durinc the last few years the methods of culti vatlon'of crops 
have become almost entirely revolutionized. The deep root pruning process is golnK out, 
t? "Hicome universal. For this purpose no rmplement equals ths 
BREED WEEDER. Investigate. Send for circulars. 

Oeneral Agenis, KNaPP, BURBBLL & CO., Portland, Oreson. 

No ». "^Htj.^ '"'d of the Cyclone or Of the number that have been sold. They can be seen working in 
everj inhabiteo JVlJ' , liflc Slope whilst hundreds are exported every year. 

The Cyclone mill is iior« experiment, but acknowledged by all who have used It to be the most powerful and 
dural'le mill on the market. 

It is simple In constniction, has no cogs or complicated gearing to get out of order. Has only three principal 
bearings, heavily babbited boxes and self oiling apartments. 

The wheel and vaue of the Cyclone (which are the most durable parts of any solid wheel mill) are made strong 
and of well seasoned wood finished with the best lead and oil which neither blister Id the sun nor is consumed by rust 

Send for Illustrated Catalogue to 

Pacific Manufacturing Company, 


Manufacturers and Jobbers of Windmills, Pumps, Tanks, TUBULAR 
WELL TOOLS, Pipe. Pittinars. Etc.. Etc. 

Fii CiilMor 

Manu(aGture<l bv 

Jensen & Lauritzen, 

WatsoDTille, Cal. 

6a%ranteed to do a Greater 
Variety of 
Work than 
any other 
Cultivator on the Pacific 

iW' Send for Circular. 

Awarded First Premium 
Wherever Exhibited. 





Prevents Injury During Close Cultivation, 

steel Frame, Steel Molds, Steel or Chilled Shares and Lands, Tonguele>8, Self-guiding, Simple, Strong. 
A simple ndjustment permits plow nearest vines or trees to make shallow furrow, say two inches, thus' avoid* 
ing danger to the root', the others plowing required